Printer Friendly

Biochemical Response of Malathion-Resistant and -Susceptible Adults of Rhyzopertha dominica to the Sublethal Doses of Deltamethrin.

Byline: Nighat Shahid Ali, Syed Shahid Ali and Abdul Rauf Shakoori

: Abstract. - Rhyzopertha dominica, lesser grain borer both in larval and adult forms is a primary pest of stored grains and mainly attack wheat, rice, millet and corn. Various recommended insecticides are routinely used to control its population which has led to the development of resistance. The aim of present study was to determine the biochemical differences in the malathion-resistant and -susceptible adult populations of R. dominica. Sublethal doses of deltamethrin were applied at 1.50 ppm for resistant and 0.966 ppm for susceptible populations for a period of 48 h. Highly significant rise in activities of acid phosphatase (AcP) (135%), amylase (55%), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (513%), trehalase (348%) and concentration of trehalose (110 %) was observed in susceptible population. In resistant population alkaline phosphatase (33%), amylase (40%), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (32%) and trehalase (62%) activities and concentrations of glucose (32%) decreased significantly, while free amino acids (23%), total lipids (39%), and RNA (29%) content increased significantly after deltamethrin treatment. Cholinesterase and AcP activities increased in both populations. Of respiratory enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase remained unaffected in both populations but isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) activity showed significant increase (87%) in resistant and decrease (81%) in susceptible populations. Similarly, contrasting trend was found in amylase and trehalase activities with significant decrease in resistant and increase in susceptible population. Total lipids and RNA content showed rise in resistant and decline in susceptible beetles. All these biochemical changes, especially in amylase, ICDH, trehalase, glucose, total lipids and RNA in susceptible and resistant beetles are indicative of development of severe disturbances in respiration, carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. It can be concluded that deltamethrin at above sublethal concentrations produced significant metabolic alterations by hitting at different secondary targets in resistant and susceptible populations that render the beetles unable to survive long.

Key words: Pyrethroid, K-Othrin, stored grain pests, pest control, Rhyzopertha dominica, deltamethrin.INTRODUCTION

World food losses during storage are 200 million tons per year worth US$ twenty billion (Credland et al., 2003). In Pakistan, the losses of stored grains caused by insects, range from 5-10% of the world grain production (Ahmad and Mahmood, 1991). Lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a primary pest of stored grain in many regions of the world (Edde, 2012), causing huge damages to stored grains. This beetle is a strong flyer and may rapidly migrate to begin new infestation elsewhere (Mahroof et al., 2010).Different control measures e.g., physical suchas temperature (Watters et al., 1983; Bennet, 2003),

pressure, (Mbata et al., 2004) aeration (Arthur,1995; Flinn et al., 1997), relative humidity and starvation (Ahmad et al., 1982; Ofuya and Reichmuth, 2002; Ali et al., 2006), use of plant extracts (Naqvi et al., 1998; Fields, 2006), biological (Flinn et al., 2004; Nayak et al., 2005) and the chemical control (Hooper et al., 2003) by the use of contact insecticides (Kljajic and Peric,2006; Ali et al., 2003, 2007; Athanassiou et al.,2007) and fumigants (Daglish, 2004) have beenadopted.The control of stored-grain insect pests by organophosphate (OP) insecticides and fumigants (methyl bromide, phosphine) had led to development of resistance (FAO, 1974, 1975; Collins, 1998; Emery, et al., 2003; Daglish, 2004; Ali et al., 2013). Friedlander et al. (1981) and Collins et al. (1992) linked resistance to chlorpyriphos-methyl with general esterase levels in laboratory selected strains of Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Resistance to OPs may result by altering the structure of the esterases that increase the ability to hydrolyze the insecticide (Hama and Hosoda, 1983; Oppenoorth, 1985; Pasteur et al.,1986; Devonshire, 1987).Ugaki et al. (1985) found the major detoxification pathways in houseflies resistant to fenitrothion via glutathion-S-transferases (GST); mono-oxygenases played a minor role only. Contrarily, Hemmingway et al. (1991) concluded that resistance to fenitrothion in Anopheles subpictus (Grassi) was attributable to both mono- oxygenases and GST metabolism. Konno et al. (1989) demonstrated with a strain of tobacco budworm that a lower rate of activation of thion to oxon (via mono-oxygenases) coupled with more active hydrolases were responsible for resistance. Li et al. (2005) reported cytochrome P-450-based metabolic detoxification in a cattle tick.Heidari et al. (2004) reported resistance toOP insecticides due to mutation in the gene encoding CE that enhances the enzyme's ability to hydrolyze insecticides. These enzymes protect the target site by catalyzing the hydrolysis of insecticides (Pasteur et al., 1986). Shakoori and Saleem (1991) correlated the resistance in OP resistant-T. castaneum adults to significantly raised levels of CE, ChE, protease and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and significantly reduced activities of acid phosphatase (AcP) and lipid contents.The problems arising due to OP-resistance have directed the attention of researchers towards the use of pyrethroid insecticides (Elliot and Janes,1973; Elliot et al., 1978; Mac Cuaig, 1980; Arthur,1992, 1997; Ali et al., 2003, 2011) due to their significant insecticidal properties, low mammalian toxicity, and rapid breakdown in the environment (Pimentel et al., 1992). Liu et al. (2006) reported the pyrethroids as the most widely used insecticides. Pyrethroids are found effective against a wide range of stored product pests (Carter et al., 1975; Watters et al. 1983). They exert their toxic effects primarily by altering properties of the sodium channel, which is essential for the generation and propagation of action potential in excitable cells (Narahashi, 1996; Yanola et al., 2010).Deltamethrin, a pyrethroid is a primary metabolite of tralomethrin and highly toxic than its parent compound (NRCC, 1986). Arthur (1997) have reported effectiveness of deltamethrin dust against three stored grain products including R. dominica. Its toxic effects have also been found against Tribolium confusum and Sitophilus oryzae on stored wheat (Athanassiou et al., 2004; Athanassiou and Buchelos. 2004).During stored grain spraying programs many target sites do not receive the desired concentrations of the applied materials, so stored grain pests are experienced with sublethal levels of insecticides. Sublethal effects result when insufficient molecules to cause death reach the sites of insecticidal action. Sublethal effects of pyrethroids on enzyme induction, glycaemia, lipemia, gut AcP, depletion of carbohydrate, protein and lipid reserves; decrease in growth rate, in adult fecundity, fertility and longevity and on reproductive rate have been discovered in a number of studies (Wongkobrat and Dahlman, 1976; Kumar and Chapman, 1984; Bounias et al., 1985; Jackson and Wilkins, 1985; Saleem et al., 2000).The main objective of the present study is to investigate the biochemical response of malathion- resistant and -susceptible adults of R. dominica to the sublethal doses of deltamethrin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Malathion-resistant and -susceptible populations of R. dominica were used for this study (see Ali et al., 2007). The culture was developed in the sterilized jam jars covered with muslin cloth, in a culture room maintained at 302oC with 655% relative humidity. Whole wheat grains following24h phosphine fumigation were used as food of the beetles (FAO, 1974). The adults of the beetle collected at 432 days after egg laying were used in the present study.

Insecticide usedTechnical grade deltamethrin [(S)-a-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl ester; decis; K-Othrine] obtained from the Agricultural Chemical Group, FMC Corporation, Lahore, Pakistan was used for this study.Determination of LC50 and LC20Serial dilutions of deltamethrin i.e., 256, 128,64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1ppm concentrations wereprepared in acetone. Each dilution (1.3ml) was applied in the center of a separate glass Petri plates. To spread the insecticide uniformly the Petri plates were rotated manually. The acetone was allowed to evaporate after which ten adult beetles of both malathion-resistant and -susceptible populations were placed in their respective Petri plates and covered. Three control Petri plates with solvent (acetone) and 10 adult beetles were also prepared for each population. The beetles were checked for mortality after 48 h. The beetles were considered dead if on touching with brush they did not show any movement. Lloyd (1969) was followed for mortality counts. LC50 and LC20 were calculated by computerized probit analysis (Finney, 1971).

Exposure of beetles to sublethal doses of deltamethrinHealthy adult beetles (150) of both populations were exposed separately to the sublethal concentrations (LC20) of deltamethrin by the residual film method along with their respective controls in triplicate. The beetles were kept unfed for 48 h at 302oC and 655% relative humidity.

Biochemical analysesA motor-driven glass homogenizer was used to homogenize 100 treated and 100 control beetles separately in 3ml of 0.89% cold (4oC) saline in triplicate for all biochemical analyses. All these homogenates were centrifuged at 4oC in refrigerated centrifuge to obtain clear supernatants which were later on used for the estimation of various enzyme activities like acid phosphatase (AcP) according to Andersch and Szcypinski (1947), alkaline phosphatase (AkP) according to Bessey et al. (1946), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) according to Cabaud and Wroblewski (1958), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) according to Bell and Baron (1960), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) according to Reitmann and Frankel (1957), cholinesterase (ChE) according to Rappaport et al. (1959); amylase as given in Wootton and Freeman (1982) and trehalase by the procedure of Dahlqvist (1966). The supernatant was also analyzed for the soluble and total protein contents (Lowry et al.,1951), glucose content by the o-toluidine method of Hartel et al. (1969) and trehalose content by the anthrone method of Carroll et al. (1956) as modified by Roe and Dailey (1966) and Steel and Paul (1985). Total lipids, nucleic acids and FAA were estimated from ethanol extract of treated and control beetles. For total lipids, nucleic acid and FAA estimation the method of ZAlllner and Kirsch (1962), Schneider (1957) and Moore and Stein (1954) was adopted, respectively. Glycogen contents were extracted by crushing the whole beetles in KOH and estimated by the anthrone method of Consolazio and Lacono (1963). Total proteins were extracted in2.5M hot NaOH.

Statistical analysisStudent's t test was used to compare the control and insecticide treated data. The "t" valuesless than 0.05 were considered significantly different from control.

RESULTS

The effects of sublethal doses of deltamethrin on some enzyme activities and metabolites of malathion-resistant and susceptible populations of R. dominica after an exposure of 48 h are shown in Table I. Changes (% increase or decrease) in the enzymatic activities as well as the metabolites are shown in Figure 1.

Effects of deltamethrin on enzyme activities of susceptible beetlesMost of the tested enzyme activities in susceptible beetles showed elevated values following deltamethrin exposed for 48 h. Theincrease in activities was135% for AcP, 55% for amylase, 97% for ChE, 513% for GOT and 348% for trehalase. On the other hand, ICDH activity was reduced by 81% after application of deltamethrin for48 h with reference to control. The activities of AkP, GPT and LDH underwent nonsignificant changes (Fig. 1).Carbohydrates and lipidsSusceptible beetles showed highly significant elevation in glucose (Pless than 0,001) and trehalose (174% and 110%, respectively) and depletion (42%) in total lipid contents with nonsignificant effect on glycogen as compared to control (Fig. 1).

Proteins, free amino acids and nucleic acidsProminent reduction in total protein, DNA and RNA contents (37%, 78% and 74%, respectively) was found, with reference to control with negligible effect on soluble protein and FAA contents (Fig. 1).

Effects of deltamethrin on enzyme activities of resistant beetlesAfter 48 h insecticide treatment majority of enzymes activities decreased significantly. The decrease in AkP was 33%, amylase 40%, GPT 32%

and trehalase 62% but for other enzymes e.g. GOT (12%) LDH (6%), this decrease was minor with reference to the control. On the other hand, significant increase was noticed in the activities of AcP (18%), ChE (59%) and ICDH (87%) as shown in Figure 1. The decrease in activities of GOT and LDH was non-significant.

Carbohydrates and lipidsAmong the fuel molecules, glycogen andtrehalose contents were elevated by 111% and 46%, respectively, with reference to control, while glucose showed significant depletion by 32%. The total lipids content showed significant depletion of39% (Fig. 1).

Proteins, free amino acids and nucleic acidsFollowing insecticide treatment, FAA and RNA contents were increased significantly by 23% and 29%, respectively, whereas, soluble protein, total protein and DNA remain unaffected (Fig. 1).

DISCUSSION

Exposure of R. dominica to sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin under laboratory conditions revealed the sensitivity of most of the enzymes in adults of malathion-resistant and susceptible populations. In susceptible population most of the enzymes activities were raised significantly which is supported by increased synthesis of enzymes. The induction of detoxification enzymes after pyrethroid exposure were also revealed by other workers (Saleem and Shakoori 1987a,b, 1985; Kacew and Singhal, 1973). Ali et al. (2011) reported more or less similar findings after bifenthrin treatment to malathion- resistant and susceptible populations. Highly reduced ICDH activity was an indication of probable low functioning of Krebs's cycle in the susceptible beetles, limiting their ability to generate energy to cope with the insecticidal stress. Likewise, Shakoori et al. (1994) and Saleem (1990) have found depletion of ICDH in Sumicidin super, Cymbush and Ripcord treated larvae and beetles of T. castaneum. Elevation of GOT activity seemed to induce the secondary process of respiration through transamination which is evident by depletion in the Carbohydrates and lipidsSusceptible beetles showed highly significant elevation in glucose (Pless than 0,001) and trehalose (174% and 110%, respectively) and depletion (42%) in total lipid contents with nonsignificant effect on glycogen as compared to control (Fig. 1).

Proteins, free amino acids and nucleic acidsProminent reduction in total protein, DNA and RNA contents (37%, 78% and 74%, respectively) was found, with reference to control with negligible effect on soluble protein and FAA contents (Fig. 1).

Effects of deltamethrin on enzyme activities of resistant beetlesAfter 48 h insecticide treatment majority of enzymes activities decreased significantly. The decrease in AkP was 33%, amylase 40%, GPT 32%

and trehalase 62% but for other enzymes e.g. GOT (12%) LDH (6%), this decrease was minor with reference to the control. On the other hand, significant increase was noticed in the activities of AcP (18%), ChE (59%) and ICDH (87%) as shown in Figure 1. The decrease in activities of GOT and LDH was non-significant.

Carbohydrates and lipidsAmong the fuel molecules, glycogen andtrehalose contents were elevated by 111% and 46%, respectively, with reference to control, while glucose showed significant depletion by 32%. The total lipids content showed significant depletion of39% (Fig. 1).

Proteins, free amino acids and nucleic acidsFollowing insecticide treatment, FAA and RNA contents were increased significantly by 23% and 29%, respectively, whereas, soluble protein, total protein and DNA remain unaffected (Fig. 1).

DISCUSSION

Exposure of R. dominica to sublethal concentrations of deltamethrin under laboratory conditions revealed the sensitivity of most of the enzymes in adults of malathion-resistant and susceptible populations. In susceptible population most of the enzymes activities were raised significantly which is supported by increased synthesis of enzymes. The induction of detoxification enzymes after pyrethroid exposure were also revealed by other workers (Saleem and Shakoori 1987a,b, 1985; Kacew and Singhal, 1973). Ali et al. (2011) reported more or less similar findings after bifenthrin treatment to malathion- resistant and susceptible populations. Highly reduced###ICDH###activity###was###an###indication###of probable low functioning of Krebs's cycle in the susceptible beetles, limiting their ability to generate energy to cope with the insecticidal stress. Likewise, Shakoori et al. (1994) and Saleem (1990) have found depletion of ICDH in Sumicidin super, Cymbush and Ripcord treated larvae and beetles of T. castaneum. Elevation of GOT activity seemed to induce the secondary process of respiration through transamination which is evident by depletion in the

Table I.-###Effects of deltamethrin on the various enzyme activities and biochemical components of malathion-resistant and

###susceptible populations of R. dominica.

Parametersa###Resistant population###Susceptible population

###Control###Deltamethrin (n=3)###Control###Deltamethrin (n=3)

AcP (IU/mg)c###1.740.05b###2.050.14###1.880.05b###4.410.63

AkP (IU/mg)###1.210.12###0.810.06###1.240.03###1.060.19

Amylase (mSU/mg)###12.810.12###7.721.20###14.510.57###22.502.05

ChE (IU/mg)###0.550.06###0.870.02###0.250.03###0.490.04

GOT (IU/mg)###1.370.06###1.200.16###1.180.05###7.240.71

GPT (IU/mg)###0.090.06###0.060.01###0.260.02###0.140.06

ICDH (IU/mg)###4.520.30###8.460.43###4.680.17###0.880.13

LDH (IU/mg)###7.660.18###7.210.87###10.820.56###11.130.83

Trehalase (IU/mg)###0.540.04###0.200.02###0.390.03###1.740.20

FAA (g/mg)###97.163.97###119.653.26###192.3815.56###166.686.53

Glucose (g/mg)###9.500.42###6.460.69###98.720.32###23.912.79

Glycogen (g/mg)###7.780.32###16.492.80###6.950.58###9.921.65

Soluble Protein (g/mg)###85.852.64###82.209.17###87.401.14###79.143.32

Total Protein (g/mg)###182.634.60###198.7413.80###161.433.20###101.5226.77

Total Lipids (g/mg)###41.701.73###25.092.72###39.962.20###23.112.41

Trehalose (g/mg)###19.340.80###28.272.24###21.381.03###44.9610.70

DNA (g/mg)###6.120.14###5.560.34###7.330.34###1.550.13

RNA (g/mg###11.870.38###15.360.86###16.440.48###4.240.49

susceptible populations of R. dominica.protein and amino acid contents. Elevation of AcP suggests the activation of dephosphorylation mostly in the lysosomal fraction of the damaged cells enabling the organism to get energy through breakdown of energy rich compounds that could be supported by the reduction in DNA and RNA level. The breakdown of cellular components under the toxic stress and molecules thus released, may be used as source of energy by the organism. The inhibition of protein synthesis could also be related to the reduced levels of nucleic acids.Increase in glucose and insect's specific disaccharide i.e. trehalose under insecticidal stress might be due to the inactivation of glycolysis and Krebs cycle which is supported by decrease in ICDH (a mitochondrial enzyme) activity. Increased glucose level may also be due to increased breakdown of trehalose which is evident from raised trehalase activity. This along with Increase in amylase without affecting the glycogen concentration points towards the development of severe abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism.Deltamethrin treatment found to develop somewhat reverse situation in case of malathion- resistant population. The activities of AcP, ChE and ICDH increased significantly. Moreover, increase in ICDH activity indicated switching on of citric acid cycle in which metabolites were probably entering through dephosphorylation which can be supported by the 18% rise in AcP and inhibition in DNA contents. Other enzyme activities i.e., AkP, carbohydrases (amylase and trehalase) and GPT were severely reduced which is obvious by the relevant rise in glycogen, trehalose and FAA content. RNA content was decreased in resistant while decrease in susceptible populations which might be attributed to increase in RNA biosynthesis by higher doses in resistant and decrease its synthesis by low doses of deltamethrin in susceptible populations. These results are similar to the reports of Naqvi et al. (1970), Ishaaya and Casida (1975) and Ishaaya et al. (1977).Some parameters underwent same changes in both populations e.g., enhancement in AcP and ChE activities, and glycogen and trehalose contents. Increase in ChE activity point towards the tendency of both populations to detoxify the insecticidal effects. Limoee et al. (2007) disclosed the same effects in the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) after permethrin treatment. Prominent reduction in the total lipids indicated these are being routed to the main metabolic pathway to utilize more and more energy production for the beetles struggling for existence, the finding which complies with the report of Saleem and Shakoori (1986). Moreover, it is suggested that these parameters might have some role in the defensive mechanism of the beetle.These all biochemical modifications, especially contrasting trends in amylase, ICDH, trehalase, glucose and RNA contents and highly significant decrease in total lipids, in susceptible and resistant beetle populations are indicative of development of severe perturbations in respiration and carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism.It can be concluded from this study that deltamethrin at above sublethal concentrations affect both populations severely but by targeting different biochemical and regulatory molecules in different metabolic pathways.

REFERENCES

AHMAD, M.S. AND MAHMOOD, T., 1991. Mechanical filling and protection of wheat in hexagonal bins with Reldan (chlorpyrifos-methyl) and Actellic (pirimiphos- methyl). Pakistan J. Zool., 24: 95-99.AHMAD, M., AFZAL, M. AND SALIHAH, Z., 1982. The effects of different relative humidities on survival and moisture loss of workers and soldiers of Heterotermes indicola (Wassmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) under starvation conditions. Pakistan J. Zool., 14: 65-70.ALI, N.S., MUNIR, M., ALI, S.S. AND SHAKOORI, A.R.,2003. Efficacy of mixtures of an organophosphate, malathion and a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin against lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica. Pakistan J. Zool., 35: 163-167.ALI, N.S., ALI, S.S. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 2006. Survival and body weight loss of starved adults of lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) at different relative humidities. Pakistan J. Zool., 38: 317-320.ALI, N.S., MUNIR, M., ALI, S.S. AND SHAKOORI, A.R.,2007. Efficacy of mixtures of an organophosphate, malathion and a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin against lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica. Pakistan J. Zool., 39: 179-184.ALI, N.S., ALI, S.S. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 2011. Effects of sublethal doses of talstar on biochemical components of malathion-resistant and susceptible adults of Rhyzopertha dominica. Pakistan J. Zool., 43: 879-887.ALI, N.S., ALI, S.S. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 2013. Effects of sublethal doses of malathion on biochemical components of malathion-resistant and -susceptible adults of Rhyzopertha dominica. Pakistan J. Zool., 45:203-212.ANDERSCH, M.A. AND SZCYPINSKI, A.J., 1947. A colorimetric method for determination of acid phosphatase from serum. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 17: 571.ARTHUR, F.H., 1992. Control of lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) with chlorpyrifos-methyl, bioresmethrin, and resmethrin: effect of chlorpyrifos- methyl resistance and environmental degradation. J. econ. Ent., 85: 1471-1475.ARTHUR, F. H., 1995. Aeration alone versus chlorpyriphos- methyl treatment followed by aeration for wheat stored in Georgia: Simulated field test. J. econ. Ent., 88:1764-1770.ARTHUR, F.H., 1997. Differential effectiveness of deltamethrin dust on plywood, concrete, and tile surfaces against three stored-product beetles. J. stored Prod. Res., 33: 167-173.ATHANASSIOU, C.G. AND BUCHELOS, C.T., 2004.Insecticidal and residual effect of three pyrethroids against Sitophilus oryzae (L) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on stored wheat. J. stored Prod. Res.,40: 289-297.ATHANASSIOU, C.G., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., VAYIAS, B.J., DIMIZAS, C.B., PAPAGREGORIOU, A.S. AND BUCHELOS, C.T., 2004. Residual toxicity of beta cyfluthrin, alpha cypermethrin and deltamethrin against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on stored wheat. Appl. Ent. Zool., 39:195-202.ATHANASSIOU, C.G., KAVALLIERATOS, N.G., PETEINATOS, G.G., PETROU, S.E., BOUKOUVALA, M.C. AND TOMANOVIC, Z., 2007. Influence of temperature and humidity on insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against larger grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. econ. Ent., 100: 599-603.BELL, J.L. AND BARON, D.N., 1960. A colorimetric method for determination of isocitric dehydrogenase. Clin. Chem. Acta, 5: 740-747.BENNETT, S.M., 2003. Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer). http://www.the-piedpiper.co.uk/th7t.htm.BESSEY, O.A., LOWRY, O.H. AND BROCK, M.J., 1946. A method for the rapid determination of alkaline phosphatase with 5cc of serum. J. biol. Chem., 164:321-329.BOUNIAS, M., DUJIN, N. AND POPESKOVIC, D.S., 1985.Sublethal effects of a synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrinon the glycaemia, the lipemia, and gut alkaline phosphatase of honey bee. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.,24: 149-160.CABAUD, P.G. AND WROBLEWSKI, F., 1958. Colorimetric measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity of body fluids. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 30: 234-236.CARROLL, N.V., LONGLEY, R.W. AND ROE, J.H., 1956.The determination of glycogen in liver and muscle by use of anthrone reagent. J. biol. Chem., 220: 586-593.CARTER, S.W., CHADWICK, P.R. AND WICKMAN, J.C.,1975. Comparative observations on the activity of pyrethroids against some susceptible and resistantstored product beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res., 11: 135-142.COLLINS, P.J., 1998. Resistance to grain protectants and fumigants in insect pests of stored products in Australia. In: Stored grain in Australia (eds. H.J. Banks, E.J. Wright and K.A. Damcevski), CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Canberra, Australia pp. 5557.COLLINS, P.J., ROSE, H.A. AND WEGECSANY, M., 1992.Enzyme activity in strains of the saw toothed grain beetle (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) differentially resistant to fenitrothion, malathion and chlorpyrifos-methyl. J. econ. Ent., 85: 1571-1575.CONSOLAZIO, C.F. AND IACONO, J.M., 1963.Carbohydrates, In: Newer methods for nutritional biochemistry with applications and interpretations (ed. A.A. Albanese), vol. 1, Academic Press, New York, pp.317-367.CREDLAND, P.F., ARMITAGE, D.M., BELL, C.H., COGAN, P.M. AND HIGHLEY, E. (Eds.), 2003. Proceedings of the 8th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, 22-26 July 2002, New York, UK. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.DAGLISH, G.J., 2004. Effect of exposure period on degree of dominance of phosphine resistance in adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Pest Managem. Sci., 60: 822-826.DAHLQVIST, A., 1966. In: Methods in enzymology - complex carbohydrates (eds. F.F.Neu-feld and V. Guinburg), vol. 8, Academic Press, New York, pp. 584-591.DEVONSHIRE, A.L., 1987. Biochemical studies of organophosphorous and carbamate resistance in houseflies and aphids. In: Combating resistance to xenobiotics: biological and chemical approaches (eds. G.M. Ford, D.W. Hollowman, B.P.S. Khambay, andA.D. Rnsawicki), Weinken, Chichester, pp. 239-255.EDDE, P.A., 2012. A review of the biology and control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) the lesser grain borer. J. stored Prod. Res., 48: 118.ELLIOT, M. AND JANES, N.F., 1973. Chemistry of natural pyrethrins. In: Pyrethrum, the natural insecticide, (ed. J.E. Casida), Academic Press, New York, pp. 55-100.ELLIOT, M., JANES, N.F. AND POTTER, C., 1978. Synthetic pyrethroids. The future of pyrethroids in insect control. Ann. Rev. Ent., 23: 443-469.EMERY, R.N., COLLINS, P.J. AND WALLBANK, B.E.,2003. Monitoring and managing phosphine resistance inAustralia. Proc. Australian Post harvest Tech. Conf., Canberra, 2527 June 2003. CSIRO Stored Grain Research Laboratory, Canberra.FAO, 1974. Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Tentative method for adults of some major beetle pests of stored cereals with malathion or lindane. FAO Plant Prot. Bull., 22: 127-137.FAO, 1975. Recommended methods for the detection and measurement of resistance of agricultural pests to pesticides. Tentative method for adult of some major pest species of stored cereals with methyl bromide and phosphine. FAO Method No. 6. FAO. Plant Prot. Bull. ,23: 15-35.FIELDS, P.G., 2006. Effect of Pisum sativum fractions on the mortality and progeny production of nine stored-grain beetles. J. Stored Prod. Res., 42: 86-96.FINNEY, D.J., 1971. Probit analysis, 3rd Ed., CambridgeUniversity Press London, pp. 333.FLINN, P.W., HAGSTRUM, D.W. AND MUIR, W.E., 1997.Effects of time of aeration, bin size and latitude on insect populations in stored wheat: a simulation study. J. econ. Ent., 90: 646-651.FRIEDLANDER, A., NAVARRO, S., CARMI, Y. AND KASHANCHI, Y., 1981. Biochemical aspects of the resistance of Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Progress Report for the year 1977/78 of the Stored Products Division, Agriculture Research Organization. IsraelMin. Agric. Bet Dagan, Israel.HAMA, H. AND HOSODA, A., 1983. High aliesterase activity and low acetylcholinesterase sensitivity involved in organophosphorous and carbamate resistance of the brown plant hopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Appl. Ent. Zool., 18: 475.HARTEL, A., HELGER, R. AND LANG, H., 1969. A method for determination of glucose. Z. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem., 7: 183-184.HEIDARI, R., DEVONSHIRE, A.L., CAMPBELL, B.E., BELL, K.L., DORRIAN, S.J., OAKESHOTT, J.G. AND RUSSEL, DR. R.J., 2004. Hydrolysis of organophosphorus insecticides by in vitro modified carboxylesterase from Lucilia cuprina. Insect Biochem. Mol.Biol., 34: 353-363.HEMMINGWAY, J., MIYAMOTO, J. AND HERATH, P.R.J.,1991. A possible novel link between organophosphorous and DDT insecticide resistance genes in Anopheles supporting evidence from fenitrothion metabolism studies. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 39: 49-56.HOOPER, J.L., DESMARCHELIER, J.M., REN, Y. AND ALLEN, S.E., 2003. Toxicity of cyanogens to insects of stored grain. Pest Managem. Sci., 59: 353-357.ISHAAYA, I. AND CASIDA, J.E., 1975. Phenyltin compounds inhibit digestive enzymes of Tribolium confusum larvae. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 5: 350-358.ISHAAYA, I., HOLMSTEAD, R.I. AND CASIDA, J.E., 1977.Triphenyl derivatives of group IV elements as inhibitors of growth and digestive enzymes of Tribolium castaneum larvae. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 7: 573-577.JACKSON, A.E.M. AND WILKINS, R.M., 1985. The effect of sublethal dosages of the synthetic pyrethroid, fenvalerate, on the reproductive rate of the aphid, Myzus persicae. Pestic. Sci., 16: 402-405.KACEW, S. AND SINGHAL, R.L., 1973. The influence of DDT. Chlordane, heptachlor and endrin on hepatic and cyclase system. Life Sci., 13: 1363-1371.KLJAJIC, P. AND PERIC, I., 2006. Susceptibility to contact insecticides of granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) originating from different locations in the former Yugoslavia. J. Stored Prod. Res., 42: 149-161.KONNO, T., HODGSON, E. AND DAUTERMAN, W.C.,1989. Studies on methyl parathion resistance inHeliothis virescens. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 33: 189-199.KUMAR, K. AND CHAPMAN, R.B., 1984. Sublethal effects of insecticides on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Pestic. Sci., 15: 344-352.LI, A.Y., PRUETT, J.H., DAVEY, R.B. AND GEORGE, J.E.,2005. Toxicological and biochemical characterization of coumaphos resistance in the San Roman strain of Boophilus micropilus (Acari: Ixodidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 81: 145-153LIMOEE, M., ENAYATI, A.A., LADONNI, H., VATANDOOST, H., BASERI, H. AND OSHAGHI, M.A., 2007. Various mechanisms responsible for permethrin metabolic resistance in seven field-collected strains of the German cockroach from Iran, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 87: 138-146.LIU, N., XU, Q., ZHU, F. AND ZHANG, L., 2006. Pyrethroid resistance in mosquitoes. Insect Sci., 13: 159-166.LLOYD, C.J., 1969. Study on the cross tolerance to DDT related compounds of a pyrethrin-resistant strain of Sitophilus granaries. L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J. Stored Prod. Res., 5: 337-356. LOWRY, O.H., ROSEBROUGH, N.J., FARR, A.L. AND RANDALL, R.J., 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. biol. Chem., 193: 265-275.MAC CUAIG, R.D., 1980. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides:some studies with locusts. Trop Pest Manag., 26: 349-354.MAHROOF, R.M., EDDE, P.A., ROBERTSON, B., PUCKETTE, T. AND PHILLIPS, T.W., 2010. Dispersal of Rhyzopertha dominica (F) in different habitats. Environ. Ent., 39: 30938.MBATA, G.N., PHILLIPS, T.W. AND PAYTON, M., 2004.Mortality of eggs of stored-product insects held under vacuum: effects of pressure, temperature, and exposure time. J. econ. Ent., 97: 695-702.MOORE, S. AND STEIN, W.H., 1954. A modified ninhydrin reagent for the photometric determination of amino acids and related compounds. J. biol. Chem., 211: 907-913.NAQVI, S.N.H., RASHID, S. AND ASHRAFI, S.H., 1970.Effects of different insecticides on the activity of phosphomonoesterases present in Pakilocerus pictus egg. Pakistan J. Zool., 2: 149-158.NAQVI, S.N.H., TABASSUM, R. KHAN, M.Z. AND AHMAD, I., 1998. Effects of neem compounds (NFC and NC) and Dimilin on Callosobruchus analis F. fecundity by filter paper impregnation and glass film method. Bull. Pure Appl. Sci. India, 17A: 9-12.NARAHASHI, T., 1996. Neuronal ion channels as the target sites of insecticides. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 79: 114.NRCC (National Research Council of Canada), 1986.Subcommittee on pesticides and industrial organic pesticides, Pyrethroids: Their effect on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. NRCC #.24376. Environmental Secretariat, Ottawa, Canada.NAYAK, M.K., DAGLISH, G.J. AND BYRNE, V.S., 2005.Effectiveness of spinosad as a grain protectant against resistant beetle and psocid pests of stored grain in Australia. J. stored Prod. Res., 41: 455-467.OFUYA, T.I. AND REICHMUTH, C., 2002. Effect of relative humidity on the susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculates (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to two modified atmospheres. J. stored Prod. Res., 38: 139-146.OPPENOORTH, F.J., 1985. Biochemistry and genetics of insecticide resistance. In: Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology (eds. G.A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert), vol. 12, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 731-774.PASTEUR, N., ISEKI, A. AND GEORGHIOU, G.P., 1986.Genetic and biochemical studies of highly active esterases A and B associated with organophosphate resistance in the mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex. Biochem. Genet,, 19: 909-919.PIMENTEL, D., ACQUAY, H., BILTONEN, M., RICE, P., SILVA, M., NELSON, J., LIPNER, V., GIORDANO, S., HOROWITZ, A. AND DAMORE, M., 1992. Environmental and economic costs of pesticide use. Bioscience, 42: 750760.RAPPAPORT, F., FISCHL, J. AND PINTOS, N., 1959. An improved method for the determination of cholinesterase activity in serum. Clin. Chem. Acta, 4:227-230.REITMANN, S. AND FRANKEL, S., 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamate oxaloacetate and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. Am. J. clin. Path., 28: 56-63.ROE, J.H. AND DAILEY, R.E., 1966. Determination of glycogen with anthrone reagent. Analyt. Biochem., 15:245-250.SALEEM, M.A., 1990. Toxicological studies on synthetic pyrethroids against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). PhD thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.SALEEM, M.A. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 1985. Effects of permethrin and deltamethrin on some biochemical components of Tribolium castaneum larvae. Pakistan J. Zool., 17: 321-328.SALEEM, M.A. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 1986. Biochemical effects of sublethal doses of cypermethrin on the sixth- instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 3: 447-455.SALEEM, M.A. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 1987a. Permethrin- and malathion-induced macromolecular abnormalities in adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.). Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol., 5: 45-55.SALEEM, M.A. AND SHAKOORI, A.R., 1987b. Joint effects of Dimilin and Ambush on enzyme activities of Tribolium castaneum larvae. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol.,29: 127-137.SALEEM, M.A., SHAKOORI, A.R., WILKINS, R.M. AND MANTLE, D., 2000. In vitro effects of deltamethrin, pirimiphos-methyl and gamma-HCH on proteases in insecticide-resistant and susceptible strains of Tribolium castaneum. Pakistan J. Zool., 32: 53-59.SCHNEIDER, W.C., 1957. Determination of nucleus acids in tissues by pentose analysis. In: Methods in enzymology (eds. S.P. Colowick and N.O. Kaplan), vol. 3, Academic Press, New York, pp. 680-684. SHAKOORI, A.R. AND SALEEM, M.A., 1991. Comparative biochemical composition of a susceptible (FSS-II) and two malathion resistant (CTC-12 and Pakistan) strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Pakistan J. Zool., 23: 1-10.SHAKOORI, A.R., AGHA, S., MALIK, M.Z., SALEEM, M.A.AND ALI, S.S., 1994. Biochemical abnormalities produced by sublethal doses of a synthetic pyrethroid, Sumicidan Super, on the 6th instar larvae of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Pakistan J. Ent. Karachi,9: 5-20.STEELE, J.E. AND PAUL, T., 1985. Corpus cardiacum stimulated trehalose efflux from cockroach (Periplaneta americana) fat body: control by calcium. Can. J. Zool.,63: 63-66.UGAKI, M., SHONO, T. AND FUKAMI, J., 1985. Metabolism of fenitrothion by organophosphorus-resistant and susceptible houseflies, Musca domestica, L. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 23: 33-40.WATTERS, F.L., WHITE, N.D.G. AND COTE, D., 1983.Effect of temperature on toxicity and persistence ofthree pyrethroid insecticides applied to fir plywood for the control of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J. econ. Ent., 76: 11-16.WONGKOBRAT, A. AND DAHLMAN, D.L., 1976. Larval Manduca sexta hemolymph carboxylesterase activity during chronic exposure to insecticide containing diets. J. econ. Ent., 69: 237-240.WOOTTON, I.D.P. AND FREEMAN, H., 1982. Microanalysis in medical biochemistry, Churchill Livingstone, London, pp. 91-114.YANOLA, J., SOMBOON, P., WALTON, C., NACHAIWIENG, W. AND PRAPANTHADARA, L.,2010. A novel F1552/C1552 point mutation in the Aedes aegypti voltage-gated sodium channel gene associated with permethrin resistance. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 96: 127-131.ZOLLNER, N. AND KIRSCH, K., 1962. Microdetermination of lipids by the sulfo-phosphovanillin reaction. Z. Gec. exp. Med., 135: 545-561.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ali, Nighat Shahid; Ali, Syed Shahid; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2014
Words:5949
Previous Article:The 3D Modeling and Characterization of Wild Type and Mutated Plasmodium falciparum Cytochrome b: A Computational Approach.
Next Article:Screening of Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) Genotypes against Sucking Insect Pests under Natural Field Conditions.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters