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Being a Black man: development of the Masculinity Inventory Scale (MIS) for Black men.

Through the years, masculinity has been measured in many ways. These ways typically center around gender role norms, gender role strain, and ideology (Griffin, Gunter, Watkins, 2012; Levant & Richmond, 2007; Mahalik et al., 2003; Wong et al., 2011). Current masculinity measures have typically focused on how masculine or feminine a male is based on statements related to "traditional" or stereotypical characteristics displayed by males and females (Hoffman, 2001; Luyt, 2005). For instance, the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI) consists of seven norms testing adherence with traditional masculinity (avoidance of femininity, fear and hatred of homosexuals, self-reliance, aggression, achievement/status, non recreational attitudes toward sex, and restrictive emotionality) with items such as "A boy should be allowed to quit a game if he is losing" (Levant & Richmond, 2007, p. 132). While items on this scale assess a man's adherence to or agreement with these statements, this scale does not help with defining what it means to be a man. For example, if a man doesn't identify with these male norms, does that mean he is less of a man or not a man at all? Research on masculinity and manhood with Black men has found their ideas of manhood to be different from those of "traditional" male characteristics (Chaney, 2009; Hammond & Mattis, 2005; Hunter & Davis, 1992; Mincey, Alfonso, Hackney & Luque, 2014).

Early work by Hunter and Davis (1992) looking at manhood and Black men found that Black men defined manhood through self, family, human community, and spirituality and humanism. Moreover, recent research on manhood and Black men supports and expands on these research findings (Chaney, 2009; Hammond & Mattis, 2005). In Hammond and Mattis' (2005) work, they investigated the meaning of manhood in Black men. Their work revealed there were 15 categories of manhood meaning with responsibility and accountability for one's actions being the most heavily endorsed. Similar outcomes can be found in work by Chaney (2009) who found four areas Black men used to describe manhood (maturity, responsibility, provider, self-awareness). With her findings, Chaney suggested that the model of hegemonic masculinity is not sufficient when trying to examine how Black men define or describe "manhood." Additionally, Mincey et al. (2014) investigated masculinity in undergraduate Black men and found that three levels of masculinity (what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influenced male development) exist within this group. While researchers have assessed how Black men define masculinity, none have used this information to develop a scale that reflects the masculinity definitions and dimensions these studies have found.

Even though it is acknowledged that masculinity varies with culture, current scales continue to perpetuate the ideals of "traditional" or stereotypical masculinity (Hoffman, 2001; Pleck, 2005). Because many Masculinity scales measure different viewpoints of masculinity and use different theories and cultural concepts, it is suggested that masculinity be looked at through the ideas of "gender self-concept, gender identity, and gender self-confidence" (Hoffman, p. 483; Luyt, 2005). The purpose of this research was to develop a masculinity scale that focuses more on what elements define being a man not what elements are related to male characteristics.

To support the notion that masculinity scales should look through the lens of gender identity some researchers have developed scales around different viewpoints (Wong et al., 2011). Wong et al. developed a masculinity scale based on the subjective experiences of men through their life experiences. Using qualitative data, researchers developed a scale with five endorsed dimensions of masculinity, family; responsibility; physical body; emotional toughness; and work (Wong et al., 2011). Luyt (2005) suggests that researchers be meticulous in masculinity instrument development to ensure that the scale used takes into account who is taking the instrument and the potentially different types of masculinity that may be displayed within this group. The purpose of this research was to report how a masculinity scale was developed for undergraduate Black men as part of a larger mixed methods study looking at the influence of masculinity on the coping mechanisms of undergraduate Black men.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

To understand the different elements of masculinity in undergraduate Black men, Franklin's triangle of socialization (1994) was used to help formulate questions around the different areas of masculinity influence to get a holistic perspective of what masculinity means to undergraduate Black men. Over 20 years ago, Franklin suggested that Black men develop their identity and their outlook on life by navigating through three groups. The first group is the man's primary group, which is related to a man's family and has values and norms similar to mainstream society, but expresses these norms and values from a Black perspective. The second group, the peer group, which helps the male develop Black masculine traits, usually has the most influence when Black men are young adults. The third group, the mainstream societal group, sends messages to Black men through avenues such as television and radio, idealizing dominant White masculinity traits such as competitiveness, aggressiveness, and dominance that are different from the messages they receive from their primary and peer groups (Franklin, 1994).

THE PRESENT STUDY

While researchers have studied the ideas of masculinity in Black men, they have not used this information to develop a masculinity scale specifically for Black men (Chaney, 2009; Hammond & Mattis, 2005; Hunter & Davis, 1992). Therefore, the goals of this study were to develop a masculinity scale for Black men and to provide preliminary data on the validity of this scale. Participants from both a historically Black College and University (HBCU) and a predominately White Institution (PWI) were sought for this scale development as most research on masculinity and Black men has focused on middle-aged men or adolescents (Adams, 2007; Chaney, 2009; Hammond & Mattis, 2005; Hunter & Davis, 1992). Additionally, it was also believed that the different environments and experiences at both campuses might have an impact on the ideas of masculinity in Black men. Thus, participants from both types of campuses participated in the development of this scale.

Similar to work by Wong et al. (2011), the current scale developed used qualitative data. Specifically, scale items were developed based on participants' statements to the following questions: "What does it mean to be a Black man to you?"; "Who has had a large impact/influence on your development as a man?"; and "To you what does it mean to be a man?"

This study took place in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of gathering qualitative data, analyzing the data, and developing the scale items. Phase 2 consisted of examining the validity of the scale. Because of the nature of each phase, the participants for each phase were different but drawn from the same population. It was believed the concepts of masculinity found would be reflective of Franklin's Triangle of Socialization (1994) and thus provide more insight into the depth of masculinity in Black men.

METHODS

Phase 1

The purpose of Phase 1 was to gather and analyze qualitative data on masculinity and to develop scale items.

Procedure. The first author conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups at the HBCU and the PWI. Interviews and focus groups lasted between 1 to 1.5 hours. Interview and focus group protocol questions guided the study's theoretical framework. Questions were developed to highlight the three forces that help to develop Black masculinity (primary group, peer group, and mainstream society) as stated by Franklin (1994) along with questions related to the perception of masculinity as both a man and a Black man. Interview and Focus Group questions consisted of: What does it mean to be a man?, What does it mean to be a Black man?, What's it like being a Black man at a PWI?, What's it like being a Black man at a HBCU?, Do you feel there is racism on campus?, Who has a large impact/influence on your development as a man?

Participants. Self-identified undergraduate Black male students currently enrolled at either the PWI or HBCU (N = 46) in the Southeastern United States during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 academic years were recruited to participate in this study. Inclusion criteria for study participants included: (1) currently enrolled in universities being studied, (2) undergraduate status, (3) 18-24 years of age, (4) self-identify as African American or Black, and (5) male. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 22 with representation from all undergraduate class levels. A total of four focus groups were conducted, two focus groups at each campus ranging in size from four to ten. A total of 13 in-depth interviews were conducted, six at the HBCU and seven at the PWI.

Phase 2

The purpose of Phase 2 was to conduct preliminary testing on the scale to report validity.

Procedure. Undergraduate students (N = 162) attending a HBCU and PWI in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Participants were recruited from orientation, American government. Introductory Biology and Chemistry, Psychology and sports management classes at both the PWI and HBCU. Additionally, participants at the PWI were also obtained from the minority advisement program on campus. Surveys were distributed by the researcher, HBCU faculty contact, faculty members, and minority advisement coordinator at the PWI in the fall of 2011 from August to October. To ensure confidentiality, surveys along with informed consent were given to all males in each class that was visited. In classes having large numbers of males, the survey was only given to Black males in the class. During data analysis, only surveys received by persons self-identifying as Black males were used. The surveys given to participants consisted of seven parts. For this purpose of this study, only results related to the masculinity scale are reported.

Participants. Survey participants consisted of a total of 162 men, 81 men per campus. After data were cleaned, 154 surveys were used for analysis, 77 men per campus (Table 1). Survey respondents ranged in age from 18 to over 21. Most respondents were 18 (30.5%) and freshman (37.7%) with almost half (48.0%) of respondents from the HBCU being 18 and more than half (63,6%) from the HBCU being freshman. All respondents self-identified as Black with 1.9% also stating they were Hispanic.

RESULTS

Phase 1

Masculinity Scale Inventory Development. After all interview and focus group data were collected, findings from the questions focused on masculinity such as, "What does it mean to be a Black man to you?"; "Who has had a large impact/influence on your development as a man?"; and "To you what does it mean to be a man?" were analyzed for themes and these themes were used to develop scale items (Bernard, 2006). Twenty-two themes emerged from these questions, which were then put into a table in a Word document that consisted of themes, summary of what the themes meant, quotes from focus groups or interviews highlighting the themes, and potential survey items. At least two survey items were developed for each theme, three themes had three survey items and two themes had five survey items giving a total of 53 potential survey items. When this table was completed, it was further refined into another table consisting only of the themes and possible survey items that thoroughly explained the theme from the previous table. This table consisted of two survey items for each theme giving a total of 44 potential survey items.

Survey items came directly from interview and focus group quotes. This was done by taking the words of each quote and transforming them into a survey item that would reflect the quote in clear succinct wording. By using quotes to develop survey items, the scale reflects the thoughts of Black men. After these tables were completed, the potential survey items were placed into an expert item review form that consisted of different survey instructions and a complete listing of the scale. Once scale items were developed, they were reviewed by two Black masculinity researchers in the field of Human Development and Human Ecology. After the scale was finalized, it consisted of 50 items. Using a 6-point response system, respondents were able to state how much they agreed or disagreed with the statements and if they felt the statements applied to them by having the option of selection not applicable (N/A). Reponses range from 1 (Strongly Agree) to 5 (Strongly Disagree). The mean of each subscale is calculated to determine which scales have the higher mean. A higher mean score is associated with a higher endorsement of that type of masculinity. Because this scale is ordered from 1 to 5 with 1 being associated with strongly agree, the scale values were reverse coded for analysis in order to remove ambiguity regarding interpretation of the data. Coding was as follows 1 = 5, 2 = 4, 3 = 3, 4 = 2, and 5 = 1.

Because the researcher had access to the PWI, the survey was only pilot tested by two undergraduate Black men on the PWI campus. These men were obtained through the recommendation of a faculty member.

Phase 2

Factor Analysis. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the Masculinity Inventory Scale to determine if the subscales present in the scale matched constructs in Franklin's (1994) Triangle of Socialization. After performing a preliminary analysis in SPSS with a varimax factor rotation, 12 factors were found. However, some factors consisted of two or three items, some items appeared to be separated by gender, and the same constructs were factored out numerous times. These findings in addition to the scree plot showing a drop around factor four or five suggested the value in trying a five factor model. Analysis was conducted again in SPSS with a promax factor rotation and the five factors that formed proved to be a better fit with the constructs. These five factors accounted for 46.37 percent of total item variance after extraction (Table 2).

Items loading on factor 1 reflected ideas of what a man is (e.g., "A man takes care of business") ,which lined up with the construct of mainstream society and gives Black men messages about masculinity different from messages they receive from their family or friends. Additionally, these items reflect the standard idea of what a man is regardless of race. While there was one item ("Challenges encourage me to go above and beyond") that was specifically associated with descriptions of being a Black man, this item did not explicitly mention Black man in the item so this factor was described as "mainstream society."

Factor 2 consisted of items that stressed what being a Black man is (e.g., "I have to prove stereotypes against Black men wrong") seem to suggest that masculinity can also have facets particularly related to being a Black man. If you reverse the items "White men are introduced to more things than Black men" and "White men have more opportunities than Black men" to state "Black men are introduced to fewer things ..." and "Black men have fewer opportunities ..." it may be easier to see how these items fit with this factor. The term "Black masculinity" was used to describe this factor.

For factor 3, items related to all family members except the father were seen here. These items also suggest the role these family members have in developing masculinity; therefore, primary group was used to describe this factor. Factor 4 consisted of items that described what a man is and what being a Black man is; therefore, mainstream society/Black masculinity was used to describe this factor. Factor 5 includes items about a father's influence, having someone talk to, and support from friends; therefore, primary /peer group was used to describe this factor.

Thus, five subscales measures were formed: Mainstream society ([alpha] = 0.940), Black masculinity ([alpha] = 0.874), Primary Group ([alpha] = 0.826), Mainstream society/Black masculinity (a = 0.790), and Primary/peer group ([alpha] = 0.746). The alpha value for the complete scale was ([alpha] = 0.904).

Masculinity Scale Measures. Correlation analysis with Pearson's r demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between campus attending and identifying with Mainstream society/Black masculinity (p < .05). The subscales with the highest mean values (Table 3) were Mainstream society (54.37) and Mainstream society/Black masculinity (44.40). An independent sample t-test was run with campus attending as the grouping variable and masculinity subscales as the continuous variable to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in masculinity subscales mean values between campuses. Findings showed there was a statistically significant difference between Mainstream society/Black masculinity subscale mean values and campus attended (p < .05).

To determine the magnitude of mean differences between campuses, Cohen's d was calculated for each masculinity subscale using the mean and standard deviation values from the independent sample t-test. Findings showed a large effect (d > .80) in mean difference Mainstream society/Black masculinity (d = .811). Additionally, an ANOVA with class rank as the grouping variable and masculinity subscales as dependent variables, was run to see if a statistically significant difference existed between class rank and masculinity subscale. Findings showed there was not a statistically significant difference between class rank and identifying with any masculinity subscale (p > .05).

Discussion

Current masculinity measures focus on the assessment of gender role norms, gender role strain, and ideology as defined by "traditional" or stereotypical societal norms on how males and females should act (Griffin et al., 2012; Hoffman, 2001; Levant & Richmond, 2007; Luyt, 2005; Mahalik et al., 2003; Wong et al., 2011). While research on masculinity and manhood with Black men has reported that their ideas of manhood are quite different from "traditional" male characteristics, current measures that continue to only address "traditional" characteristics are continually used to measure masculinity in this group (Chaney, 2009; Hammond & Mathis, 2005; Hunter & Davis, 1992; Mincey et al., 2013). Thus, the goal of this research was to develop a masculinity scale geared toward Black men that accounted for their masculinity ideals.

Using the guidance of Franklin's Triangle of Socialization (1994), qualitative data was used to develop a masculinity scale for Black men. Results reported that the masculinity inventory scale consists of five subscales with high internal consistency. Findings also showed a significant difference in the type of masculinity one identifies with varied by campus for only one subscale, mainstream society/Black masculinity. While the idea of masculinity for Black men is similar to some traditional aspects of being a man, there are also ideas that are specific to being a Black man; therefore, this scale allows for a more in-depth study of masculinity in Black men by covering aspects of what it means to be a man and be a Black man within one scale. Because this study developed a new measure of masculinity for Black men, it expands the literature on masculinity in Black men and addresses a recommendation by Griffith et al. (2012) that measures of masculinity be developed and tested that capture the "unique experience of men of color that vary by race, ethnicity, sexual identity, age, and other socially meaningful categories" (p. S192).

Even though these findings cannot be compared to other findings in the literature, they do serve as a stepping stone in the advancement of masculinity research in Black men. The development of this scale, allows researchers the use of a scale that covers both the ideas of being a man and a Black man. Use of this scale would allow researchers to further understand the link between masculinity and race on the health outcomes of Black men (Griffith et al., 2012).

Limitations

Although this study looked at different dimensions of masculinity in Black men and developed a new Masculinity scale for Black men, limitations associated with this study must be noted. First, we are unable to determine how forthcoming respondents in both phases were to the questions about masculinity. If respondents were untruthful in statements used to develop the scale items, then the Masculinity scale that was developed is automatically flawed and perpetuates incorrect ideas about Black men and masculinity. Even more, the nature of responses could be a reflection of the type of questions asked of respondents to develop scale items. Because the concept of being a man is so complex, using one or two questions to understand larger concepts could have limited the qualitative findings. This could be remedied by asking smaller, less complex questions that address the larger context of what it means to be a man and what it means to be a Black man.

Second, survey respondents may have over or underreported their beliefs on the different aspects of masculinity. This could be a function of the survey sample mainly consisting of freshman students. This over or underreporting may have caused us to miss significant interactions with the different aspects of masculinity because persons failed to respond accurately. Even with these limitations, results showed that age does not affect how Black men view masculinity. That being said, it could be assumed that if older Black men were given this scale, they would also identify more with mainstream society and mainstream/Black masculinity. Because the view of masculinity was affected by the type of campus attending it can be assumed that the level of identifying with mainstream/Black masculinity is a function of who has influence in your life and what surroundings you are exposed to.

Thirdly, demographic information on marital status, sexual orientation, and parenthood were not asked in either phase of the study. The lack of this information means that an adequate assessment of masculinity based on marital status, sexual orientation, and being a father could not be made. Meaning that a difference in the type of masculinity expressed could have been affected by one's sexual orientation, marital status, or parenthood but because these questions were not asked it is unclear if any of these factors had an effect on the study's findings. Despite these limitations, this study adds to the current literature because it used qualitative data to develop a culturally based masculinity scale, it developed a masculinity scale for Black men, and it provided preliminary data on the validity of this scale.

Future Research

Because findings from this research report there are different dimensions of masculinity for Black men (i.e., differences in what they define as being a man and being a Black man), future research should not only study this scale but its subscales. Specifically, future research should further test the internal validity in each subscale and the overall scale. Additionally, future research needs to compare the outcomes of this scale with established masculinity scales to build on the scale's construct validity. Future research should also test the elements of this scale in different groups of Black men in different age ranges to determine if the scale properties are applicable to a wide range of Black men (i.e., non-college students, older Black men, adolescents, younger Black men).

REFERENCES

Adams, C.J. (2007). Respect and reputation: The construction of masculinity in poor African American men. Journal of African American Studies, 11, 157-172. doi: 10.1007/s12111-0079021-6.

Bernard, H.R. (2006). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (41h ed.). New York, NY: Rowman & Littlefield.

Chaney, C. (2009). Boys to men: How perceptions of manhood influence the romantic partnerships of black men. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 33(2), 110-122.

Franklin, C.W. (1994). Men's studies, the men's movement, and the study of Black masculinities: Further demystification of masculinities in America. In R.G. Majors & J.U. Gordon (Eds.), The American Black male: His present status and his future (pp. 3-19). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, Inc.

Griffith, D.M., Gunter, K., & Watkins, D.C. (2012). Measuring masculinity in research on men of color: Findings and future directions. American Journal of Public Health, 102(S2), S187-S194. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300715

Hammond, W.P., & Mattis, J.S. (2005). Being a man about it: Manhood meaning among African American men. Psychology of Men & Masculinities, 6(2), 114-126. doi: 10.1037/1524-9220.6.2.114.

Hoffman, R.M. (2001). The measurement of masculinity and femininity: Historical perspective and implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 79, 472-485. doi: 10.1002/j. 1556-6676.2001.tb01995.x

Hunter, A.G., & Davis, J.E. (1992). An exploration of Afro-American men's conceptualization of manhood. Gender & Society, 6(3), 464-479. doi: 10.1177/089124392006003007

Levant, R.F., & Richmond, K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the male role norms inventory. The Journal of Men's Studies, 15(2), 130-146. doi:10.3149/jms. 1502.130

Luyt, R. (2005). The Male Attitude Norms Inventory-II: A measure of masculinity ideology in South Africa. Men and Masculinities, 8(2), 208-229. doi: 10.1177/1097184X04264631.

Mahalik, J.R., Locke, B.D., Ludlow, L.H., Diemer, M.A., Scott, R.P.J., ... Freitas, G. (2003). Development of the conformity to masculine norms inventory. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4(1), 3-25. doi:10.1037/1524-9220.4.1.3

Mincey, K. D., Alfonso, M., Hackney, A., & Luque, J. (2014). Understanding masculinity in undergraduate African American men: A qualitative study. American Journal of Men's Health, 8(5), 387-398. doi: 10.1177/1557988313515900

Pleck, J. H. (1995). The gender role strain paradigm: An update. In R. Levant & W. Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men (pp. 11-32). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Wong, Y.J., Shea, M., LaFollette, J.R., Hickman, S.J., Cruz, N., & Boghokian, T. (2011). The inventory of subjective masculinity experiences: Development and psychometric properties. The Journal of Men's Studies, 19(3), 236-255. doi:10.3149/jms.1903.236

Krista Mincey *, Moya Alfonso **, Amy Hackney **, and John Luque **

* Xavier University of Louisiana.

** Georgia State University.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Krista D. Mincey, Xavier University of Louisiana, 1 Drexel Drive, Campus Box V, New Orleans, LA 70125. Email: kmincey@xula.edu

DOI: 10.3149/jms.2203.167
Table 1 Characteristics of Survey Participants by Campus

Characteristics         Total (N = 154)   HBCU (n = 77)   PWI (n = 77)
                             n (%)            n (%)          n (%)

Age                     n = 153           n = 76          n = 77
18                         47 (30.5)        36 (48.0)      10 (12.9)
19                         35 (22.7)        20 (26.7)      15 (19.5)
20                         25 (16.2)        12 (15.8)      13 (16.9)
21                         20(13.0)          3 (3.9)       17 (22.1)
Over 21                    26 (16.9)         4 (5.3)       22 (28.6)

Hispanic                n = 152           n = 77          n = 75
Yes                         3 (1.9)          2 (2.6)        1 (1.3)
No                        149 (96.8)        75 (97.4)      74 (98.7)

Class Rank              n = 154           n = 77          n = 77
Freshman                   58 (37.7)        49 (63.6)       9 (11.7)
Sophomore                  46 (29.9)        16 (20.8)      30 (38.9)
Junior                     27 (17.5)        10 (13.0)      17 (22.1)
Senior                     23 (14.9)         2 (2.6)       21 (27.3)

Activities              n = 153           n = 76          n = 77
No                         54 (35.1)        34 (44.7)      20 (25.9)
Fraternity                 10 (6.5)          3 (3.9)        7 (9.1)
Student-Athlete            18 (11.7)         9 (11.8)       9 (11.7)
On-Campus Clubs            62 (40.3)        27 (35.5)      35 (45.5)
Off-Campus Clubs            3 (1.9)          2 (2.6)        1 (1.3)
Other                       6 (3.9)          1 (1-3)        5 (6.5)

Money                   n = 151           n = 77          n = 74
Work part-time             18 (11.7)         7 (9.1)       11 (14.9)
Work full-time              1 (0.6)          1 (1.3)           --
On scholarship             18 (11.7)         9 (11.7)       9 (12.2)
Loans                      23 (14.9)        14 (18.2)       9 (12.2)
Pell grant                 74 (48.1)        35 (45.5)      39 (52.7)
Work study                  3 (1.9)          2 (2.6)        1 (1.4)
Other                      14 (9.1)         9 (11.7)        5 (6.8)

Education Mother        n = 151           n = 74          n = 77
8th grade or less           2 (1.3)          1 0.4)         1 (1-3)
Part high school            2 (1.3)          1 (1.4)        1 (1.3)
High school graduate       31 (20.1)        16 (21.6)      15 (19.5)
GED                         5 (3.2)          4 (5.4)        1 (1.3)
High school graduate        9 (5.8)          3 (4.1)        6 (7.8)
  plus vocational
  training
Part college               36 (23.4)        17 (22.9)      19 (24.7)
College graduate           41 (26.6)        20 (27.0)      21 (27.3)
Graduate or                25 (16.2)        12 (16.2)      13 (16.9)
  professional
  degree

Education Father        n = 136           n = 67          n = 69
8th grade or less           4 (2.6)          3 (4.5)        1 (1.4)
Part high school            5 (3.2)          1 (1.5)        4 (5.8)
High school graduate       39 (25.3)        18 (26.7)      21 (30.4)
GED                         7 (4.5)          2 (3.0)        5 (7.2)
High school graduate       12 (7.8)          6 (9.0)        6 (8.7)
  plus vocational
  training
Part college               17 (11.0)        10 (14.9)       7 (10.1)
College graduate           36 (23.4)        17 (25.4)      19 (27.5)

Table 2

Masculinity Development Scale Factor Analysis

Abbreviated Item content               Factor 1   Factor 2   Factor 3

1. There are certain things a man      0.687
must go through to become a man

2. A man takes care of business and     0.890
does what needs to be done

3. A man handles his                    0.901
responsibilities

4. A man provides for his family,       0.865
children, or other family

5. A man takes care of everything       0.711

6. A man thinks about how he can
influence younger people

7. A man mentors other people           0.609

8. A man supports himself               0.617
completely

9. A man takes care of everything
without depending on other people

10. A man makes sacrifices for his      0.722
family

11. A man does things he may not        0.754
want to do to get the job done

12. A man makes things happen for       0.840
his family

13. A man takes care of his kids        0.795

14. A man is able to control his
emotions

15. A man does not cry

16. I have to prove to myself and
everybody that my life has purpose

17. I have to prove myself in
academic situations

18. I have to prove myself in
social situations

19. I have a lot to live up to

20. It's hard to show that I'm not                 0.515
like other Black men

21. I have to prove stereotypes                    0.625
against Black men wrong

22. Challenges encourage me to go       0.523
above and beyond

23. As a Black man, you're up                      0.727
against a lot from birth

24. It's hard overcoming how we're                 0.750
viewed as Black men

25. I have to deal with a lot of                   0.647
negative stereotypes

26. Life is easier for White men                   0.734
than Black men

27. The road to success is easier                  0.804
for White men than Black men

28. White men are introduced to                    0.636
more things than Black men

29. Life situations forced me to
become a man

30. White men have more                            0.745
opportunities than Black men

31. White and Black men have the
same opportunities

32. White and Black men are equal
in today's society

33. My mother showed me how to work                           0.399
hard

34. My father has instilled in me
the characteristics of a man

35. My mother gave me the                                     0.281
confidence and strength to keep
moving

36. My aunt(s) showed me how to                               0.620
work hard

37. When I carry myself like my
father or better I'll be a man

38. My grandmother showed me how to                           0.565
work hard

39. My brother(s) showed me how to                            0.394
be a man

40. My sister(s) informed me how to                           0.658
be a man

41. My grandfather showed me how to                           0.482
be a man

42. My mom informed me about how to                           0.601
be a man

43. My female cousin(s) informed me                           0.806
about how to be a man

44. My male cousin(s) showed me how                           0.762
to be a man

45. I admire the way that my father
carries himself

46. I taught myself how to become a
man

47. I am the only person                           0.237
responsible for me

48. Having friends back me up is
powerful

49. It's easier to go through my
day when I have someone to talk to

50. I wasn't prepared to be a man,
but 1 was on my own

Eigenvalue                              9.921      4.5000     4.160

Abbreviated Item content               Factor 4   Factor 5

1 .There are certain things a man
must go through to become a man

2. A man takes care of business and
does what needs to be done

3. A man handles his
responsibilities

4. A man provides for his family,
children, or other family

5. A man takes care of everything       0.624

6. A man thinks about how he can
influence younger people

7. A man mentors other people

8. A man supports himself
completely

9. A man takes care of everything       0.539
without depending on other people

10. A man makes sacrifices for his
family

11. A man does things he may not
want to do to get the job done

12. A man makes things happen for
his family

13. A man takes care of his kids

14. A man is able to control his        0.398
emotions

15. A man does not cry                  0.437

16. I have to prove to myself and       0.618
everybody that my life has purpose

17. I have to prove myself in           0.509
academic situations

18. I have to prove myself in           0.669
social situations

19. I have a lot to live up to          0.504

20. It's hard to show that I'm not
like other Black men

21. I have to prove stereotypes
against Black men wrong

22. Challenges encourage me to go
above and beyond

23. As a Black man, you're up
against a lot from birth

24. It's hard overcoming how we're
viewed as Black men

25. I have to deal with a lot of
negative stereotypes

26. Life is easier for White men
than Black men

27. The road to success is easier
for White men than Black men

28. White men are introduced to
more things than Black men

29. Life situations forced me to        0.388
become a man

30. White men have more
opportunities than Black men

31. White and Black men have the        0.297
same opportunities

32. White and Black men are equal       0.338
in today's society

33. My mother showed me how to work
hard

34. My father has instilled in me                  0.827
the characteristics of a man

35. My mother gave me the
confidence and strength to keep
moving

36. My aunt(s) showed me how to
work hard

37. When I carry myself like my                    0.681
father or better I'll be a man

38. My grandmother showed me how to
work hard

39. My brother(s) showed me how to
be a man

40. My sister(s) informed me how to
be a man

41. My grandfather showed me how to
be a man

42. My mom informed me about how to
be a man

43. My female cousin(s) informed me
about how to be a man

44. My male cousin(s) showed me how
to be a man

45. I admire the way that my father                0.728
carries himself

46. I taught myself how to become a     0.452
man

47. I am the only person
responsible for me

48. Having friends back me up is                   0.304
powerful

49. It's easier to go through my                   0.479
day when I have someone to talk to

50. I wasn't prepared to be a man,      0.549
but 1 was on my own

Eigenvalue                              2.475      2.130

Table 3

Means, Standard Deviation, T-test, and Cohen's d for
Masculinity Subscales by Campus

Subscale                      Total           HBCU            PWI
                            Mean (SD)      Mean (SD)       Mean (SD)

Mainstream society (MS)      N = 138        72 = 72         72 = 66
                          5437 (7.682)    54.42 (7267)   5432 (8.166)
Black masculinity (BM)       N = 142        72 = 72         72 = 70
                          3831 (7.629)    3825 (7336)    38.79 (7962)
Primary group (PG)           N = 94         72 = 52         72 = 42
                          36.44(8.560)    37.12(9256)    35.60(7.638)
MS/BM                        N = 121        72 = 60         72 = 61
                          44.40(7.917)    45.87(6.875)   42.97 (8.639)
Primary group/Peer           N = 136        72 = 68         72 = 68
  group                   18.77 (4.747)   19.03 (4343)   1851 (5.138)

Subscale                  T-test    Cohen's
                          P-value      d

Mainstream society (MS)
                           .664      .108
Black masculinity (BM)
                           .966      .010
Primary group (PG)
                           .414       203
MS/BM
                           .002      .811
Primary group/Peer
  group                    .833      .052
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Author:Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John
Publication:The Journal of Men's Studies
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 22, 2014
Words:6098
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