Behavioral and Social Sciences paper abstract.
Prayer is one of the most common behaviors within most religious systems, yet data concerning this simplest of religious acts is sparse. The primary purpose of this research was to investigate whether the act of praying would differentially affect the validity scales of the MMPI-2. Other religious measures, the Structured Prayer Scale and Intrinsic-Extrinsic-Revised Scale, were acquired for correlational analyses. There were 59 university students who were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to order of prayer and assessment: prayer-questionnaires (PQ) and questionnaire-prayer (QP). Prayers were recorded on cassette tapes and transcribed for future analysis. This preliminary report examines the questionnaire data and primary experimental intervention. Results for the order effect indicated that the PQ group generally had more honest responding according to validity scales, but several non-K-corrected clinical scales were elevated in this group. Correlational data concerning religious and personality variables are also provided.
MEASURING COMPUTER-RELATED STRESS: CURRENT STATUS. Richard A. Hudiburg, Department of Psychology, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632.
This paper explores the current status of the construct of computer-related stress. By contrast, this construct is in less uses in empirical research as compared to the construct of computer anxiety. To encourage more research using the construct of computer-related stress, Hudiburg (2005) reported an initial effort to revise the 37-item Computer Hassles Scale. This updated scale contained 34 new items in order to more reflect computer use in the 21st Century, especially the Internet use. A reanalysis of the data used by Hudiburg (2005) was performed using three samples (Ns=200, 330, & 242) and a merged sample. Factor analyses with rotations were performed on each sample separately and on the merged sample. These factor analyses yielded interpretable three factor solutions. An examination of the factor loadings across samples and in the merged sample resulted in the elimination of five items. This process resulted in a revised scale of 66 items with three subscales. Internal consistency reliability analysis was performed on each factor using only the salient factor loadings ([greater than or equal to].40). The reliability analysis yielded high internal consistency alphas [??] = .9536 (F1); [??] = .9410 (F2); [??] = .9134 (F3)). The revised 66-item scale was correlated significantly with both a measure of somatic complaints (r = .326; p = .000) and a measure of global stress (r = .185; p = .000). This 66-item Computer Hassles Scale--Revised has evidence of reliability and convergence validity and should encourage new research about computer-related stress.
PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AS AN APPROACH TO TEACHING. Saramma T. Mathew, Dept. of Psychology, Counseling and Foundations of Education, Troy University, Troy, AL 36082.
Programmed instruction is a teaching method in which information is presented in sequence of distinct units and the correct response to each unit is necessary before the learner may move to the next unit. It is only indirectly concerned with what learners do, but mainly concerned with what program developers do. So programmed instruction represents the teaching side of the teaching/learning process. The paper deals with a brief history of origin, background, and development of programmed instruction, followed by its characteristics, advantages and limitations. The paper will also include the steps in developing a programmed instruction such as training needs assessment(pretest), task analysis(for mastery specification), target audience analysis, instructional design (flow chart, role of instructor), instruction (developing draft of frames and editing), developmental tryouts to debug the programmed instruction and finally assessing the end of program objectives through criterion post tests. The characteristics of programmed instruction changed over time, but it gave birth to Computer Assisted Instruction and it is very much alive today connecting the past and the present.
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|Publication:||Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science|
|Article Type:||Author abstract|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2008|
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