Batool Addella Salama, Hiba Ahmed Eimin and Hoyam AbdellaGadir Abu Giba (2003) The Environmental Effect of Shanty Dwellings in Sudan.
The objectives of the study were:
1--To reveal the reasons behind the establishment of shanty dwellings.
2--To investigate the economic conditions in shanty dwellings. Reasons behind the existence of shanty dwellings were:
i--The world industrial revolution has affected positively the urban areas and neglected the rural areas.
ii--The decrease of economic resources and lack of proper human living conditions obliged the majority to fly to the cities in search of better means of living.
iii--The spread of poverty over both rural and urban areas obliged people to live in shanty dwellings.
iv--The unbalanced distribution of resources and means of development.
v--More people migrate to seek opportunities of work and better salaries in towns.
Geographically the environment means the living place and its surroundings which affect the people's lives. It usually means the natural and social organizations that affect man and all other dwellers. The environment represents the natural resources and all economic and social fields. So the Study clarified how shanty dwellings have affected and changed the environment of urban areas. It is known that more than 20 million people from rural areas migrate yearly to towns in order to look for work and better living conditions. This is because the rural areas, where poverty has highly spread, lack all proper living conditions. That obliged rural people to move to towns, where they usually live in shanty dwellings round towns, where many diseases and bad living conditions prevail.
The data was collected from Sudan through questionnaires. Observations were documented by photography.
The study revealed that the economic and environmental performances seemed unacceptable by the increase of informal sectors, street vendors besides the environmental problems that led to the spread of poverty and diseases.
The creation of shanty dwellings around urban areas affected negatively the opportunities of work, education, and health services, and caused the following problems:
1--The shanty dwellers usually competed in the opportunities of work with the people in towns. That usually caused a decrease in salaries, besides the high rate of unemployment.
2--The migrants round cities as a result of poverty and war, are 4.5million people, who represent 15% of the population. Those have dwelled round. Omdurman, Khartoum, and Khartoum North.
1--Importance of quick legalization for shanty dwellings in order to introduce polices of development, social and economic resources:
2--Importance of security services by the help of the dwellers.
3--All civil organizations are called to play their role in maintaining better economic and social living conditions.
4--To increase the people's awareness towards the existence of their shanty dwellings, and how to improve environmental conditions.
5--The government should help to build dwellings that are more healthy and reasonable for human life.
6--To encourage donors to help in building houses with reasonable prices that people can afford.
7--All government developmental strategies should give attention to better and fair distribution of resources between urban and rural areas, in order to meet all the citizens' needs.
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|Title Annotation:||Research notes|
|Article Type:||Book Review|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2004|
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