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Basketball contribution to the development of players' personality.

Introduction

Specialists in the field have acknowledged long time ago that high performance doesn't simply require top-level motor qualities, but also personality traits comparable to the exigencies and the psychic tension generated by sports competition.

Simultaneously with the performance sports expansion, the psychological factor in performance athletes' training is more and more frequently taken into consideration.

The athlete, regarded as a bio-psycho-social entity engaged in the performance activity, determines a holistic approach of the training process. The training content, proposed by M. Epuran (1982) and completed by A. Dragnea and S. Mate-Teodorescu, is presented in the following figure:

[FIGURE OMITTED]

Psychology helps the coach know his athletes' personality traits considered from a developmental differentiated standpoint, so that his intervention in the training process can lead to the improvement of their psychic capacity, according to the performance sports requirements.

Training is preparation, instruction, education and a prerequisite for sports performance.

Because sports performance is determined by many factors, it is hard to specify which one is more important when the individual's capacity higher limits are reached (M. Epuran, I. Holdevici, F. Tonita 2001).

Sports performance, just as the performer, results from the systemic fusion of three components, namely the biological, psychological and social ones.

The biological component consists of the somatic, biochemical and physiological aspects; the psychological component includes the athlete's personality in its whole, his aspirations, ideals, will and creativity; the social component encompasses culture and civilization, science, technics and particularly human relationships (M. Epuran, I. Holdevici, F. Tonita 2001).

Sports performance aptitudes merge: genetic components-predispositions, attributes of the central nervous activity, somatic qualities; psychic components-thinking, will, creativity, motivation for performance, emotional control; social components education, instruction, instructional technologies, organization of the selection for performance sports, management, all of them in a wide and rich combination that renders even more difficult the coach's activity in performance reaching.

Purpose of the research

This experimental study aims at determining to what extent the predominant use of technical-tactical actions and combinations within the oppositive relations can develop the junior 1st basketball players' personality.

Tasks of the research

The focus of our study was:

* To co-opt and co-interest the coach in our research approach.

* To know the teams included into our research program.

* To know the proposed performance objectives meant to develop an appropriate training program. To draw up the instruction program and apply it according to our research general purpose.

* To know the junior 1st players' age particularities.

* To conduct our intervention by means of the "16 PF" Personality Inventory.

* To formulate conclusions and edit the material.

Methods of research: scientific documentation, observation, statistical-mathematical method and graphical method

Content of the experiment The experiment was conducted in Bucharest on two junior 1st teams made up of 24 players, in the competition year 2010-2011, and it used the psychomotor test called "Cattell's 16 PF" Personality Inventory.

In the contemporary sports training theory and methods, specialists speak more and more about the "total training". This concept has in view the individual's and the team's global development. Performance maximization can't be achieved nowadays without the athlete's personality maximization. That is why coaches invoke techniques for the self-confidence development, relaxation techniques etc.

The human personality system is structurally composed of: temperament--the personality dynamical-energetic side; aptitudes--the efficient operational systems; character--as a system of volitional attitudes and traits.

For this reason, the coach must prescribe his athletes specific exercises meant to build up their psychic habits and skills, together with the development of their self-assessment and self-instruction capacities.

Technical instruction is a motor learning process of different kinds: the so-called motor learning, perceptive motor learning and intelligent motor learning.

Intelligent motor learning concerns the solving of problematic situations occurred during the activity or the actions, situations created by the opponent and specific to sports games. Because the learning process the human adaptation, in fact, consciously follows some well-defined self-control goals, all the types of learning are "intelligent".

Intelligent motor learning is characteristic to tactical instruction, but we shouldn't ignore that in sports games any technical element and procedure is learned in connection with the real tactical situations issued within the oppositive relations. The learning results are concretized in technical-tactical type open skills with a self-conducted but also a hetero-conducted character-when the opponent takes the initiative (M. Epuran, I. Holdevici, F. Tonita 2001). The generated skills can be algorithmic, if the subject has learned the tactical action schemes, or heuristic, if the subject has learned to creatively solve the situations.

We should remind that tactics is the mental-actional activity of solving the problematic situations and that the psychic factors involved in the tactics behaviors are informational, decisional and regulatory.

Tactical training means to provide the athletes with tactical knowledge, abilities and skills, all of them understood as schematic, but also creative, inventive, heuristic modalities of solving the tactical situations.

Psychic training, just as general training, progressively develops in a spiral form, on higher and higher levels. Its components permanently influence one another within the psychic system.

The physical, technical, tactical or theoretical training means have an impact on the psychic sphere and can achieve the psychological training if they are oriented toward its goals, goals realistically but also correctly formulated (M. Epuran, I. Holdevici, F. Tonita 2001).

The development of the psychic qualities and personality traits required by sports activity is focused on:

1. the basic stages, specific to the sports branch and to the competition training;

2. the psychomotor and socio-motor, intellectual cognitive, affective and volitional training, the development of personality components;

3. the use of physical, technical, tactical, theoretical, general and specific training means;

4. methods and techniques: modeling, exercise, approval and disapproval, maximum exertion, autogenous and psychotonic training.

By using the "Cattell's 16 PF", we can collect, in a relatively short time interval, in-depth information about the athletes' personality traits. The Personality Inventory is not limited to the study of an isolated trait, but aims at covering the differentiated aspects, as emphasized by the factorial research it was constructed on. This questionnaire-based tool has a known saturation for each of the factors to be measured. It was proved that each factor of the inventory corresponds to some personality primary factors that can be met, with their significance and importance, in a great number of the real life situations. They include intelligence, but also the temperamental factors of the fundamental dynamic traits.

According to Cattell, the personality traits can be divided into two categories:

* primary superficial traits-that can be more or less found in a number of individuals and in a number of situations;

* origin traits or source traits-that are highlighted through positive correlations, approximately constant in a number of variables (element traits). Origin traits also contain in their structure temperamental elements independent of the motivations and less modeled by the environment. Origin traits can be either common or unique (the common ones can be differentiated from the cultural setting).

This inventory is an introspection tool based on 187 indirect questions. As showed by its name, it includes 16 essential personality factors marked with the alphabet letters (A-Q).

The nature of these factors isn't completely elucidated yet. Some of them seem to be hereditarily determined, such as the A, B, C, F, G and I factors. Others, such as the F and L factors, seem to be determined by the experience during the childhood. The A, F and G factors correspond to the concepts formulated by clinicians.

Each factor comprises 10 to 13 items (questions). All questions have an equal weight. Each item is allotted 0, 1 or 2 points, except for the "B" factor items, where "0" points are allotted for the wrong answer and 1 point for the correct answer. The brute grades for each factor are related to the standard, by obtaining thus standard grades serving to the construction of the respective psychic profile.

In our experiment, we also used as assessment tests the school-games, check games, thematic games and the athletes' and teams' highest assessment test, namely the official game.

Results

The personality factor-analysis reveals the following:

FACTOR A

* 17 subjects are open, warm, cooperative in their interpersonal relationships.

* 7 subjects have a moderate tendency to reserve, to critical detachment.

FACTOR B-abstract thinking

* In this case, subjects are much dispersed along the standard, namely from 0 to the 8th class.

FACTOR C

* 11 subjects receive the 8th class-a marked and obvious tendency to emotional stability, calm, strong ego.

* 11 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to lower emotional stability and ego strength.

* 2 subjects have a low emotional stability and ego strength.

FACTOR E

* 4 subjects receive the 9th class-strong, aggressive, stubborn, dominant.

* 6 subjects receive the 8th class-a marked tendency to aggressive, stubborn, dominant, strong character.

* 4 subjects receive the 7th class-an obvious and moderate tendency to stubborn, aggressive, dominant, strong character.

* 3 subjects receive the 6th class-a tendency to aggressive, stubborn, dominant, strong character.

* 7 subjects receive the 3rd class-an obvious and marked tendency to modest, deferent, conciliating, submissive, docile.

FACTOR F

* 3 subjects receive the 9th class-impulsive, enthusiastic, cheerful, lively. 11 subjects receive the 8th class-a marked and obvious tendency to enthusiastic, impulsive, cheerful, lively.

* 6 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to enthusiastic, impulsive, cheerful, lively.

* 4 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to prudent, taciturn, less communicative.

FACTOR G

* 4 subjects receive the 9th class-conscientious, perseverant, serious, strong ego.

* 1 subject receives the 8th class-a marked tendency to conscientious, perseverant, serious, strong ego.

* 5 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to conscientious, perseverant, serious, strong ego.

* 4 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to indifferent, opportunist, low ego.

* 5 subjects receive the 2nd class-an obvious and marked tendency to indifferent, opportunist, low ego.

* 5 subjects receive the 1st class-indifferent, opportunist, low ego.

FACTOR H

* 1 subject receives the 9th class-venturesome, enterprising, sociable.

* 11 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to venturesome, enterprising, sociable.

* 9 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to venturesome, enterprising, sociable.

* 3 subjects receive the 4th class-an obvious and moderate tendency to shy, intimidated, suspicious.

FACTOR I

* 6 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to tender, sensitive, affectively dependent.

* 3 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to tender, sensitive, affectively dependent.

* 9 subjects receive the 3rd class-an obvious and marked tendency to strong, realistic, nononsense.

* 6 subjects receive the 1st class-strong, realistic, no-nonsense.

FACTOR L

* 2 subjects receive the 9th class-distrustful, suspicious, stubborn.

* 6 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to distrustful, suspicious, stubborn.

* 3 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to distrustful, suspicious, stubborn.

* 2 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to trusting, cooperative.

* 11 subjects receive the 2nd class-a marked tendency to trusting, cooperative.

FACTOR M

* 1 subject receives the 7th class-an obvious tendency to imaginative, bohemian, liberal, dreaming.

* 9 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to practical, conscientious, ceremonial. 14 subjects receive the 2nd class-a marked tendency to practical, conscientious, ceremonial.

FACTOR N

* 1 subject receives the 9th class-fine, perspicacious, clear-sighted, lucid.

* 6 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to fine, perspicacious, clear-sighted, lucid.

* 6 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to fine, perspicacious, clear-sighted, lucid.

* 7 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to forthright, naive, sentimental, natural.

* 4 subjects receive the 3rd class-an obvious tendency to forthright, naive, sentimental, natural.

FACTOR O

5 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to anxious, depressive, self-blaming.

9 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to anxious, depressive, self-blaming.

10 subjects receive the 4th class-a marked tendency to calm, self-confident.

FACTOR [Q.sub.1]

* 1 subject receives the 9th class-open, critical, liberal.

* 8 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to open, critical, liberal.

* 10 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to open, critical, liberal.

* 1 subject receives the 4th class-a moderate tendency to conservative, stable, respecting traditional ideas.

* 2 subjects receive the 3rd class-an obvious and marked tendency to conservative, stable, respecting traditional ideas.

* 2 subjects receive the 1st class-conservative, stable, respecting traditional ideas.

FACTOR [Q.sub.2]

* 11 subjects receive the 7th class-an obvious tendency to self-reliant, resourceful.

* 4 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to group-oriented, follower dependent.

* 8 subjects receive the 3 rd class-an obvious and marked tendency to group-oriented, follower dependent.

* 1 subject receives the 1st class-group-oriented, follower dependent.

FACTOR [Q.sub.3]

* 1 subject receives the 9th class-self-disciplined, prudent, ambitious, socially precise.

* 8 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to self-disciplined, prudent, ambitious, socially precise.

* 6 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to controlled, prudent, ambitious, socially precise.

* 3 subjects receive the 4th class-a moderate tendency to uncontrolled, impulsive, instinctive.

* 4 subjects receive the 3rd class-an obvious tendency to uncontrolled, impulsive, instinctive.

* 2 subjects receive the 2nd class-a marked tendency to uncontrolled, impulsive, instinctive.

FACTOR [Q.sub.4]

* 3 subjects receive the 9th class-tensed, frustrated, prudent.

* 7 subjects receive the 8th class-an obvious and marked tendency to tensed, frustrated, prudent.

* 5 subjects receive the 7th class-a tendency to tensed, frustrated, prudent.

* 7 subjects receive the 6th class-a moderate tendency to tensed, frustrated, prudent.

* 1 subject receives the 4th class-a moderate tendency to relaxed, calm, low energy.

* 1 subject receives the 3rd class-an obvious tendency to relaxed, calm, low energy.

[GRAPHIC 1 OMITTED]

Conclusions

The profile of the personality traits in junior 1st basketball players (average grades) reveals a group great homogeneity in relation to the personality psychic factors.

The investigated athletes are emotionally stable, conscientious and sensitive. They have an enterprising spirit, are enthusiastic and sociable. We think that the development of a top performance basketball player's personality relies on all these qualities.

The obtained results validate the hypothesis of our research.

References

DRAGNEA A., MATE-TEODORESCU S., 2002, Teoria sportului, Editura Fest, Romania. p 401

EPURAN M., HOLDEVICI I., TONITA F., 2001, Psihologia sportului de performanta. Teorie si practica, Editura Fest, Romania. 204-211 ; 239

POPESCU FLORENTINA (1), PORFIREANU MARIA-CRISTIANA (2), CRISTIAN RISTEA (2)

(1) Spiru Haret University, Bucharest, ROMANIA

(2) National University of Physical Education and Sports, Bucharest, ROMANIA

E-mail: flory_bk@yahoo.com

Received 26.02.2012 / Accepted 15.04.2012
Table 1: Results obtained by the basketball players in the 16
personality factors (A-[Q.sub.4]) of the "16 PF" test

                 PERSONALITY FACTORS

No.   Subjects   A   B   C   E   F   G   H   I   L   M   N   O

1     P.C.       6   5   4   8   8   1   7   1   8   3   1   6
2     N.M.       6   0   1   8   8   2   6   1   6   4   5   3
3     M.I.       4   1   6   2   4   5   7   3   6   1   9   5
4     B.A.       9   0   4   3   8   6   4   1   8   2   5   4
5     L.I.       5   0   3   8   9   0   8   0   8   4   4   3
6     A.S.       8   2   5   3   9   4   8   2   4   2   8   4
7     P.D.       4   1   5   5   6   5   5   8   4   7   1   7
8     P.A.       6   8   3   6   4   6   6   7   7   2   7   5
9     D.R.       6   2   0   8   8   2   8   5   6   2   4   5
10    C.R.       6   8   4   8   6   6   6   7   6   2   6   4
11    C.B.       6   8   2   8   8   1   9   0   9   2   5   0
12    D.C.       6   0   6   9   9   3   6   3   6   2   5   3
13    M.D.       4   0   4   9   7   0   6   3   9   4   4   6
14    C.R.       7   1   3   7   5   4   7   5   6   1   4   7
15    B.A.       8   1   4   7   8   3   6   2   7   4   4   6
16    Z.B.       8   2   6   5   8   2   8   2   8   3   4   2
17    I.A.       9   1   3   2   0   8   5   7   5   2   7   5
18    L.C.       6   3   6   3   5   4   7   3   7   1   8   3
19    M.M.       6   3   2   9   6   4   6   3   8   0   3   7
20    B.V.       8   0   8   6   8   4   7   7   6   2   4   5
21    R.V.       5   4   7   6   5   9   7   7   2   4   7   2
22    B.I.       5   0   2   7   4   0   3   2   8   3   3   8
23    B.H.       7   8   4   9   8   1   7   1   7   0   5   7
24    B.A.       5   1   3   8   7   4   3   6   6   4   7   6

      PERSONALITY FACTORS

No.   [Q.sub.1]   [Q.sub.2]   [Q.sub.3]   [Q.sub.4]

1     5           5           4           9
2     5           7           3           7
3     5           5           7           5
4     5           5           4           9
5     9           6           5           9
6     2           1           6           5
7     6           3           4           7
8     5           3           1           7
9     4           4           8           9
10    6           5           5           8
11    7           2           1           9
12    6           5           6           9
13    6           6           1           9
14    3           7           4           9
15    7           2           3           5
16    6           2           4           5
17    1           4           9           8
18    1           4           5           7
19    5           3           2           4
20    5           6           7           5
21    5           2           5           3
22    6           4           4           6
23    8           5           1           8
24    5           3           4           7

Table 2: "16 PF". Frequency weight in percents

             Standard
Athletes      grades       A%         B%         C%         E%

24             0-5      29.16-7    83.33-20    75-18     29.16-7
               6-10     70.83-17   16-66-4      25-6     70.83-17
             [bar.X]      6.25       2.45       3.95       6.41

             Standard
Athletes      grades       F%         G%         H%         I%

               0-5      29.16-7    79.16-19   20.83-5    70.83-17
24             6-10     70.83-17   20.83-5    79.16-19   29.16-7
             [bar.X]      6.58       3.5        6.33       3.58

             Standard
Athletes      grades       L%         M%         N%         O%

24             0-5      16.66-4    95.83-23   66.66-16   62.5-15
               6-10     83.33-20    4.16-1    33.33-8     37.5-9
             [bar.X]      6.29       2.54        5         4.70

             Standard   [Q.sub.    [Q.sub.    [Q.sub.    [Q.sub.
Athletes      grades      1]%        2]%        3]%        4]%

24             0-5      58.33-14   79.16-19    75.18     29.16-7
               6-10     41.66-10   20.83-5      25-6     70.83-17
             [bar.X]      5.12       4.12       4.29       7.04
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:SPORT AND PERFORMANCE
Author:Florentina, Popescu; Maria-Cristiana, Porfireanu; Ristea, Cristian
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXRO
Date:Jun 1, 2012
Words:3035
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