Printer Friendly

Barbarians at the gates: grove and world percussion.


Grove Music Online, originating from 1879-90 as A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, is the product of a nineteenth-century information revolution and self-help movement centered around the popularization of knowledge. The first edition was also rooted in prevailing attitudes regarding the polarization of "civilized" and "barbarous" cultures, resulting in founding editor Sir George Grove's restriction against music from non-European countries. The original dictionary's coverage of percussion, while not extensive, did include acknowledgement of numerous world influences, including the Middle East, and the minimization of European contributions. Tracing the scope and authorship of that coverage indicates the permeability of the barriers between European and world percussion, even at the height of the Age of Imperialism, and the internationality of the percussive arts.


All investigations into the music of barbarous nations have been avoided, unless they have some direct bearing on European music.--Sir George Grove, preface to A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1879-90)

A Dictionary of Music and Musicians in its eight successive editions, culminating in the current Grove Music Online, is the most comprehensive English-language music encyclopedia in the world. (1) Like all encyclopedias, each edition presents a conceptual landscape of human knowledge; the boundaries of Grove's landscape, however, are defined by what is understood and valued in music. Moreover, these boundaries have shifted and been redrawn during the work's nearly 140-year history, especially as global influences shaped Western classical music. Modern percussionists, familiar with the wide range of ethnic instruments and music introduced into standard percussion literature during the twentieth century, for example, might find it difficult to relate to founding editor George Grove's injunction against the "music of the barbarous nations."

An examination of the dictionary's first percussion entries, however, indicates the articles' authors understanding of the importance of non-Western, or world percussion. Despite roots in the social, cultural, and political milieu of the Age of Imperialism, the first edition's approach to percussion instruments included acknowledgement of a variety of non-Western influences on European orchestral music. In keeping with the dictionary's conceptual landscape, this was permissible because the world percussion examples had direct bearing on European musical practice. As a result, these instruments seemed to mitigate the division between "barbarous" and "civilized" music inherent in Grove's editorial policy.

In the dictionary's second and third editions, new non-Western percussion entries focused on each instrument's traditional performance practice rather than their influence on European music. The entries for tambourine and marimba, for example, illustrate the unique role percussion played in early editions of the dictionary. The total number of percussion entries, while relatively small for the first one hundred years of the dictionary's history, burgeoned in the greatly expanded and revised New Grave Dictionary of Music and Musicians, published in 1980. Percussionists, too, might draw on this history as a way of understanding the arbitrary nature of the distinction between Western and world percussion.


The four-volume Dictionary of Music and Musicians was published in London between 1879 and 1890, one of many knowledge-texts born at the confluence of encyclopedism and imperialism in nineteenth-century Britain. The publication of the first Encyclopaedia Britannica roughly a century earlier spurred an information revolution centered on "mental improvement" through knowledge, leading to increased numbers of encyclopedias, dictionaries, journals, magazines, and similar resources. (2) The Britannica, for example, grew from around 2,500 pages in its first edition (1768-71) to over 17,000 in 1827; the historian Robert Collison, writing in Encyclopedias: Their History throughout the Ages, found that fourteen other major British encyclopedias, as well as many other smaller or specialized works, were published in the early part of the nineteenth century alone. (3)

In 1862 the editor of Macmillan's Magazine, which shared the same publisher as Grove's dictionary, described the high value placed on knowledge acquisition: "An Encyclopaedia in any man's house is a possession in itself for him and his family; an Encyclopaedia chained at Charing Cross for public reference would be a boon to London worth fifty drinking fountains." (4) While perhaps not a public source of potable water, A Dictionary of Music and Musicians and similar encyclopedias were in fact the information superhighways of Victorian England. Like Wikipedia and other twenty-first-century online resources, many of these texts were targeted toward general audiences, and emphasized ease of accessibility and quantity rather than quality of information. Victorians, like modern information consumers, were concerned about publications that veered toward entertainment and sensationalism. This led to the development of organizations like the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, which boasted in its Penny Magazine, "in this work there has never been a single sentence which could inflame a vicious appetite ... no tattle or abuse for the gratification of a diseased taste for personality." (5) And, because knowledge was equated with power in business and society, dictionaries and encyclopedias were seen as inexpensive aids to upward social and economic mobility. (6)

As a result, the polymath--a person of wide and varied learning--became the ideal of Victorian society, and George Grove was the embodiment of that ideal (fig. 1). Born in 1820 to a fishmonger father and amateur musician mother, Grove trained as a civil engineer, and worked early in his career building lighthouses in Jamaica and Bermuda, then railway stations and bridges in Britain. He then became the editor of Macmillan's Magazine for fifteen years, and assistant editor of Smith's Bible Dictionary, published in 1863. Although Grove lacked a formal music education and was not a performer, he was nonetheless an accomplished self-taught musicologist, founding member of the Royal Musical Association, long-time program annotator for orchestra concerts at the Crystal Palace, and first director of the Royal College of Music. He was also a friend or acquaintance of many of the leading musical and literary figures of the late nineteenth century, including Clara Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Richard Wagner, Arthur Sullivan, and the poet Robert Browning, who referred to him as "Grove the Orientalist, the Schubertian, the Literate in ordinary and extraordinary." (7)

For Grove and many in Victorian society, however, the relationship of knowledge to moral and intellectual superiority resulted in the paradox of a knowledge movement accompanied by xenophobia and intolerance. The perceived dichotomy between civilized and barbarous nations involved condemnation of those who valued or ordered knowledge differently, and a sense of responsibility--or burden, according to English writer Rudyard Kipling's 1899 poem The White Man's Burden--to impose order and correct defects in morality, intellect, and culture. This bigotry was expressed at the highest levels of British society, including Parliament, as evidenced by comments made in the House of Commons in 1857, during debate before the Second Opium War with China: The character of the local Chinese government is such that it is impossible to apply to them those maxims and that conduct which are proper and usual among civilized nations. I agree most cordially that there is no reason why, because a nation with whom we happen to be dealing is semi-barbarous, that we should act toward it with violence.... But, on the other hand, it is more necessary to make a display of force sooner, and in a different manner, in dealing with nations which understand no other argument than force than it would be in dealing with Christian and civilized communities. (8)

Little wonder, then, that George Grove judged the music of countries like China unworthy of his dictionary, despite the fact that this conflicted with a centuries-old precedent for including world music and percussion, even Chinese music, in Western music literature. Both Michael Praetorius, in his Syntagma musicum (Wolfenbuttel, 1619) and Marin Mersenne, in Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636), discussed instruments from countries that Grove and other Victorians would have considered barbarous. Although his geographic attributions were often incorrect, Praetorius included scale drawings of many world percussion instruments, including a gong, bonang and kempuls from Java; a ntumpani from Ghana; and a mrdangam from India. (9) In addition, Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1768), published at roughly the same time as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, included transcribed examples of European folk, North American Indian, and Chinese music; Rousseau also described China as one of the non-European countries which had "most cultivated the arts." (10)

Perhaps these influences from the earlier Age of Exploration and the Enlightenment help explain the role of world percussion in the Dictionary of Music and Musicians, including numerous references to the non-European origin of many orchestral percussion instruments. These references transcended the polarity between civilized and barbarous music, beginning with the entry for "Drum," the main percussion entry in this and subsequent editions of the dictionary: "Some instrument of this kind has been known in almost every age and country, except perhaps in Europe, where it appears to have been introduced at a comparatively late period from the East." (11)

The author, Victor de Pontigny, then described three general categories of drums: open, single-headed drums such as the tambourine or "Egyptian drum"; closed, single-headed drums like kettledrums, or timpani; and closed, double-headed drums such as the side or snare drum. Kettledrums are the main focus of the entry, and de Pontigny's vague reference to "the East" fits with what we know about their adoption into European music. Small, paired kettledrums, called nakers, first appeared in Europe in the thirteenth century after the crusades; larger drums mounted on horseback, originally used by the Ottoman Turks and Mongols, came into Europe in the fifteenth century, and evolved into orchestral instruments by the end of the seventeenth century. (12) De Pontigny made another connection with the Middle East when he discussed the etymology of the instrument's name: "Kettle-drums in German are called Pauken; in Italian, timpani; in Spanish, atabales; in French, timbales: the two latter evidently from the Arabic tabl and the Persian tambal." (13)

Born in 1804, Victor de Pontigny wrote most of the percussion entries in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, as indicated in table 1, and his 1892 obituary in The Musical Times described him as "probably the greatest authority of his day on percussive instruments." (14) In 1876, three years before the publication of the dictionary's first volume, de Pontigny delivered an address titled "On Kettledrums" to the newly formed Royal Musical Association, of which Grove was also a member. Foreshadowing his work in the dictionary, de Pontigny referenced non-European percussion in the first two paragraphs of this address, as he described a red earthenware pan, "hemispherical, like a modern kettledrum," in the "Indian museum at South Kensington." (15) Unlike Grove, de Pontigny was also a musician, and in "On Kettledrums" he described creating timpani mallets using felt rather than the more common sponge head covers, at that time an innovation in Britain and, of course, one familiar to modern timpanists.

Clearly Grove and de Pontigny moved in some of the same circles, and this, combined with de Pontigny's previous experience and expertise, must have led Grove to rely on him as the first primary percussion contributor to the dictionary. Like Grove, however, de Pontigny, too, was a polymath, and contributed to the dictionary in many areas, including multiple entries on historic English organ builders. These, in fact, outnumber his percussion entries by about three to one. De Pontigny also authored an entry on guimbarde, the French name for the Jew's harp, and the entry for Charles Eulenstein (1802-1890), a virtuoso Jew's harp player, that is still available today (revised by Paul Sparks) in Grove Music Online.

De Pontigny's other references to world percussion include the entry for tambourine, where he expanded on his description of Egyptian drums, accompanied by woodcuts showing a riq, or Egyptian tambourine, and two darabukkas, goblet-shaped single-head drums (see fig. 2); and a Turkish crescent or "Jingling Johnnie," also variously known as a Chinese pavilion, Chinese crescent, or chapeau chinois. George Grove actually wrote the entries for the related terms "Janitscharen, i.e. Janissaries" and "Turkish Music," which he described as "the accepted term for the noisy percussion instruments--big-drum, cymbals, and triangle--in the orchestra." (16) Grove wrote this particular entry because, as a noted Beethoven scholar, and author of the dictionary's entry on Beethoven, he was well aware of the "Turkish music" in the last movement of Beethoven's Symphony no. 9, which he called the "brilliant second number of the Finale of the Choral Symphony, alla marcia." (17)

Most of these entries fit within George Grove's framework of only discussing music from "barbarous nations" that had a direct bearing on European music. The inclusion, however, of Egyptian drums and especially the darabukka stretched this framework. By including these examples, de Pontigny firmly linked the entire category of single-headed, open-ended drums to the Middle East. In addition, although the tambourine had at that time been incorporated into European music, the darabukka had not. The tambourine, in fact, had a long history in Europe as a folk instrument before entering into the orchestral literature in the mid-nineteenth century in works such as Berlioz's Roman Carnival Overture (1844). De Pontigny or Grove, however, chose to illustrate the tambourine with a woodcut of a riq, along with two darabukka woodcuts (fig. 2), taken from E. W. Lane's Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, published in 1836 by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

Perhaps de Pontigny chose to highlight the instrument's connection to the Middle East due to heightened British interest in the area during that time. The dictionary was published during a period of extensive European intervention in Africa, with Britain particularly interested in controlling the Nile and access to the Suez Canal; in fact, Britain occupied Egypt during the Anglo-Egyptian war in 1882, eight years before publication of the fourth volume, which contained the tambourine entry.


Whatever the reason, the percussion entries in the first edition of the Dictionary of Music and Musicians demonstrated a great deal of fluidity in the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable content. This boundary was redrawn more completely in the second edition, renamed Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, and published between 1904 and 1910. This edition retained most of de Pontigny's percussion contributions, as well as Grove's "Janitscharen" and "Turkish Music" entries, and added a short entry for "Percussion Instruments" written by D. J. Blaikley, an acoustician and wind instrument maker.

George Grove's preface, however, was not reprinted. His successor J. A. Fuller-Maitland instead authored a new preface, which discussed the edition's enlarged scope, including coverage of medieval and Renaissance music, plus an article on acoustics, and revisions to entries on Bach, Berlioz, Brahms, and Chopin. Although not mentioned, the new edition also included an entry for marimba, perhaps an even more significant indication of changes in the dictionary's conceptual percussion landscape. At that time, the marimba had even less of a bearing on European music than the darabukka; the modern orchestral marimba became commercially available only after the Deagan and Leedy companies began manufacturing it in 1910, and the instrument didn't find a place in orchestral literature until Darius Milhaud's Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone premiered in 1947.

Other keyboard percussion instruments such as the xylophone and glockenspiel had been included in European music starting in the nineteenth century, in works such as Saint-Saens's Danse macabre (1872) and Le carnaval des animaux (1886). In fact, George Grove authored the entry for "Strohfiedel," the German name for xylophone, included in the first edition and later reprinted, with slight revision by D.J. Blaikley, as the xylophone entry in the second edition. Both entries failed to cite the instrument's origin in East Africa, and importation into Europe during the sixteenth century. The marimba entry in some ways compensated for these oversights by being perhaps the first dictionary entry dedicated to discussing a non-Western musical instrument in its original context, without reference to European music:
   MARIMBA, THE, a curious instrument (said to possess great musical
   capabilities) in use in the southern parts of Mexico.... The
   marimba is also known in Africa, where it is formed in a similar,
   but rather more primitive fashion, gourds taking the place of the
   wooden sound-boxes. (18)

The author, Frank Kidson (1855-1926), is known primarily today as a folk song collector and founding member, along with Sir Hubert Parry and Charles Stanford, of the Folk-Song Society in 1898. His entry paraphrased and cited the article "A Curious Musical Instrument," written by W. H. Rundall and published in The Musical Times in 1901. Kidson probably never saw or heard the instrument in person, although Rundall's article included pictures of the marimba, or zapotecano, and performers known as zapotecanoists or marimberos. Although both Kidson and Rundall referred to the "curious" nature of the instrument, the Grave's Dictionary entry did not include Rundall's references to similar musical curiosities, such as "The clown who performs in a wonderful manner on various weird and strange instruments.... Or, again, the old man at the street corner who plays 'Home, sweet home,' and other familiar melodies on an assortment of drinking-glasses and finger-bowls." (19)

Percussionists may want to consider this emphasis on the marimba as a "curious instrument" a badge of honor. The marimba entry represented a mjyor shift away from the first edition's focus on European music; as such, it might have been inevitable that a great deal of attention was given to what contemporary readers perceived as strange or exotic. That shift, too, may have been possible only because of the earlier edition's tacit acknowledgment of the influence of world percussion on European music. Percussion instruments were able to bridge the gap between civilization and barbarity despite the prevalent imperialist paradigm expressed by Sir George Grove, a testament to the truly international nature of the percussive arts.


Although exploration of this nature would remain relatively dormant for another seventy years, the "Indian Music" entry included in the third edition in 1927 foreshadowed the type of world percussion coverage familiar to the dictionary's modern readers. It also signified another broadening of the dictionary's landscape, albeit one based on the music of a non-European country considered a British colonial territory. Written by A. H. Fox Strangways, the founding publisher and editor of the journal Music & Letters, the entry included detailed discussion of percussion instruments such as the tabla and dhol, as well as playing techniques and examples of rhythmic patterns. Fox Strangways had first-hand experience of the role of percussion in the music, and he wrote that the drum was the "father of instruments.... Secrets pass from end to end of India by means of the drum. To become a drummer is a life work." (20)

In this edition the marimba remained a "curious instrument," as Kidson's entry from the previous edition was reprinted word for word. The same entry was included in the fourth edition in 1940, and the fifth edition in 1954, and was not altered until the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians was published in 1980. This sixth edition, of course, employed a much different conceptual landscape than earlier editions, as indicated in the preface by editor Stanley Sadie:
   When, in 1969, my colleagues and I began to lay our plans, we
   thought of the work we were preparing as the sixth edition of the
   dictionary first prepared by Sir George Grove in the 1870s and
   1880s. As time and work went on, however, it became clear that we
   were producing not a new edition but a new dictionary.... The
   biggest departure ... lies in the dictionary's treatment of
   non-Western and folk music, far more extensive and more methodical
   than anything of the kind attempted before. (21)

This extensive treatment meant that world percussion instruments were no longer judged mainly by their influence on Western music, and resulted in expanded coverage of both Western and non-Western percussion. The Neru Grove included approximately 200 percussion entries, with world percussion instruments comprising about a third of the total. The marimba entry was rewritten by ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik and percussion historian James Blades, and expanded from approximately 220 words to over 1,000. The new entry, with sections on the instrument's use in Africa and Ladn America as well as in orchestral literature, reflects the translucent boundary between Western and non-Western percussion inherent in early editions of the dictionary.

Grove Music Online, the dictionary's eighth and most current edition, builds on this approach. The latest marimba entry is over 1,300 words in length, and a search using the term "percussion," limited to subject entries, returns 761 results. The "Drum" entry, with references to countries such as India, Tibet, Africa, Indonesia, China, Brazil, and Japan, continues the work of reconciling Western and world percussion started by Victor de Pontigny in 1879. Even de Pontigny's assertion that drums "have been known in almost every age and country" has survived mostly intact into the twenty-first century. James Blades, who, like George Grove trained early in his career as an engineer, writes in Grove Music Online that the drum "has been made in many varieties and has been known in almost every age and culture." (22)

What would Sir George Grove make of these changes to the dictionary? Clearly, the treatment of percussion in Grove Music Online reflects a radically different conceptual landscape than what he established in 1879. In a sense, the barbarians are no longer just at the gates, but have passed through and taken up residence inside, helped by de Pontigny in unlocking the gates, and Kidson, Strangways, Sadie, Blades, and others in pushing them open. George Grove died in 1900 and missed this evolution, although two anecdotes included in "Sir George Grove: A Centenary Study," published in Music & Letters in 1920, provide somewhat contradictory clues to his possible reaction. The first, an account of Grove using an opened umbrella to block the newly installed electric lighting during a performance at the Crystal Palace, shows him entrenched in nineteenth-century mores. The second presents him as more forward thinking, and perhaps open to embracing the changes found in the twentieth- and twenty-first-century editions of the dictionary. Charles L. Graves, the article's author as well as Grove's biographer, recounted finding this quotation in one of Grove's personal notebooks from 1881: "Let us beware of condemning irrevocably what our grandchildren are not unlikely one day to applaud." (23) ABSTRACT

Grove Music Online, originating from 1879-90 as A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, is the product of a nineteenth-century information revolution and self-help movement centered around the popularization of knowledge. The first edition was also rooted in prevailing attitudes regarding the polarization of "civilized" and "barbarous" cultures, resulting in founding editor Sir George Grove's restriction against music from non-European countries. The original dictionary's coverage of percussion, while not extensive, did include acknowledgement of numerous world influences, including the Middle East, and the minimization of European contributions. Tracing the scope and authorship of that coverage indicates the permeability of the barriers between European and world percussion, even at the height of the Age of Imperialism, and the internationality of the percussive arts.

Timothy Sestrick is music librarian and assistant professor at the Presser Music Library, West Chester University of Pennsylvania. He holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in percussion performance, and his research and creative interests include percussion historiography, music with spoken word, and electronic music production.

(1.) A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. by George Grove, 4 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1879-90); Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., ed. by J. A. Fuller Maitland, 5 vols. (1904-10), with American Supplement, vol. 6 (1920), ed. by Waldo Seidell Pratt and Charles N. Boyd; 3d ed., ed. by H. C. Colles, 5 vols. (1927-28); 4th ed., ed. by H. C. Colles, 5 vols. (1940); 5th ed., ed. by Eric Blom, 9 vols. (1954); The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 6di ed., ed. by Stanley Sadie, 20 vols. (1980); 7th ed., ed. by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell, 29 vols. (2001); Grove Music Online (Oxford University Press, 2001-), (accessed 18 May 2017).

(2.) Alan Ranch, Useful Knowledge: The Victorians. Morality, and the March of Intellect (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001), 24.

(3.) Robert Collison, Encyclopedias: Their History throughout the Ages, 2d ed. (New York: Hafner, 1966), 24.

(4.) David Masson, "Universal Information and 'the English Cyclopaedia,'" Macmillan's Magazine 5, no. 29 (March 1862): 366, (accessed 18 May 2017).

(5.) Preface to The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 18 December 1832, iii, PennyMagazineOfTheSorietyForTheDifiusionOR!sefulKnowledge1832#page/n11/mode/2up (accessed 18 May 2017).

(6.) Ranch, Useful Knowledge, 29-32.

(7.) Charles L. Graves, "Grove, George," in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., 2:248.

(8.) 144 Parl. Deb., H.C. (3d ser.) (1857) 1392-485, /1857/feb/26/resolutions-moved-debate-adjourned (accessed 18 May 2017). See also Andrew Phillips, "Saving Civilization from Empire: Belligerency, Pacifism and the Two Faces of Civilization During the Second Opium War," European Journal of International Relations 18, no. 1 (March 2012): 6.

(9.) Jeremy Montagu, Timpani and Percussion. Yale Musical Instrument Series (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002), 55.

(10.) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Complete Dictionary of Music, trans. William Waring, 2d ed. (New York: AMS Press, 1975), 58.

(11.) Victor de Pontigny, "Drum," in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1879), 1:463.

(12.) James Blades, Percussion Instruments and Their History, rev. ed. (Westport, CT: Bold Strummer, 1992), 223-35.

(13.) De Pontigny, "Drum," 465.

(14.) "Mr. Victor de Pontigny," The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 33, no. 589 (1 March 1892): 152.

(15.) Victor de Pontigny, "On Kettledrums," Proceedings of the Musical Association, 2d Sess. (1875-76): 48.

(16.) George Grove, "Janitscharen, i.e. Janissaries," in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1880), 2:31.

(17.) George Grove, "Turkish Music," in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1890), 4:141.

(18.) Frank Kidson, "Marimba," in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed. (1907), 3:57.

(19.) W. H. Rundall, "A Curious Musical Instrument," The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 42, no. 699 (1 May 1901): 310.

(20.) A. H. Fox Strangways, "Indian Music." in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 3d ed. (1927), 1:703-6.

(21.) Stanley Sadie, preface to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980), 1:vii-x.

(22.) James Blades, et al., "Drum." Grove Music Online.

(23.) Charles L. Graves, "Sir George Grove: A Centenary Study," Music & Letters 1, no. 4 (October 1920): 331.

Caption: Fig. 1. Sir George Grove, from Grave's Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2d edition (1906)

Caption: Fig. 2. Riq (top) and two darabukkas, woodcuts from Grove's A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1890)
Table 1. Percussion entries in A Dictionary of Music and Musicians
(1879-90). Direct entries only, i.e., entries centered on percussion.
Other entries with some percussion content included Haydn;
Instrument (Instruments of Percussion); Notation; Orchestra; Partial
Tones; Philidor; Rowland, Alexander Campbell; Smart, Sir George
Thomas, Knight; Sordini; Staccato; Tucket, Tuck; and Wind Band.

Entry                      Author

Bass Drum            Victor de Pontigny
Castanets            Victor de Pontigny
Cymbals              Victor de Pontigny
Gong                 Victor de Pontigny
Grosse Caisse and    Victor de Pontigny
Grosse Trommel
Kettle Drums         Victor de Pontigny
Pauken               Victor de Pontigny
Pipe and Tabor        William H. Stone
Side Drum            Victor de Pontigny
Strohfiedel             George Grove
Tam Tam                 George Grove
Tambourin            Victor de Pontigny
Timbales             Victor de Pontigny
Tower Drums, the     Victor de Pontigny
Turkish Music           George Grove
Carillon               H. H. Statham
Chinese pavilion,    Victor de Pontigny
Chinese crescent,
Chapeau chinois
Drum                 Victor de Pontigny
Gran Cassa or        Victor de Pontigny
Gran Tamburo
Janitscharen, i.e.      George Grove
Military Drum        Victor de Pontigny
Piatti               Victor de Pontigny
Senza Piatti         Victor de Pontigny
Signals                 George Grove
Tabor                Victor de Pontigny
Tambour de Basque    Victor de Pontigny
Tambourine           Victor de Pontigny
Timbales Tonnerre,   Victor de Pontigny
Grosse Casse En
Triangle             Victor de Pontigny
COPYRIGHT 2017 Music Library Association, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Sestrick, Timothy
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Previous Article:The mystery of the Schubert song: the linked data promise.
Next Article:Mahler reception in forty historic editions: significant holdings in the Newberry Library, Chicago.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters