Bank 'treated clients as objects for profit'.
The SEC says Goldman failed to disclose that one of its clients helped create - and then bet against - sub-prime mortgage bonds that the bank sold to investors including Royal Bank of Scotland.
Mr Tourre - who called himself 'Fabulous Fab' - said: "I deny categorically the SEC's allegations and I will defend myself in court against these false claims."
He told the US senate's subcommittee on investigations that Abacus - the complex mortgage-based product at the heart of the claims - was "not designed to fail" and that Goldman Sachs had "no economic motive" for it to collapse.
But the bank was hauled over the coals by committee chairman Carl Levin, who said it had treated customers as "objects for its own profit". Mr Levin said the bank had "taken advantage of its clients' reasonable expectation that it would not sell products which it did not want to succeed".
The Financial Services Authority has launched its own probe in the UK to the claims over Abacus.
Mr Levin said it was "deeply troubling" that Goldman was betting against the sub-prime mortgage market in 2007 while selling investments based on high-risk mortgages.
The committee's findings "show a Wall Street culture that, while it may once have focused on serving clients and promoting commerce, is now all too often simply self-serving", the chairman added.