Printer Friendly

Balance training exercises decrease lower-limb strength asymmetry in young tennis players.

Introduction

Functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs have been the subject of numerous recent investigations concerning many different contact, limited-contact and non-contact sports aimed at understanding the role of conditioning in performance and in injury prevention (Fousekis et al., 2010; Impellizzeri et al., 2007; Lawson et al., 2006; Newton et al., 2006; Sannicandro et al., 2011a; 2011b; Stephens et al., 2005). Functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs are determined by strength deficits between the two limbs (Fousekis et al., 2010) and differ from muscular imbalances, which represent an alteration in the strength relationship between agonist and antagonistic muscle pairs (Jones and Bampouras, 2010; Knapik et al., 1991; Schlumberger et al., 2006).

In children and adolescents that practice sport at either the recreational or competitive level, the presence of strength asymmetries between the two lower limbs is correlated with a high risk of injury (Hickey et al., 2009). In the presence of functional asymmetries in young athletes, compensation training programmes should be undertaken aimed at eliminating, or at least limiting, the asymmetries in order to avoid negatively affecting the health of young athletes on the long-term. For instance, Emery et al. (2006) showed that 50% of subjects who had suffered knee injuries 20-25 years earlier presented signs of knee osteoarthritis compared to just 5% of the sample population who had not suffered any prior knee injury.

Tennis is characterised by the execution of a series of high intensity and explosive actions, very brief sprints, changes of direction and abrupt deceleration (Fernandez-Fernandez et al., 2010; Fernandez et al., 2005; Girard and Millet, 2004); these specific movements put the tennis player under physical stress. In young and adult tennis players presenting lower-limb functional asymmetries in strength capacity resulting from the practice of sport-specific movements (Ellenbecker et al., 2009), personalised and specific training should be provided to minimise this risk factor for injury.

Over recent years, athletic conditioning programmes have started to introduce balance training exercises, which may involve the use of resistances, with the aim of reducing risk of injury (Anderson and Behm, 2005; Caraffa et al., 1996; Gioftsidou et al., 2008; Granacher et al., 2011; Malliou et al., 2004; 2010; Olsen et al., 2005; Wedderkopp et al., 2003; Yaggie and Campbell, 2006). The introduction, and now widespread use, of training techniques involving the use of unstable surfaces (i.e. balance training) represents an important methodological innovation in sports training and therapy (Behm, Anderson, 2006). Exercises performed on unstable surfaces may be included into a training programme as part of an injury prevention/management strategy or with the primary aim of improving athlete performances, especially in relation to team and open skill sports. An unstable surface places an increased demand on the neuromuscular system to stabilise the joints involved in the execution of a movement. All of the advantageous effects of the movements performed on unstable surfaces have beneficial outcomes in sport-specific performances; for instance, in tennis, the correct activation of core muscles achieved when per-forming balance training exercises is a prime example of the positive transfers that can be obtained in the execution of sport-specific movements, from weight lifting to hitting a tennis ball (Behm and Colado, 2012; Behm et al., 2010). However, the relationships between training on unstable surfaces, injury prevention and the reduction of strength asymmetries are not yet completely clear (Behm et al., 2010).

The aims of this study were (i) to examine the presence of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs of young tennis players in strength and speed drills; (ii) to verify whether balance training provides an effective programme able to reduce functional asymmetries.

Methods

Participants

The study was performed using a sample of young tennis players (n = 23); the players were randomly divided into an Experimental Group (EG) (n = 11: 4 females, 7 males; mean age, 13.2 [+ or -] 0.9 years; mean weight, 50.8 [+ or -] 8.9 Kg; mean height, 1.63 [+ or -] 0.08 m) and a Control Group (CG) (n = 12: 4 females, 8 males; mean age, 13.0 [+ or -] 0.9 years; mean weight, 51.1 [+ or -] 9.2 Kg; mean height, 1.61 [+ or -] 0.09 m).

This study conforms to the policy statement relating to the Declaration of Helsinki. Before data collection, all subjects and their parents provided their informed consent in accordance with the Institutional Ethics Committee for the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine of the University of Foggia, Italy.

Functional capacities

Specific tests were used to evaluate functional asymmetries between the lower-limbs in strength and speed drill performance:

one-leg hop test (OLH) (Augustsson et al., 2006; Gustavsson et al., 2006), for the evaluation of explosive strength and stability in the sagittal plane;

side hop test (SH) (Docherty et al., 2005; Gustavsson et al., 2006), for the evaluation of strength and stability in the frontal plane;

10 and 20m sprint tests, from a standing start position, for the evaluation of acceleration in a straight line; the two sprint tests were carried out separately and test two different elements of speed capacity, as previously employed in a similar study (Girard and Millet, 2009);

Foran test (Foran, 2001), for the evaluation of acceleration with a change of direction;

side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF) (Salonikidis and Zafeiridis, 2008), for the evaluation of lateral speed by means of lateral sprints.

The tests of acceleration and speed were performed with the assistance of photocells (TTsport, San Marino). All tests were performed in the tennis court where the athletes regularly played tennis. Each subject's leg preference was determined by asking the athlete to perform a one-legged jump, as previously defined in the literature (Brophy et al., 2010). In the tests of leg strength, the subject's dominant leg was assessed first, followed by the non-dominant leg. In order for the participants to familiarise themselves with the tests, two practice trials were performed with an interval rest time of 2 minutes. For both groups (EG and CG), testing was conducted before (T0) and after (T1) the completion of the 6-week training period.

The order of presentation of the tests was as follows:

On the first (T0) and penultimate day of training (T1): one-leg hop test, side hop test and Foran test.

On the second (T0) and last day of training (T1): 10-20m sprint test, side steps and forward 4.115-m test.

Training programme

The EG completed two 30-minute sessions per week dedicated to balance training. The two weekly training sessions proposed to the EG were differentially structured (see Tables 1 and 2 for details); balance training was performed after a 15 minute warm-up consisting of slow running, stretching and speed exercises and preceded the execution of sport-specific exercises.

The CG followed a programme that consisted of tennis-specific drills only; once again, two 30-minute sessions were performed per week for a total of 12 sessions (i.e. 6 weeks).

Statistical analysis

For both groups, the degree of asymmetry between the dominant (D) and non dominant (ND) leg in performances in the one-leg hop test (OLH) (Augustsson et al., 2006; Gustavsson et al., 2006), the side hop test (SH) (Docherty et al., 2005; Gustavsson et al., 2006) and side steps and forward 4.115-m test (4m-SSF) (Salonikidis and Zafeiridis, 2008) was calculated applying the formula: 1-(ND*100/D) (Yamamoto, 1993). Descriptive statistics (M [+ or -] SD) were calculated for percent asymmetry results, as well as for the results of all other tests; a confidence interval (95% CI) was also used to present the magnitude of the deviation from the mean. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to determine whether data sets were normally distributed. The null hypothesis for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test states that the data are normally distributed; thus data were considered as arising from normal distributions for p-values greater than 0.05. For intra-group comparisons (pre- vs. post-training test results for both EG and CG), paired T-tests were used. Two-way ANOVA was used to examine the data of both groups together (i.e. EG and CG) for the pre- and post-training time points (T0 vs. T1) in order to determine the main and interactive effects of training. Statistical significance was considered for p < 0.05. The statistical package SPSS 12.0 for windows (SPSS Institute, Chicago, IL) was used to analyse all data.

Results

For both groups, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test gave values of P>0.05, confirming the normal distribution of the data. The descriptive statistics (M [+ or -] SD) and confidence intervals (95%CI) of percent asymmetry in lowerlimb strength, as assessed using the OLH, SH, 4m-SSF, Foran and 10-20m sprint tests, are reported in Table 3.

Significant effects of training (T0 vs. T1) were only found in the EG; balance training significantly reduced percent lower-limb asymmetry measured using the OLH, SH and 4m-SSF tests. No intra-group differences were revealed for the EG in mean performance in the Foran test, or in the 10 and 20m sprint tests. No statistically significant differences were identified in the CG in percent asymmetry measured using the OLH, SH, 4m SSF, Foran or 10-20m sprint test.

ANOVA with repeated measures revealed: i) a significant (p < 0.01) interaction and main effect of training upon percent asymmetry measured using the SH and 4mSSF tests (F1,21 = 15.253, p < 0.01, partial [[eta].sup.2] 0.42 and F1,21 = 12.394 p < 0.01, partial [[eta].sup.2] 0.37, respectively) and ii) a significant (p < 0.05) difference in percent asymmetry measured using the OLH test (F1.21 = 6.698, p < 0.05, [[eta].sup.2] 0.24).

Discussion

The aim of the study was to investigate the levels of functional strength asymmetry in the lower-limbs of young tennis players. The values of strength asymmetry assessed using the OLH and SH were significantly diminished in the EG and lead us to propose the hypothesis that the balance training exercises employed were efficacious in improving the athletes' control of ground reaction force (Russell et al., 2007) and their level of control and capacity to stabilise the lower-limb in the frontal plane. Indeed, balance training intensifies proprioception by stimulating the proprioceptors to provide feedback for the maintenance of balance and the detection of body position (Cug et al., 2012).

The pre- and post-training results of the SH test demonstrate that the changes in the values of asymmetry in this study are coherent with those arising in analogous studies of other open-skill sports and sports that involve asymmetry in the upper-limbs (Sannicandro et al., 2010). The significant reduction in lower-limb asymmetry observed in the EG subjects was attained through the use of balance training exercises that required a high level of joint control on both the sagittal and frontal planes, and tasks that used either body weight alone or small hand weights. Indeed, unstable surfaces are able to enhance intermuscular coordination between agonist and antagonist muscles, permitting improved control of joint position and reduced joint stiffness (Behm and Colado, 2012). Furthermore, the balance training exercises force the subjects to distribute load (body weight) uniformly between the two limbs: only in this way can subjects correctly perform the tasks. If body weight is not distributed evenly between the two limbs whilst performing dynamic exercises on unstable surfaces, the exercise would be brought to an end by the subject falling off the assigned surface.

The results of ANOVA for repeated measures show that the training protocol followed by the EG led to significant reductions in the observed values of functional asymmetry, bringing them within the range of normality (Noyes et al., 1991). The degree of functional asymmetry observed in the lower-limbs of the sample of individuals studied lies at the limit of the cut-off level, beyond which it would constitute an element of injury risk (Noyes et al., 1991; Petsching et al., 1998).

The adaptations induced by balance training also enhance the dynamic expression of balance due to the use of joint stability exercises on different planes and with reduced flight phase; this component is able to reduce the stabilisation time of the lower-limb following a flight phase, as recently demonstrated in the literature (Ebben et al., 2010).

The reduction in the stabilisation time constitutes an additional advantage deriving from the use of unstable surfaces and represents an indicator of improved control. Indeed, the time employed by the subject to become stable following a flight phase is considered to be a valid indicator of control (Ebben et al., 2010) and represents an aspect that is significantly stimulated by the performance of various functional strength exercises (Ebben et al., 2010).

Functional improvements and decreased injury rates as a result of balance exercises are often discussed in association with adaptations in neuromuscular control mechanisms, such as proprioception or spinal reflex activity (Hewett et al., 2002). The reduction in asymmetry obtained by the EG in this study is consistent with the results obtained in another similar study using balance training in professional football players (Sannicandro, 2008): just 16 training sessions were able to reduce the values of functional asymmetry to values that were lower than the cut-off values indicated in the literature (Sannicandro, 2008). Although the relationship between balance ability and sports injury risk has been clearly established (Hrysomallis, 2011), few studies have examined the relationship between balance training and athletic performance in specific sporting disciplines; the few studies present in the literature are limited to rhythmic gymnastics (Calavalle et al., 2008) and refer to young female athletes only (Boldon et al., 2012).

The results for the tests of acceleration in a straight line (10 and 20 metres) and with a change in direction (Foran test) reflect the fact that balance training only has very modest effects upon levels of maximal and explosive strength, as previously indicated in the literature (Behm and Colado, 2012). Scientific evidence shows that when movements are performed on highly unstable surfaces, no advantageous transfer is observed in maximal strength or explosive strength--factors that influence performance in sprinting from a standing position (Behm et al., 2010).

The values obtained by the EG in the 4.115-m side steps and forward test (4m-SSF), however, highlight a significant reduction in post-training (T1) functional asymmetry compared to pre-training results (T0). This trend was not observed in the CG; in fact, a higher mean level of limb asymmetry was observed in the post-training 4m-SSF test compared to pre-training levels (Table 4), although the difference did not quite achieve statistical significance (p = 0.06). This result is coherent with the results emerging from the assessment of strength asymmetry, considering the nature (typology) of the 4m-SSF test, in which the subject is required to sprint laterally, pushing predominantly with just one of the two limbs the external leg. Indeed, asymmetry in the explosive strength capacities of the lower-limbs exerted in the frontal plane may condition lateral sprinting performance, which in practice consists of a succession of leaps along the frontal plane

Conclusion

The planning of athletic conditioning in young tennis players requires that strength in the lower-limbs is evaluated such that appropriate injury prevention strategies may be inserted into training programmes, as already confirmed in the literature (Malliou et al., 2010). The presence of possible strength asymmetries between the lower-limbs in tennis players constitutes, apart from a potential long-term risk factor, an effective limit upon sport-specific speed performance. The analysis of functional asymmetries in young tennis players requires further investigation, especially in light of a theoretical model recently described in the literature (Fousekis et al., 2010) and considering the maturation of balance capacities in young athletes (Granacher et al., 2011).

Key points

* The determination of functional asymmetries in the lower-limbs has been the subject of numerous recent investigations aimed at the prevention of injuries in many different contact, limited-contact and noncontact sports.

* Sport-specific movements in tennis impose different loads upon the two lower-limbs and can cause the development of lower-limb strength asymmetries in young tennis players.

* The planning of athletic conditioning in young tennis players requires that strength in the lower-limbs is evaluated such that appropriate injury prevention strategies may be inserted into training programmes.

* Balance training exercises, and indeed all tasks performed on unstable surfaces, lead to benefits in sport-specific performance.

Received: 23 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published (online): 01 May 2014

References

Anderson, K. and Behm, D.G. (2005) Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 30, 33-45.

Augustsson, J., Thomee, R., Linden, C., Folkesson, M., Tranberg, R. and Karlsson, J. (2006) Single- leg Hop Testing Following Fatiguing Exercise: Reliability and Biomechanical Analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 16, 111-120.

Behm, D.G. and Anderson, K. (2006) The role of instability with resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 20, 716-722.

Behm, D.G., Drinkwater, E.J., Willardson, J.M. and Cowley, P.M. (2010) Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 35, 109-112.

Behm, D.G. and Colado, J.C. (2012) The effectiveness of resistance training using unstable surfaces and devices for rehabilitation. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 7, 226-241.

Baldon, R.M., Lobato, D.F., Carvalho, L.P., Wun, P.Y., Santiago, P.R. and Serrao, F.V. (2012) Effect of functional stabilization training on lower limb biomechanics in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 44, 135-45.

Brophy, R.H., Backus, S., Kraszewski, A.P., Steele, B.C., Ma, Y., Osei, D. and Williams, R.J. (2010) Differences Between Sexes in Lower Extremity Alignment and Muscle Activation During Soccer Kick. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 92, 2050-2058.

Calavalle, A., Sisti, D., Rocchi, M., Panebianco, R., Del Sal, M. and Stocchi, V. (2008) Postural trials: expertise in rhythmic gymnastics increases control in lateral directions. European Journal of Applied Physiology 104, 643-649.

Caraffa, A., Cerulli G., Projetti, M., Aisa, G. and Rizzo, A. (1996) Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. A prospective controlled study proprioceptive training. Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 4, 19-21.

Croisier, J.L., Ganteaume, S., Binet, J., Genty, M. and Ferret J.M. (2008) Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer player: a prospective study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 36, 1469-1475.

Cug, M., Ak, E., Ozdemir, R.A., Korkusuz, F. and Behm, D.G. (2012) The effect of instability training on knee joint proprioception and core strength. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11, 468-474.

Docherty, C.L., Arnold, B.L., Gansneder, B.M., Hurwitz, S. and Gieck, J. (2005) Functional performance deficits in volunteers with functional ankle instability. Journal of Athletic Training 40, 30-34.

Ebben, W.P., Vanderzanden, T., Wurm, B.J. and Petushek, E.J. (2010) Evaluating plyometric exercises using time to stabilization. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24, 300-306.

Ellenbecker, T.S., Pluim, B., Vivier, S. and Sniteman, C. (2009) Common injuries in tennis players: exercises to address muscular imbalances and reduce injury risk. Strength & Conditioning Journal 31, 50-58.

Emery, C.A., Meeuwise, W.H. and McAllister, J.R. (2006) A survey of sport participation, sport injury and sport safety practices in adolescents. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 16, 20-26.

Fernandez, J., Fernandez-Garcia, B., Mendez-Villanueva, A. and Terrados, N. (2005) Exercise intensity in tennis: Simulated match play versus training drills. Journal of Medicine and Science in Tennis 10, 6-7.

Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Kinner, V. and Ferrauti, A. (2010) The physiological demands of hitting and running in tennis on different surfaces. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24,

Foran, B. (2001) High Performance Sports Conditioning.Human Kinetics, Leeds

Fousekis, K., Tsepis, E. and Vagenas, G. (2010) Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 9, 364-373.

Gioftsidou, A., Ispirlidis, I., Pafis, G., Malliou, P., Bikos, C. and Godolias, G. (2008) Isokinetic strength training program for muscular imbalances in professional soccer players. Sport Science for Health 2, 101-105.

Girard, O. and Millet, G.P. (2004) Effects of the ground surface on the physiological and technical responses in young tennis players. In: Science and Racket Sports. Eds: Reilly, T., Hughes, M. and Lees, A. London: E & F. N. Spon. 43-48.

Girard, O. and Millet, G.P. (2009) Physical determinants of tennis. performance in competitive teenage players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23, 1867-1872.

Granacher, U., Muehlbauer, T., Maestrini, L., Zahner, L. and Gollhofer, A. (2011) Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children? Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 25, 1759-1766.

Gustavsson, A., Neeter, C., Thomee, P., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Augustsson J., Thomee, R. and Karlsson J. (2006) A test battery for evaluating hop performance in patients with an ACL injury and patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy 14, 778-788.

Hrysomallis, C. (2011) Balance ability and athletic performance. Sports Medicine 41, 221-232.

Hewett, T.E., Paterno, M.V. and Myer G.D. (2002) Strategies for enhancing proprioception and neuromuscular control of the knee. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 402, 76-94.

Hickey, K.C, Quatman, C.E, Myer, G.D, Ford, K.R, Brosky, J.A and Hewett, T.E. (2009) Methodological report: dynamic field tests used in an NFL combine setting to identify lower-extremity functional asymmetries. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23, 2500-2506.

Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., Maffiuletti, N. and Marcora, S.M. (2007) A vertical jump force test for assessing bilateral strength asymmetry in athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 39, 2044-2050.

Jones, P.A. and Bampouras, T.M. (2010) A comparison of isokinetic and functional methods of assessing bilateral strength imbalance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24, 1553-1558.

Knapik, J.J., Bauman, C.L., Jones, B.H., Harris, J.M. and Vaughan, L. (1991) Preseason strength and flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries in female collegiate athletes. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 76-81.

Lawson, B.R., Stephens, T.M., Devoe, D.E. and Reiser, RF. (2006) Lower-extremity bilateral differences during step-close and nostep countermovement jumps with concern for gender. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 20, 608-619.

Malliou, P., Gioftsidou, A., Pafis, G., Beneka, A. and Godolias, G. (2004) Proprioceptive training (balance exercises) reduces lower extremity injuries in young soccer players. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 17, 101-104.

Malliou, V.J., Beneka, A.G., Gioftsidou, A.F., Malliou, P.K., Kallistratos, E., Pafis, G.K., Katsikas C.A. and Douvis, S. (2010) Young tennis players and balance performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 24, 389-393.

Newton, R.U., Gerber, A., Nimphius, S., Shim, J.K., Doan, B.K., Robertson, M., Pearson, D.R., Craig, B.W., Hakkinen, K. and Kraemer, W.J. (2006) Determination of functional strength imbalances of the lower extremities. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 20, 971-977.

Noyes, F.R., Barber, S.D. and Mangine, R.E. (1991) Abnormal lower limb symmetry determined by function hop tests after anterior cruciate ligament rupture. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 19, 513-518.

Olsen, O.E., Myklebust, G., Engebretsen, L., Holme, I. and Bahr, R. (2005) Exercises to prevent lower limb injuries in youth sports: cluster randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal 330, 449-451.

Petschnig, R., Baron, R. and Albrecht M. (1998) The relationship between isokinetic quadriceps strength test and hop tests for distance and one legged vertical jump test following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 28, 23-31.

Russell, P.J., Croce, R.V., Swartz, E.E. and Decoster, L.C. (2007) Kneemuscle activation during landings: developmental and gender comparisons. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 39, 159-170.

Salonikidis, K. and Zafeiridis, A. (2008) The effects of plyometric, tennis-drills and combined training on reaction, lateral and linear speed, power and strength in novice tennis players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 22, 182-191.

Sannicandro, I. (2008) Effects of proprioceptive training in the landing in professional football players. 2nd World Congress on Sports Injury Prevention, June 26-28, Tromso-Norway. British Journal of Sports Medicine 42, 541.

Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Cataleta, R., Maffione, E. and De Pascalis S. (2010) The fencing lunge: analysis of load distribution to the lower limbs and gender-related differences in young fencers in relation to injury prevention. Medicina dello Sport 63, 353-364.

Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Rosa, A.R. and De Pascalis, S. (2011a) Functional asymmetry in the lower limb professional soccer players. IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, April 7-9, Monte Carlo-Monaco. British Journal of Sports Medicine 45, 370.

Sannicandro, I., Piccinno, A., Rosa, A.R. and De Pascalis, S. (2011b) Correlation between functional asymmetry of professional soccer players and sprint. IOC World Conference on Prevention of Injury & Illness in Sport, April 7-9, Monte Carlo-Monaco, British Journal of Sports Medicine 45, 370-371.

Schlumberger, A., Laube, W., Bruhn, S., Herbeck, B., Dahlinger, M., Fenkart, G., Schmidtbleicher, D. and Mayer, F. (2006) Muscle imbalances--fact or fiction? Isokinetics and Exercise Science 14, 3-11.

Stephens, T.M., Lawson, B.R. and Reiser, R.F. (2005) Bilateral asymmetries in max effort single-leg vertical jumps. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 41, 317-322.

Wedderkoop, N., Kaltoft, M., Holm, R. and Froberg, K. (2003) Comparison of two intervention programmes in young female play ers in European handball--with and without ankle disc, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 13, 371-375.

Yaggie, J.A. and Campbell, B.M. (2006) Effects of balance training on selected skills. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 20, 422-428.

Yamamoto, T. (1993) Relationship between hamstring strains and leg muscle strength. A follow-up study of collegiate track and field athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 33, 194-199.

Italo Sannicandro ([mail]), Giacomo Cofano, Rosa A. Rosa and Andrea Piccinno

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, Italy

([mail]) Italo Sannicandro Corso di Laurea in Scienze Motorie, Viale Virgilio-71100 Foggia, Italy

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY

Italo SANNICANDRO

Employment

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine,

University of Foggia, Italy.

Degree

MSc, MD

Research interests

Performance and conditioning, techniques

in exercise testing, injury prevention,

physical activity for adults and

elderly people.

E-mail: italo.sannicandro@unifg.it

Giacomo COFANO

Employment

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Foggia, Italy.

Degree

MSc, MD

Research interests

Performance and conditioning, techniques in exercise testing, injury prevention.

E-mail: giachy 86@hotmail.it

Anna R. ROSA

Employment

Department of Clinical and Experimental

Medicine, University of

Foggia, Italy.

Degree

MSC, MD

Research interests

Adapted physical activity for persons

with chronic diseases and disabilities,

injury prevention, physical activity for

adults and elderly people.

E-mail: birosa@alice.it

Andrea PICCINNO

Employment

Department of Clinical and Experimental

Medicine, University of

Foggia, Italy.

Degree

MSC, MD

Research interests

Performance and conditioning, techniques

in exercise testing, injury prevention,

physical activity for adults and

elderly people.

E-mail: a.piccinno@unifg.it
Table 1. Balance training session 1.

Exercise                                      Task

1. Balance and stability   High skipping with single leg halt every
                           5 skips.

2. Balance and strength    4 diagonal single-legged bounds,
                           maintaining equilibrium before the last
                           bound for 3 sec.

3. Balance and strength    6 forward bounds, maintaining equilibrium
                           before the last bound for 3 sec.

4. Balance and strength    10 low rows using an elastic exercise
                           band bound to a support performed against
                           a bipodalic inflatable disk.

5. Balance and strength    2 Kg medicine ball chest passes whilst
                           balancing on a bipodalic inflatable disk.

6. Balance and strength    2 Kg medicine ball chest passes with
                           torsion whilst standing on one leg.

Exercise                     Sets x repetitions     Recovery time

1. Balance and stability       6 x 5 per limb          20 sec

2. Balance and strength            4 x 6               30 sec

3. Balance and strength        3 x 4 per limb          45 sec

4. Balance and strength            4 x 10              45 sec

5. Balance and strength            4 x 10               2 min

6. Balance and strength    4 x 6 (twice per limb)       2 min

Table 2. Balance training session 2.

Exercise                                      Task

l. Balance and stability   Lateral raises (2 Kg dumb-bells) whilst
                           standing on one leg on a Bosu balance
                           trainer

2. Balance and strength    Balancing on an inflatable Skimmy cushion
                           (Sixtus, Italy) for 30 sec.

3. Balance and strength    4 two-legged successive jumps on the
                           ground from an inflatable disk,
                           maintaining landing position for at least
                           3 sec.

4. Balance and strength    Step-ups on a Bosu balance trainer.

5. Balance and strength    Two-legged squats on unstable surface
                           (Temix, Erregroup, Italy).

6. Balance and strength    Step-ups on a Bosu balance trainer whilst
                           grasping 4 Kg dumb-bells.

Exercise                   Sets x repetitions   Recovery time

l. Balance and stability         3 x 10            2 min.

2. Balance and strength      2 x 4 per limb        30 sec.

3. Balance and strength          4 x 4             30 sec.

4. Balance and strength          4 x 10            30 sec.

5. Balance and strength          3 x 10            1 min.

6. Balance and strength          4 x 8             45 sec.

Table 3. Mean scores (M [+ or -] SD) and confidence interval
(CI) by group and time of assessment.

                                 Time of Assessment

                                          T0

                                          EG

Variables                (M [+ or -] SD)    95% CI

% asymmetry OLH (cm)        9.0 (3.6)      6.5-11.4
% asymmetry SH (cm)        10.8 (5.9)      6.8-14.8
% asymmetry 4m-SSF (s)      7.2 (5.0)      3.8-10.6
Foran test (s)              5.8 (.3)       5.6-6.1
10m sprint (s)              2.5 (.1)       2.4-2.6
20m sprint (s)              4.0 (.5)       3.6-4.3

                                 Time of Assessment

                                          T0

                                          CG

Variables                (M [+ or -] SD)    95% CI

% asymmetry OLH (cm)        9.0 (3.7)      6.6-11.3
% asymmetry SH (cm)        13.2 (10.1      6.7-19.6
% asymmetry 4m-SSF (s)     10.1 (3.0)       8.2-12
Foran test (s)              6.2 (.5)       5.9-6.6
10m sprint (s)              2.6 (.2)       2.5-2.8
20m sprint (s)              4.4 (.5)        4-4.8

                                 Time of Assessment

                                          T1

                                         EG

Variables                (M [+ or -] SD)   95% CI

% asymmetry OLH (cm)      3.7 (1.5) ***    2.6-4.6
% asymmetry SH (cm)       3.2 (1.4) ***    2.3-4.1
% asymmetry 4m-SSF (s)     2.7 (2.3) *     1.1-4.3
Foran test (s)              5.7 (.1)       5.6-5.8
10m sprint (s)              2.5 (.1)       2.4-2.6
20m sprint (s)              4.0 (.3)       3.8-4.3

                                 Time of Assessment

                                          T1

                                          CG

Variables                (M [+ or -] SD)    95% CI

% asymmetry OLH (cm)        9.3 (5.2)      6.0-12.6
% asymmetry SH (cm)        13.0 (8.1)      7.8-18.1
% asymmetry 4m-SSF (s)     12.9 (5.3)      9.5-16.3
Foran test (s)              6.2 (.5)       5.8-6.6
10m sprint (s)              2.6 (.2)       2.5-2.8
20m sprint (s)              4.4 (.5)       4.0-4.7

EG= Experimental Group; CG= Comparison Group; T0= pre-training
test; T1= post-training test; OLH= one-leg hop; SH=
side hop; 4m-SSF= 4.115-m side steps and forward. * p <
0.05; *** p < 0.001 compared with EG T0.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Research article
Author:Sannicandro, Italo; Cofano, Giacomo; Rosa, Rosa A.; Piccinno, Andrea
Publication:Journal of Sports Science and Medicine
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2014
Words:5067
Previous Article:Moderate recovery unnecessary to sustain high stroke volume during interval training. a brief report.
Next Article:Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on balance, agility, reaction time and movement time.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters