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BISQUE.

haute cuisine or soup du jour?

From the dawn of stone age implements to the height of culinary technique, man has enjoyed his soup. During the early days of hunters and gatherers the skill of making pottery was learned and passed on through nomadic tribes. The formation of such pot vessels increased the dining repertoire of Mesopotamia man-boiling now an option--hot pots of soupy contents were possible. Archaeological researchers in Switzerland unearthed early forms of pottery, the contents of which, revealed a recipe for a type of berry, wheat, nut, and fish porridge (Acton). In Asia, soupy elixirs were brewed to heal any collection of ailments. Cooking vessels vastly improved during the Bronze Age as the craft of making the vessels took on more artistic qualities. The porridges and soups of ancient Rome are some of the earliest recorded recipes. Pultes tractogalatae or milk soup, a combination of dried dough, milk, and honey, was a staple. Varieties of kale, barley, and vegetable soups enriched with mulsum, a honey-wine, were also among the culinary delights in Pompeii. By the Middle Ages, "porridges" were the rage in Europe. Combinations of oats and milk gradually gave way to fragrant herb and spice gruels of nuts, meat, and seafood. One such dish, le stockfish originated in the late 1400s with the arrival of seafaring traders from Norway who brought with them salted, dried cod. The stew of soaked cod, egg, butter, cream, and a generous amount of oil became popular in the coastal provinces of southern France (Pitt-Rivers 11). Until the 1600s these soup-like meals eaten from bread vessels were common fare. Though chicken was the meat of choice, mainstay potages were studded with beef, pork, swan, stork, peacock, crane, and even whale (Kiple and Ornelas 1211). Originally, bisque was used to describe any highly spiced dish of boiled meat or game (Montagne 99). The 1690 publication of Antoine Furetiere's Dictionaire universal documents this definition:

An exquisite soup made with the several pigeons, chickens, offals, lamb jus, and other good ingredients, it is no wonder it was served on the table of grand Sirs. The word bisque comes from the word "bis cocta" or greyish-casserole, because it is made with many offal tidbits, it is necessary to cook the offals separately before they are combined and cooked together. A fish bisque is made from a forcemeat of carp, carp eggs, carp milk, and shrimp.

The arrival of haute cuisine in the late 800s advanced culinary options creating a well constructed gap between the etiquette and habits of the classes. It was the intention that the food one ate should define his or her social status. As such, soups or sops, as they were also known, became a dish with its own distinction, so did bisque. The term became synonymous with a crustacean fume, and later as any smooth, puree soup finished with cream and butter. Food became cuisine, and cuisine an identity; codification soon followed. Antoin Carema, being the first to construct this sort of reference for his generation, described many of own creations in The Art of French Cooking in the Nineteenth Century. By 1914, the publication Le Repertoire de La Cuisine by Louis Saulnier further categorized foods. Soups were divided into clear soups, special consommes for supper, cream or veloute soups, and foreign soups. Though the peers of his profession had started the process, it was Escoffier who took a pragmatic approach to classifying recipes and techniques. For soups he simply named two: clear soups and thick soups. Clear soups included consommes. Thick soups encompassed creams, veloutes, purees, and thickened bouillons. In Escoffier's view, bisques fell into the "puree" family, a category in which a puree of the main ingredient formed the base, and rice, bread, or starchy vegetables the body. But, for true bisque lovers, not just any puree will do. Like the chowders of New England, or gumbos of Louisiana, shellfish is key. Because much of the flavor in shellfish is in the shell, they are often seared in oil to extract and develop the most flavor possible. Once seared, the shells remain in the pan to simmer gently with stock, aromatics, brandy, and rice; all the while, the broth absorbs these same complex notes of the crustacean. Unlike its low county counterparts, bisques tend to be more refined because of their silky smooth texture, void of chunks, lumps, or bits. The "haute-cuisine" profile is due to the liberal addition of cream, eggs, and butter; items which at one time were not afforded to the masses. But, much has changed to the status of soups in contemporary times, and a whole new family of bisque preparation are shedding their attitude and taking on a more rustic and creative vibe. Today bisques have evolved into any thick, puree of soup, among the many liberal interpretations, tomato bisque, and squash bisque, and even banana bisque.

He is a purist in the true sense of the word. Leery of the fabricated, fussed-over dishes favored by many of his contemporaries. Primary focus for Executive Chef Bruce Sherman is seasonal, though he is a staunch supporter of local farmers, there are some ingredients, like artichokes and mushrooms, which when in season, he xviii ship in. He uses ingredients like celeriac, sheeps' milk camembert, pineapple and quince jam, winter radish; ingredients he considers harder to make interesting. "When using a luxury ingredient, or as the French say 'noble ingredient' such as truffles, John Dory, or foie gras, more than half the battle is done by bringing in these ingredients. It's a lot more difficult to bring in your common ingredients and do something with it to make it noble," Sherman believes. "The thing that differentiates the French three star restaurants from a hole in the wall is that a three star restaurant will bring in pigs' feet and offals and will do something really exceptional and make it an amazing pa latable dish with flavor. That is the difficulty and the complexity of preparing food."

Located in the quiet city suburb of Chicago, The North Pond Cafe is exactly that, a humble beginning with the aid of an exceptional hand. The former boathouse turned into a cabin-like retreat sits at the water's edge in Lincoln Park. Sherman has been at the location for two years, most of it spent refocusing the identity of the restaurant. "Although it took a lot of work, a lot of hours, a lot of anguish, it is really fulfilling that people are starting to appreciate my food," reflects Sherman. It is an identity that Sherman himself had to discover. After graduating with a BA from the University of Pennsylvania with Honors, Sherman felt pigeonholed. As a means of stretching his creative urges, he started a catering business for the lunch crowd in Washington D.C. which quickly grew into a high-end, full service catering company.

Several years later, Sherman and his wife couldn't pass up a working opportunity in India. During his days off, he traveled south to a Rajasthani village in a culinary exchange of ideas about Western and Indian foods. Relying purely on his sense of pantomime and skill at charades, Sherman learned the value of the food speaking for itself. After three years Sherman and his wife returned to the U.S., stopping first in France. Sherman enrolled in L'Ecole Superieure de Cuisine Fran9aise in order to truly learn the profession he had grown to love. After his school and several stints in Michelin starred restaurants, the couple returned to Chicago where Sherman worked in the kitchens of John Hogan and Sarah Stegner.

Though it is easy to see how India could have tinged the hand of Sherman, it is not so evident in his cuisine. "It hasn't affected my cooking as much as it's affected my thought process," he observes. Though his regard for ingredients was learned abroad, he takes a purist's approach, one in which integrity is key. "It doesn't have to be over-whelming to the senses to be impressive; simplicity and elegance.

What goes through the mind of an eight year old apprentice, as he begins his next fifty pound bag of potatoes? This is a question for Chef Jean Joho, who began, knife in hand, as a little boy in the family's restaurant in Barr, France. At 13 years of age Joho was sent to L'Auberge de L'Ill to apprentice under the highly acclaimed Paul Hawberlin. At the early age of 23, Joho was sous chef of a three star Michelin restaurant in France. He polished his practical knowledge by learning the academics of the business at The Hotel Restaurant School of Strasbourg.

He traveled to the United States in the early 1980s and opened Maxims in Chicago, where he remained for two years, before teaming up with Richard Melman and co-founded Lettuce Entertain You Enterprises, Inc. One of their first projects was Everest in 1986. The posh downtown dining room received immediate success and accolades. Today, the ambiance still reeks pizzazz; leopard print carpet, black lacquered detail around the room, gold brass rails, and waiters in black tie. A wall of windows overlooks the windy city's skyscrapers; white curtains tent the room creating a dramatic effect, though the food is the main attraction. In Joho's kitchen, no ingredient is too rich or too simple. "I like to blend noble ingredients like caviar and foie gras with simple ingredients like potatoes and turnips," he confides. "The union of simple and noble makes for unique flavor combinations."

Since Everest, Joho has continued to expand his empire with the addition of Brasserie Jo, modeled after the brasseries of the late 1800s when brewers were forced into the city limits of Paris during the Franco-Prussian war. The brasseries, which popped up are comfortable places for locals to enjoy a good glass of brew lengthy conversations, and hearty fare, reminiscent of Brasserie Jo. The menu features all three pleasures including its own brew, Hop LA. The Alsatian style beer, featuring hops, which come from Alsace, suits the cuisines of the brasserie as do the custom picked selection of French beers and wines. The menu resembles very little of the nouveau French dishes at Everest, but instead focuses on a well stocked raw bar, steamed mussels, onion tarts, and steak frites. Though he prefers no one restaurant to the other and can he found at all three, most of his time is devoted to his baby, Everest. The restaurant exemplifies the chef's posh sense of style and extraordinary taste.

Chilled Maine Shrimp Gelee and Viognier Bisque

Bruce Sherman

ingredients

For the shrimp:

4 pounds jumbo Mainc shrimp, heads on

2 cups whole milk

For the basil oil:

1 cup basil leaves

1 cup extra virgin olive oil

For the lobster oil:

8 ounces vegetable oil

1 pound lobster shells and hulls, chopped fine

1 cup water

For the Viognier bisque:

1 1/2 cups Viognier wine

1 quart water

1/4 cup white wine vinegar

3 carrots, chopped fine

4 ounces spring onions, white part only, chopped fine

1 small bulb fennel, cored and chopped fine

2 stalks celery, chopped fine

4 pods green cardamom

1 tablespoon coriander seeds

Salt and pepper to taste

1 bouquet garni (white peppercorns, parsley stems, tarragon stems, chervil stems, basil stems, chives, dill)

5 egg yolks, beaten

1 cup heavy cream, beaten to soft peaks

For the gelee:

2 cups reserved bisque

3 egg whites, beaten

1 carrot, peeled and diced plus 2 tablespoons small diced carrots, blanched

1 onion, peeled and diced

1 stalk celery, diced

2 tablespoons small diced fennel, blanched

2 tablespoons small diced red bell pepper, blanched

1/4 bunch chives, minced

1/4 bunch parsley, stemmed and minced

Reserved shrimp

1 gelatin leaf; softener in 1 cup cold water

directions

For the dish:

Reserved whole shrimp

Croutons

For the shrimp, in a medium, shallow bowl, cover the shrimp with milk and set aside in the refrigerator overnight. Strain through a fine mesh sieve, discarding the milk. Rinse anti set aside.

For the basil oil, bring a saucepan of salted water to a boil. Add the basil leaves and boil for one minute. Remove from the heat, strain, shock, and dry. Place the basil leaves on a cutting board and finely chop. Transfer to a blender and gradually add the oil, blending on low speed or one minute. Adjust to medium speed and blend for five minutes. Transfer to a medium bowl and set aside in a cool place overnight. Strain through a cheesecloth-lined, fine mesh sieve and set aside.

For the lobster oil, in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, mix together the lobster shells and oil on low speed until the oil turns bright orange, about 20 minutes. Remove the bowl, transfer the mix to a medium, deep saute pan over medium heat, and sear until the shells turn bright red, about five minutes. Add the water, bring to a simmer, and maintain the heat for 30 minutes. Remove from the heat, strain through a fine mesh sieve, and set aside to cool. Place in the refrigerator until the oil and water have separated and the oil is firm, about two hours. Remove the oil from the top and discard the water. In a medium saucepan, melt the oil over low heat. Remove from the heat, strain through a fine mesh sieve, and set aside.

For the bisque:

Bruce Sherman

For the Viognier bisque, in a large saucepan over medium heat, bring the Viognier, water, vinegar, carrots, spring onions, fennel, and celery to a boil. Reduce the heat and simmer until the vegetables are tender, about 10 minutes. Add the cardamom and coriander seeds and simmer for 10 minutes. Remove from the heat, add the bouquet garni, and set aside for 30 minutes. Strain through a fine mesh sieve, discard the solids, and set aside. Bring a small saucepan filled halfway with water to a simmer. Place 1 3/4 cups oft e liquid in a medium bowl, add the egg yolks, and whisk to combine. Reserve the remaining bisque separately. Peace the bowl over the hot water bath and whisk until thick, about seven minutes. Remove from the heat and strain through a fine mesh sieve. Season and set aside in an ice bath to chill.

To finish the shrimp, in a medium saucepan, bring three cups of the warm reserved bisque to a simmer. Add the shrimp and simmer until cooked, about seven minutes. Remove from the heat and strain, discarding the liquid. Reserve whole shrimp separately. Peel the remaining shrimp and transfer to a cutting board. Dice fine and set aside.

For the gelee, place the remaining warm bisque liquid in a medium saucepan over medium heat and bring to a simmer. In a medium bowl, whisk together the egg whites, small diced carrots, onion, and celery. Add the egg white mix to the stock and stir gently until a raft forms on the surface. Simmer for 45 minutes. Remove from the heat and, using a ladle, strain through a coffee filter-lined fine mesh sieve, discard the solids, and set aside keeping warm. In a medium bowl, combine the remaining carrot, fennel, red bell peppers, chives, parsley, and diced shrimp and season. Fill six martini glasses half way with the vegetable mix and set aside. In a medium saucepan over medium heat, whisk together the clear bisque and gelatin until melted and well combined, about two minutes. Remove from the heat and place in an ice bath, stirring occasionally until the gelatin just begins to set. Pour the gelatin mixture into the martini glasses and set aside in the refrigerator until firm, about one hour.

To finish the bisque, in a medium bowl, using a rubber spatula, gently fold the whipped cream into the bisque until smooth. Season and set aside.

To serve, spoon some bisque into the prepared martini glasses. Drizzle some lobster oil and basil oil on top, place a whole shrimp on the rim of the glass, and garnish with croutons.

1 tablespoon vegetable oil

Langoustine Bisque with Lemon Cream

ingredients

1 carrot, peeled and chopped

1 pound whole langoustines, peeled, shells and meat reserved separately

1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons cognac

1 union, peeled and chopped

1 shallot, peeled and minced

1 small bulb fennel, trimmed and chopped

2 tablespoons tomato paste

2 plum tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and diced

3 ounces white wine

1/2 cup granulated sugar

1 1/4 quarts fish stock

2 cloves garlic, peeled, cored, and crushed

1 bouquet garni celery tops, parsey stem, lock green, thyme sprig, bay leaf, tarragon, chervil)

3 ounces arborio rice

3/4 cup heavy cream

1 ounce unsalted butter

Salt, pepper and cayenne pepper to taste

For the simple syrup:

1/2 cup water

For the lemon zest:

Zest of 1 lemon, thinly sliced

Reserved simple syrup

Green peppercorns

directions

For the lemon cream:

1 cup heavy cream

Reserved lemon syrup

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

Chopped toasted hazelnuts

For the garnish:

Chervil sprigs

For the bisque, in a medium bowl, combine the langoustine meat and 1/4 cup of the cognac and set aside. In a medium saucepan, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the langoustine shells and saute until bright red, about five minutes. Add the remaining cognac and simmer for three minutes. Add the carrot, onion, shallot, and funnel, and saute until transducent. Add the tomato paste, stir to combine, and saute for three minutes. Add the diced tomatoes and saute for two minutes. Add the white wine and simmer until reduced by half, about three minutes. Add the fish stock and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat, add the garlic and bouquet garni, and maintain at a simmer. Add the rice and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and maintain at a simmer until the rice is tender, about 30 minutes. Add the cream, stir to combine, and simmer for 30 minutes. Remove from the heat and set aside to cool slightly. Transfer the mixture to a food mill and purce. Transfer to a blender and blend until smooth, about two minutes. Strain throu gh a fine mesh sieve. Add the butter and stir to combine. Season and set aside keeping warm.

ingredients

For the simple syrup, in a small covered saucepan over medium heat, bring the sugar and water to a boil, reduce the heat, and summer until the sugar is dissolved, about two minutes. Remove from the heat and set aside to cool.

For the lemon zest, is a medium saucepan, cover the lemon zest with cold water and place over medium heat. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and maintain at a simmer for two minutes. Remove from the heat, strain, and shock in an ice bath. Repeat two more times. Place the reserved simple syrup in a medium saucepar over medium heat. Add the lemon zest and simmer until the rinds are soft, about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and strain though a fine mesh sieve, reserving the zest and syrup separately. Reserve half the zest for garnish, chop the remaining zest and set aside.

Bruco Snermon

Bruce Sherman

For the lemon cream, in the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, beat the heavy cream and lemon syrup to form stiff peaks. Remove the bowl, season, and set aside.

To finish the langoustines, in a medium saute pan over medium heat, saute the langoustines and cognac for two minutes or until desired doneness. Remove from the beat, season, and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, spoon some bisque into a soup bowl. Place a langoustine to one side and set a quenelle of lemon cream on top. Sprinkle some lemon zest, green peppercorns, and hazelnuts around the dish and garnish with chervil.

Sea Urchin Cappuccino Bisque with a Scallop Cracker

ingredients

For the both:

1 1/2 cups white wine

3 tablespoons unsalted butter, diced

3 carrots, peeled and chopped

2 leeks, chopped

2 onions, peeled and chopped

2 shallots, peeled and chopped

2 stalks celery, chopped

2 ounces button mushrooms, chopped

1 small bulb fennel, chopped

3 cups water

1 bouquet garni (celery tops, parsley stem, look green, thyme sprig, bay feal)

1/2 teaspoon white peppercorns

1 tablespoon contender seeds

For the bisque:

3 1/2 ounces unsalted butter

Salt and pepper to taste

2 shallots, peeled and chopped

2 onions, peeled and chopped

1 1/4 pounds sole bones, chopped, soaked overnight, and drained

Reserved broth

1 bouquet garni (celery tops, parsley, stem, look green, thyme sprig, bay leaf)

3 tablespoons sea urchin, pureed and strained

For the scallop crackers:

2 sheets feuillc de brick

1/4 cup clarified butter [*]

2 LI-10 dry-pack sea scallops, cach out into three slices

6 black truffle slices

6 chervil leaves

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

1 small carrot, thinly sliced and sweat in butter

1 small leek, thinly sliced and sweat in butter

1 small bulb fennel, thinly sliced and sweat in butter

2 shallots, peeled, minced, and sweat in butter

Steamed milk

For the garnish:

Dried lobster roc

Chopped chives

Chopped black traffics

(*.) Available through Gourmand at (800) 627-7272.

directions

For the broth, in a medium saucepan over medium heat, simmer the white wine for one minute. Remove from the heat and set aside. Ina medium saute pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the carrots, looks, onions, shallots, celery, mushrooms, and fennel. Saute until translucent, about five minutes. Add the water and the warm wine, bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and maintain at a simmer. Add the bouquet garm, peppercorns, and coriander seeds and simmer until reduced by one-third about 20 minutes. Remove from the heat and set aside for 20 minutes. Strain through at fine mesh sieve and set aside in the refrigerator until chilled, about one hour.

For the bisque, in a medium sate pan, melt half the butter over medium low heat. Add the shallots and onions and saute until translucent, about five minutes. Add the fish bones and saute Unum white in color, about three minutes. Add the reserved both and bouquet garni, bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and simmer for 20 minutes, skimming occasionally. Remove from the heat, strain through a line mesh sieve, and set aside keeping warm.

Bruce Sherman

For the scallop crackers, place the feuille de brick sheets on a cutting board. Using a two-inch round cookie cutter, cut out 12 circles. Brush cach circle with the butter. Place a scallop slice, truffle slice, and a chervil leaf in the center of six feuille de brick circles, Season and cover with remaining rounds. Brush with the butter and place on parchment-line half sheet pan. Heat a large non-stick saute pan over medium heat and saute each scallop cracker until golden brown on each side Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To finish the bisque, in a medium saucepan, heat the bisque over medium heat. Add the remaining butter sea urchin, cannot, look, found, and shallots and stir to combine. Season and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, fill six espresso cups with bisque and spoon some strained milk on top, Sprinkle with lobster for chives, and truffles and accompany with a scallop cracker.

Spiced Lobster Bisque with Hickory Grilled Maine Scallops

ingredients

For the bisque:

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

6 lobster bodies, heads removed and chopped

1/2 cup brandy

1 head fennel, cored and chopped

1 onion, peeled and chopped

1 stalk celery, chopped

1 carrot, peeled and chopped

1 tablespoon ginger, peeled and mineed

1 small jalapeno pepper, seeded and minced

1 clove

1 star anise

2 tablespoons fennel seeds

1/4 cup coriander seeds

1 tablespoon black peppercorns

1/2 teaspoon turmeric

1 tablespoon red chili flakes

1 cinnamon stick

2 pods green cardamom

2 quarts chicken stock

1/3 cup tomato paste

1 cup white wine

1 orange, peeled and quartered

9 ounces unsalted butter, cubed and chilled

Salt and pepper to taste

For the leeks:

2 tablespoons unsalted butter

1/2 cup chicken stock

6 leeks, thinly sliced and blanched

Salt and pepper to taste

For the squash:

2 cups chicken stock

2 tablespoons butter

1 small kabocha squash, peeled and diced [*]

1 small buttercup squash, peeled and diced [*]

Salt and pepper to taste

For the obster:

4 tablespoons unsalted butter

6 lobster claws, boiled and shelied

Salt and pepper to taste

For the scallops:

1 cup vegetable oil

1 tablespoon coriander seeds

1/2 teaspoon white peppercorns

For the squash, in a medium saute pan over medium heat, bring one cup of the chicken stock and one tablespoon of the butter to a simmer. Add the kabocha squash and simmer until tender, about five minutes. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm. In a separate medium saute pan over medium heat, combine the remaining butter and chicken stock and bring to a simmer. Add the buttercup squash and simmer until tender. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm.

Zest of one lemon

Zest of one orange

1 clove garlic, peeled and crushed

1 sprig thyme

6 U-10 Maine diver scailops

Salt and pepper to taste

Bruce Sherman

ingredients

For the garnish:

Chervil sprigs

Chopped chives

(*.) Kabocha squash and butter cup squash are available from September to February through Midwest Foods at (773) 927-8870.

directions

For the bisque, in a medium saucepan, heat the oil over high heat and saute the lobster bodies until caramelized, about five minutes. De-glaze with the brandy and saute for two minutes. Add the fennel, onion, celery, carrot, ginger, and jalapeno pepper and saute until translucent, about five minutes. In a spice grinder combine the clove, star anise, fennel seeds, coriander seeds, peppercorns, turmeric, chili flakes, cinnamon stick, green cardamom one tablespoon of chicken stock and grind to make a paste. Add the spices to the saucepan, stir to combine, and saute for two minutes. Add the tomato paste and simmer until almost dry, about two minutes. De-glaze with the white wine and simmer until almost dry, about five minutes. Add the remaining chicken stock, bring to a boil, and reduce the heat. Add the orange and simmer until reduced by one-third, about one hour. Remove from the heat and strain through a fine mesh sieve. Transfer to a medium saucepan over medium heat. Bring to a boil, redluce the heat, and simm er until the bisque thickens enough to coat the back of spoon, about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and whisk in the butter. Season and set aside keeping warm.

For the leeks, in a medium saute pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the chicken stock and leeks and saute until tender, about five minutes. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the lobster, in a medium saute pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Season the lobster claws and saute on both sides until warmed through, about three minutes. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

For the scallops, prepare a hot ill with hickory wood. In a medium bowl, combine of the ingredients and set aside for 15 minutes. Season the scallops and grill on both sides until desired doneness. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, spoon some bisque into a soup bowl and place a mound of leeks in the center. Arrange a scallop, lobster claw, kabocha squash, and buttercup squash around the dish and garnish with chervil and chives.

Squab and Pheasant Bisque with a Crayfish Gratinee

For the consomme:

1 skinless and boneless wild pheasant [*], quartered, bones and innards reserved separately

3 skinless and boneless squab, quartered, bones and innards reserved separately

1 ounce rock salt

1/4 cup vegetable oil

5 carrots, peeled and chopped

5 leeks, white part only, chopped

3 stalks celery, chopped

1 onion, peeled and chopped

1 cup white wine

3 1/2 quarts water

Onion half, peeled and studded with 3 cloves

4 cloves garlic, peeled

1 teaspoon juniper berries

1 bouquet garni (celery tops, parsley, stem, leek green, leek green, thyme sprig, bay leaf)

4 egg whites, beaten

Reserved squab and pheasant meat, ground

10 ounces ground lean beef

2 carrots, peeled and chopped

2 leeks, white part only, chopped

1 ounce mushroom stems, peeled and finely chopped

4 parsley stems

1 plum tomato, chopped

Juice of 1/2 lemon

Salt and pepper to taste

For the crayfish gratinee:

2 tablespoons vegetable oil

2 pounds crayfish, meat and shells reserved separately

1/4 cup cognac

2 carrots, peeled and chopped

3 stalks celery, chopped

2 onions, peeled and chopped

3 cloves garlic, peeled and minced

8 ounces Italian Paste Heirloom tomatoes [**], peeled, seeded, and pureed

4 cups fish stock

1 bouquet garni (celery tops, parsley, stem, leek green, thyme sprig, bay leaf

1 1/2 cups heavy cream

4 egg yolks beaten

Salt to taste

For the strudel:

1 onion, peeled, thinly sliced, and sauteed

Reserved crayfish tail meat, de-veined

4 ounces Capriole goat cheese [***]

3 sheets feuille de back cut in half [***]

1 egg, beaten with 1/4 cup water

1 red bell pepper, peeled, seeded, and cut into thin strips

1/4 cup basil leaves, julienned

Salt and white pepper to taste

For the garnish:

Bruce Sherman

ingredients

Basil sprigs

(*.) Available through European Imports at (773)227-0600.

(**.) Available through The Chef's Garden at (800)289-4644.

(***.) Available through Caproile Inc. at (800) 448-4628.

(****.) Available through Gourmand at (800) 627-7272.

For the consomme, preheat the oven to 350 degrees In a large bowl, sprinkle the squab and pheasant breasts with the rock salt and set aside in the refrigerator overnight. In the bowl of' an electric mixer fitted with the grinder and medium die attachment, grind the squab and pheasant leg and thigh meat and set aside. In a large roasting pan, combine the squab and pheasant bones and innards, oil, carrots, leeks, celery, and onion and toss to coat. Place in the oven until golden brown, about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and place over medium heat. Add the white wine and simmer until almost dry. Transfer to a large saucepan, add the water, onion half, garlic, juniper berries, and bouquet garni, and simmer for 2 1/2 hours, skimming occasionally. Remove from the heat and strain through a line mesh sieve. Set aside to cool completely. In a medium saucepan over medium heat, bring the squab breasts, pheasant breasts and cooled stock to a simmer and maintain the heat until the meat is cooked, about 15 minutes. Rem ove from the heat and set aside to cool. Remove the breast meat, dice, and set aside keeping warm. Strain the stock through a fine mesh sieve. Season and set aside keeping warm. In a medium bowl whisk together the egg whites, ground squab and pheasant meat, ground beef, carrots, leeks, mushroom stems, parsley stems, tomato, and lemon juice, add to the stock, and gently stir until a raft forms on the surface. Maintain at a simmer for one hour. Remove from the set aside to cool slightly. Using a ladle, spoon the liquid into a cheesecloth-lined, fine mesh sieve and discard the solids. Season and set aside keeping warm.

For the crayfish gratinee, in a medium saute pan, heat the oil over medium heat and saute the crayfish shells until bright red in color, about five minutes. Add the cognac and simmer until reduced by half. Add the carrots, celery, onions, garlic, and tomatoes and saute until translucent. Add the fish stock and the bouquet garni and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and maintain at a simmer for one hour. Remove from the heat, transfer to a blender, and puree for two minutes. Strain through a fine mesh sieve and discard the solids. Transfer to a medium saucepan over medium heat and bring to a simmer. Add one cup of heavy cream and simmer until reduced by half, about 10 minutes. Remove from the heat and set aside to cool. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, beat the remaining heavy cream and the egg yolks until thick and well combined. Fold the egg yolk mix into the crayfish puree, season, and reserve.

For the strudel, preheat the fryer to 365 degrees. In a medium bowl, mix together the onion, crayfish tails, and goat cheese. Season and set aside. Place a feuille de brick sheet on a flat work surface. Brush the edges with egg wash, spoon some crayfish mix in the center, place some red peppers on top, and sprinkle with basil. Roll half way to enclose the filling. Fold the edges in towards the center, roll to enclose, and set aside, seam side down, on a parchment-lined sheet pan. Repeat with the remaining feuille de brick sheets. Place the strudels in the fryer until golden brown, about two minutes. Remove from the heat and place on a paper towel-lined sheet pan to drain. Slice each strudel in half and set aside keeping warm.

To assemble the bisque, prepare a hot broiler. Spoon some of the diced squab and pigeon breast meat into six soup bowls. Fill each half way with consommc and spoon some of the crayfish puree on top. Place under the broiler until golden brown. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, garnish the squab and pheasant bisque with basil and accompany with two strudel halves.

Mussel, Manila Clams and Cockle Bisque en Croute

For the bisque:

2 ounces unsalted butter

2 shallots, peeled and minced

1/2 cup white wine

2 pounds Prince Edward island mussels, cleaned

2 pound cockles

1 quart fish stock

1 cup heavy cream

4 threads saffron

Salt and pepper to taste

For the vegetables:

directions

1 ounce unsalted butter

1/2 cup fish stock

4 carrots, peeled and thinly sliced

2 leeks, white part only, thinly sliced

4 ounces peeled celeriac, thinly sliced

4 ounces oyster mushrooms, diced

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

2 plum tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and diced

6 5-inch round sheets puff pastry

jean joho

1 egg, beaten with 1/4 cup water

For the bisque, in a large, deep saute pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the shallots, wine, mussels, clams, and cockles. Cover and simmer until the shells are open, about four minutes. Remove From the heat and transfer the shellfish to a sheet pan and set aside. Strain the cooking liquid through a fine mesh sieve, transfer to a medium saucepan over medium heat, and maintain at a simmer. Remove and discard the shells from the meat. Add shellFish meat and fish stock to the pan and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat and simmer until reduced by one-third, about 20 minutes. Add the cream and simmer until reduced by one-third about 20 minutes. Add the saffron and simmer for two minutes. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the vegetables, in a large saute pan, melt half the butter over medium heat. Acid two ounces of stock and the carrots and toss to coat. Cover with a piece of parchment paper and simmer until tender, about five minutes. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm. Repeat with the remaining butter, stock, and vegetables and set aside.

To finish the bisque, preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Spoon some shellfish meat and vegetables into six small soup tureens and cover with some of the bisque. Brush the edges with the egg wash, place a puff pastry circle on top, and press to seal the edges. Set aside on a sheet pan. Place in the oven until golden brown, about 10 minuets. Remove from the heat and set aside.

To serve, slice open the puff pastry a and sprinkle the dish with tomatoes.

Tomato and Crab Bisque with Brioche Tuiles

ingredients

Sea salt, pepper, celery salt and Tabasco sauce to taste

For the bisque

4 pounds very ripe tomatocs, peeled, seeded, and diced

1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil

1 teaspoon red wine vinegar

1 onion, peeled and chopped

3 cloves garlic, peeled and minced

2 quarts tomato juice

1 bunch basil, stemmed and chopped

For the brioche tuiles:

24x4x 1/2-inch slices brioche, crust removed

1/4 cup clarified butter

For the crab salad:

8 ounces crab meat

1/2 bunch chives, mineed

1 tablespoon olive oil

1 teaspoon Dijon mustard

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

English cucumber slices

Micro greens

directions

For the bisque, in a medium bowl, combine the tomatoes, two tablespoons of the olive oil, and vinegar and toss to coat. Season and set aside for 24 hours. In a medium saute pan, heat one tablespoon of olive oil over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and saute until translucent. Add the tomatoes, tomato juice, and basil and simmer for 25 minutes. Remove from the heat, transfer to a commercial blender, and puree until smooth, about two minutes. Transfer the bisque to a medium bowl, whisk in the remaining olive oil and set aside in an ice bath to chill. Season and reserve.

For the brioche tuiles, preheat the oven to 350 degrees. Roll each brioche slice through a pasta machine four times, starting at the thickest setting and ending on the thinnest. Cut the brioche into long triangles and arrange on a parchment-lined sheet pan. Brush with clarified butter and place in the oven until light brown, about four minutes. Remove from the heat, drape over a large rolling pin to cool, and reserve.

For the crab salad, in a medium bowl, combine all of the ingredients and toss to combine. Season and set aside keeping chilled.

jean joho

To assemble the crab salad, place six 1-inch ring molds on a parchment lined sheet pan. Fill each with some crab salad and remove the ring molds Arrange some cucumber slices around each salad in a decorative pattern and set aside.

To serve, spoon some bisque into a soup bowl and place two brioche tuiles and some crab salad in the center. Top with micro greens.

Roasted Squab with Chestnut Bisque

ingredients

For the chestnut bisque:

4 pounds chestnuts, roasted and peeled

1/4 cup vegetable oil

1 1/2 pounds squab bones

1 gallon water

3 onions, peeled and chopped

2 carrots, peeled and chopped

3 stalks celery, chopped

1 1/2 teaspoons dried thyme

1 teaspoon black peppercorns

1 bay leaf

Reserved chestnut purce

1/2 cup light cream

Salt and pepper to taste

For the squab:

2 tablespoons grapeseed oil

3 squab, skin on and halved

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

Blanched Brussels sprouts leaves

Diced smoked ham fried

For the garnish:

Reserved chestnut slices

Minced chives

For the chestnut bisuqe, preheat the oven to 350 degrees: Thiniy slice eigh chestnuts and reserve for the garnish. Transfer the remaining chestnuts to a food processor fitted with the metal blade attachment and puree until smooth, about three minutes. Transfer to a bowl and set aside. In a roasting pan, combine the oil and squab bones and toss to combine. Place in the oven until browned, about 20 minutes. Remove from the heat, place over medium heat, and, using a slotted to remove and any pan drippings. Remove rom the heat and set aside. place the saucepan with squab bones over medium heat, add the onions, carrots, and celery and saute until translucent. Add the juices from the roasting pan and bring to a simmer. Add the remaining water, thme, peppercorns, and bay leaf and maintain at a simmer until reduced by three-quarters, about three hours, skimming occasionaly. Remove from the heat and strain through a fine mesn sieve. Place teh stock and chestnut puree ir a medium saucepan over medium heat adn whisk to combine. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and maintain at a simmer for 10 minutes, making sure to stir occasionally. Add the light cream, whisk to combine, and simmer for one minute. Remove from the heat, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the squab, in a medium saute pan heat the oil over medium-high heat. Season the squab and sear on both sides until desired doneness. Remove from the heat and transfer the squab to a cutting board. Cut the squab into thin slices and reserve keeping warm.

To serve, place some squab and a small cup of bisque in the center of a soup bowl. Arrange some Brussels sprouts leaves around the dish, sprinkle with diced ham, and garnish with chestnut slices and chives.

jeon jono

Roasted Quail with Beet Bisque

Ingredients

For the best bisque:

1/4 cup vegetable oil

1 1/2, pounds quail bones

1 gallon water

3 onions, peeled and chopped

2 carrots, peeled and chopped

3 stalks celery, chopped

1 1/2 teaspoons dried thyme

1 teaspoon black peppercorns

1 bay leaf

2 pounds red beets, roasted, peeled, and pureed

1/4 cup sherry vinegar

Salt and pepper to taste

For the quail:

2 tablespoons grapeseed oil

6 8-ounce quails, quartered

Salt and pepper to taste

For the dish:

Fried red beet chips

Fried quail eggs

Fried red beet strips

For the garnish:

Poppy seeds

Jean Jono

directions

For the beet bisque, preheat the open to 350 degrees. In a roasting pan combine the oil and quail bones and toss to combine. Place in the oven until browned, about 20 minutes. Remove from the heat, place over medium heat, and, using a slotted spoon, transfer the bones to a large saucepan. Pour one cup of water in the roasting pan and stir with a wooden spoon to remove any p an drippings. Remove from the heat and set aside. Place the saucepan with quail bones over medium heat, acid the onions, carrots, and celery and saute until translucent. Add the juices from the roasting pan and bring to a simmer. Add the remaining water, thyme, peppercorns, and bay leaf. Place over medium heat and simmer until Reduced by three-quarters, about hours, skimming occasionnally. Remove from the heat and strain through a fine mesh sieve. Place the quail stock, pureed beets, and sherry vinegar in a medium saucepan over medium heat and whisk to combine. Bring to a simmer and season. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

For the quail, in a medium saute pan, heat the oil over medium beat. Season the quail and sear on both sides until desired doneness. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, spoon some bisque into a soup bowl and place some quail in the center. Top with a beet chip and a fried quail egg. Sprinkle some fried beet strips around the dish and garnish with poppy seeds.

Foie Gras and Bayonne Ham with Turnip Bisque

ingredients

For the bisque:

3 turnips, peeled and cut into long, thick strips

1 cup white wine

1 teaspoon goose fat

1 onion, peeled and sliced

3 garlic cloves, peeled and chopped

3 quarts chicken stock

1/4 pound Bayonne ham [*]

1 bouquet garni (juniper berries, thyme sprig, bay leaf; coriander seeds)

1 cup light cream

Salt and pepper to taste

For the foie gras:

6 2-ounce pieces foie gras, scored

Sea salt and pepper to taste

For the garnish:

Reserved turnip strips

Sea salt

Cracked black pepper

Minced chives

(*.) Bayonne ham, a cured and smoked ham originated in a region of southwestern

France. Available in specialty food stores.

directions

jean joho

For the bisque, in a medium bowl, combine the turnips and white wine. Season lightly with salt and set aside overnight. Drain, rinse well under cold running water, and set aside. In a medium saute pan, heat the goose fat over medium heat. Add the onion an(l garlic and saute until translucent. Add the turnips, chicken stock, ham, and bouquet garni and bring to a boil. Reduce thc heat and simmer until reduced by 1/3, about 35 minutes. Using metal tongs, transfer one cup of turnips to a bowl and reserve for the garnish. Remove the ham, transfer to a cutting board, cut into small pieces, and set aside for the dish. Remove the bisque from the beat and discard the bouquet garni. Transfer to a commercial blender, add the cream, and puree until smooth, about three minutes. Strain through a fine mesh sieve, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the foie gras, in a medium saute pan over medium heat, season arid sear foie gras on both sides, until desired doneness. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, spoon some bisque into a small saute pan. Place some reserved turnips and ham in the center and top with a piece of foie gras. Sprinkle the dish with sea salt and black pepper and garnish with chives.

Frogs' Legs and Watercress Bisque

jean joho

ingredients

For the mousseline:

1/2 cup melted butter

1/2 pound boneless frog leg meat, chilled

10 ounces heavy cream, cold

6 frog legs, frenched and sautced

Salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste

For the bisque:

2 tablespoons unsalted butter

1 onion, peeled and chopped

1 leek, chopped

1 1/2 quarts chicken stock

1/2 cup arborio rice

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 head Boston lettuce, chopped

4 bunches watercress, stemmed

Salt, pepper, and nutmeg to taste

For the frogs' legs:

2 tablespoons unsalted butter

48 frog legs, boned

Salt and pepper to taste

directions

For the mousseline preheat the oven to 300 degrees and brush the inside of six ramekins with butter. In the bowl of a food processor fitted with the with the metal blade attachment purce the frog, leg meat until smooth motor running, slowly ad the heavy cream to form a smooth paste. Season and transfer to the prepared ramekins Place one frog leg into the center, bone up. Arrange the ramekins in a roasting pan and pour enough hot water to come halfway up the sides of the ramekins. Place in the oven until set, about 35 minutes. Remove from the heat and reserve keeping warm.

For the bisque, in a medium saute pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the onion, and leek and saute until translucent. Add the chicken stock, rice, and cream and simmer until the rice is very tender, about 30 minutes. Remove from the heat, transfer to a commercial blender and puree until smooth, about two minutes. Add the lettuce and watercress and puree until smooth, about one minute. Strain through a fine mesh sieve, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the frogs' legs, in a medium saute pan, melt the butter. Season the frogs' legs and saute until golden brown. Remove from the heat and set aside keeping warm.

To serve, remove a frog mousseline from the ramekin and place in the center of a soup bowl. Pour some watercress bisque on top and arrange some frogs' legs around the dish.

Smoked Sturgeon and Alsatian Braised Cabbage Bisque

ingredients

jean joho

3 tablespoons goose fat

2 onions, peeled and chopped

1 clove garlic, peeled and chopped

3 pounds green cabbage, shredded

1 pound double smoked bacon, cut into three pieces

1 cup white wine

2 bouquets garni (juniper berries, thyme, bay leaf)

2 teaspoons duck fat

1 onion, peeled and chopped

1 cup Alsatian Riesling

3 quarts chicken stock

1/2 cup light cream

Salt and pepper to taste

For the strugeon:

2 pounds sturgeon, skinned

For the dish:

Minced smoked bacon, sauteed

Brioche croutons

Osetra caviar

For the garnish:

Caraway seeds

Chervil sprigs

For the cabbage bisque, in a large saute pan, heat the goose fat over medium heat. Add the onions and garlic and saute until translucent. Add the cabbage, becon, wine, and one bouquet garni, cover, and simmer for one hour. Remove from the heat, remove and discard the bacon and bouquet garni. Remove and reserve 1/2 cup of the cabbage for garnish and set aside the remaining cabbage. In a medium saucepan, melt the duck Fat over medium heat. Add the onion and saute until transiucent. Add the reserved cabbage and Riesling and simmer until reduced by half, about 10 minutes. Add the chicken stock, light cream, and remaining bouquet garni. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat, and maintain at a simmer for one hour. Remove from the heat and discard the bouquet garni. Transfer to a commercial blender and puree until smooth, about three minutes. Strain through a fine mesh sieve, season, and set aside keeping warm.

For the sturgeon, prepare a cold smoker with cherry wood. Place the sturgeon in the smoker for 35 minutes. Remove from the heat and transfer to a cutting board. Slice thin and set aside.

To serve, arrange some smoked sturgeon, reserved cabbage, and caviar in the center of a plate and sprinkle with the bacon anti croutons. Garnish with caraway seeds and chervil. Accompany with cabbage bisque.
COPYRIGHT 2001 Culinaire, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Publication:Art Culinaire
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2001
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