BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH LITERATURE ON PIPER BETLE.
The betel plant has originated from South and South East Asia. Betel plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. For its intestinal, carminative, anti-flatulent and gastro-protective properties, chewing betel leaves are considered as an edible digestive aid. Betel leaves have the properties of warm and spicy flavor. It has the medicinal values of controlling coughs, inflammation, nose bleeding and relieves itching. It acts as the best medicine for treating dental caries, and oral infections caused by bacteriaIt stimulates the central nervous system, stimulates the intellect, increases peristalsis, stimulating spasms, relieve nature of the snoring. The database covered in the Web of Knowledge was Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI). In Web of Knowledge Database the key word "Piper betle" or betel was used in the Topic field 1997-2016. The result of 1730 was downloaded in a separate text files. The data was analysed with the Bibexcel. It is a powerful analytical tool. This Bibexcel was developed by Olle Persson, Inforsk, Umea Univ (Sweden). This software is designed to assist a user in analysing bibliographic data, or any data of a textual nature formatted in a similar manner. Scientific collaboration is accepted in the new interdisciplinary research. By that there is a chance of improving funds and professional advancement. (1)
Need for the study:
The Piper betle leaves, areca nuts and lime powder were used ceremonially in traditional India. It acts as a stimulant to suppress hunger and reduce stress. Piper betle leaves have been chewed along with the areca nut since very ancient times. This plant cures cough, bronchitis, burns and nose bleeding. It contains cholinomimetic and possible calcium channel antagonist constituents, which are concentrated in the aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions respectively. (2) Piper betle (Piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in India and China in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allyl pyro catechol (APC) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. The biological studies with APC indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was mainly due to the anti-microbial activity as established using dynamic in vitro models. (3) Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper belle leaves. (4) Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. (5) P. betel may offer a new therapeutic approach for the control of allergic diseases through inhibition of production of allergic mediators. (6) Betel leaf chewing is an old traditional practice in India and other countries of East Asia. We have investigated the antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic potential of an alcoholic leaf-extract of Piper betel against D-galactosamine. P. betel could afford a significant antioxidant and anti hyperlipidaemic effect against D-GaIN-intoxication. (7) The leaves of this plant have been long in use intropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida infections. (8) Piper betle Linn is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Photochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly trepans and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betel. (9) The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The betel dried powder exercise for determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination. Added to that, it is screening for phytochemicals and development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. (10)
The research is designed to deal with more general information processes. It is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. This term is often used in the field of library and information science. Raj Kumar Bhardwaj and Shri Ram had done research on Osteoporosis. They find out the literature growth and identify India's contribution. (12) The researcher examine the following objectives to analysis the downloaded data.
* To identify the literature growth of Piper betle Research
* To identify the Publication Type and language wise distribution
* To analyze authorship pattern and h-index
* To identify the Co-Authorship pattern
* To identify the country colloboration
* To analyze Co-Citation works by applying Pajek tools.
Quantum of literature for Piper betle L. Research
Medicinal plants have been largely used in traditional medicine. It acts as major source for the treatment of various diseases. Shri Ram had done research on various aspects of literature growth in Podophyllotoxin, like publication pattern, language of publications, authorship pattern, and country wise production and so on. (13) Table 1 shows the year wise global distribution Piper betle research productivity for a period of 1997- 2016. It is found that there is no uniformity shown in the year wise growth of literature. The total publication count is 1730 and the maximum productivity occurred in the year 2013, having 151 and this is 8.73 percent of the total output. Minimum productivity occurred in the year 1997 with only 23 publications and this is 1.33 percent of the total output.
Publication Types of Piper betle Research:
Table 2 reveals the distribution of the 'Piper betle' research output according to publication type. It is a usual fact that most of the scholarly literature of scientific research is published in Journals and sometimes offered in the review. In this study, out of 1730 about 1468 were published as Journal articles and 107 had published as Reviews. Publication types like Meeting abstract, Editorial material, note, correction, news items, and book review, book chapter, bibliography, and biographical-item has less number of records.
Piper betle Research Production by Language:
The distribution of Piper betle literature by language is shown in Table 3. The scholarly declaration is achieved through English language in almost all the countries irrespective of the local language of the country. (14) This event is not exclusion to the subject of Piper betle which published about 1721 (99.48%) of the research output in English. The other languages like German, French, Spanish and Chinese are identified in Piper Betel research in a minimum percentage.
Authorship Pattern of Piper betle Research:
S Aswathy and A.Gopikuttan analyzed various parameters like growth pattern, authorship pattern and distribution with regard to subject, year, institution and geographical area of space graft and rockets. (15) In Piper betel research, the authorship pattern is analyzed in Table 4. Majority of papers are four & five author papers with 268(15.49%) publications. Three authors paper constitutes 212 publications (13.6%), followed by six authors' papers constitute 220 publications (12.72%). Three authored papers constitutes 226 publications (13.06%) followed by two authored papers, which constitutes 174 publications (10.06%). The trend appears to be that the highest number of joint authors, the higher number of articles they contribute. More research was done by collaborative authors than single contribution.
Find author's h-index for highly productive research with Bibexcel:
Bibexcel tool is used to identify h-index of authors. 8095 authors contribute research in Piper betle .from 1997 to 2016. The research output is 1730. With the author field, the .doc file is created. The total number of times the article is cited is identified with the command 'tc' and jn1 file is created. Select jn1 file, type 2/3 'The Box' and run Edit out files/Select columns. The result is .col file. The command, 'run Analyze/h-index' produces the outcome i.e. hdx file. This can be opened in excel format. Table 5 shows that Liu TY published 39 research articles, with the h-index of 19. The researcher received 678 citations of 19 articles. But his total citation for his publication is 870. The highly prolific 20 scientist's h-index, citation counts, citation total sum of h-index are shown in table 5.
Co-authorship Pattern of Piper betle Research:
The co-authorship gives a social status and the total number of co-authors is 3663. The scientist gave important scientific assistance by sharing the liability and accountability of his research work. The results of citation, publication are shared by the co-authors. Bibexcel is used to analyze the co-authorship pattern. 'AU' field was selected in Bibexcel tool and converted as upper lower case. Some authors had more than one initials. Create 'New .out file' which will remove duplicates. On the basis of the result, analyze co-occurrences and pair file. The result of .coc file is given in Table 6. On the basis of .coc file, .net file was created. The table shows the name of the highly prolific first authors, their co-authors and number of contributions.
The .net file is called from the maping tool 'Pajek' and the following image was created. Total number of coauthors is described in Figure.1. The density of lines indicates the number of publications of the scientists, if they produce more publications, the line will be dark and broad in colour. Chang MC has collaborated with 27 works with Jeng JH. The line, which indicates the density of co authorship between them, is very dark. If the line is very thin, the number coauthored publication is less. Ko YC has done 23 works with Lee CH, which is also shown in Image 1. Suresh kumar also examine the author's research in the field of Computer Interaction Research. Different countries of scientist carried on research together. (16)
Co--Citation Analysis of Piper betel:
The total number of Co-citations is 2366. In co-citation analysis, studies look into the formation of scientific examination based upon citations and co-citations. By that we can find out the groups of scientists and their publications results can be drawn about the research disciplines. For Co-citation analysis of Piper betle research 'Cited Document' C1 field was in use for the analysis with the facilitates of 'Any: separator text' in the Bibexcel tool. As a result .out file was obtained. On that basis low, cit was created. The researcher selects the top 20 cited articles. On that basis of .coc files were created. The result is .net file which is given in Table 7 which shows the top twenty co-citations.
Co-citation table in Piper betle Research
This Kamadakavai map, we can view the citation and co-citation. We can find out how many time each are cited. The number is also indicated here. We can view the author name, year, and volume number, page number the journal name and which article cited.
The above images is very good and transparent also. From the Pajek, Layout/Circular/Original was selected. We can find out the Author's Name, Year of Publication, Volume, Page Numbers and the Name of the journal. Olle Persson used Google map and Pajek, which is rich and sufficiently beautiful for the illustration for combining the visualization with statistical analysis (14)
The total number of collaboration among countries is 709. Trend of Collaborative research is increasing among countries. Here many countries are involved in collaborative research. Suresh Kumar also examined author's research in the field of computer interaction research. Different countries of scientist carried on research together. (16). The highest collaboration is done by Taiwan. It collaborated with USA in 45 times. India has also done a collaborated research with USA (22), UK (14), Japan (12), Norway (5), Malaysia (5), Sweden (4), Taiwan (3), Saudi Arabia (3), Mexico (2), Myanmar (2), South Korea (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (2), Switzerland, Spain, South Africa, Italy, Maldives, and Nepal (1). The top twenty four countries were selected for study.
On the basis of the authors address field, the country was found out. The authors are ready to share their experience with other country scientists. In the below image-4 the large ball indicates the highest collaborative country & the smaller ball indicates the lowest collaboration with other countries. The collaborative publications of Taiwan & India are more so the; the size of the balls is big.
Application of Zipf law
This law was introduced in the year 1926. Zipf law explains that, the frequency of keyword occurs in number of times. Using the bibexcel tool, the data collected from web of science arranged. 501 keyword titles are used and the total number of Keywords used to search the "Piper Betle" was 7908. The first keyword is a "Cancer" used most frequently of 198 times and followed that, the second keyword is "Squamous-Cell Carcinoma" used frequently of 192 times. The third keyword related to Piper Betle is "Betel Quid" used in 168 times. And it takes the third place only. Other keywords related to Piper Betle are Betel is used in (44) times, Betel-Quid (37), Betel Nut (27), Betel-Nut (25), Betel Quid Chewers (24), Betel Quid Ingredients (16), Betel -Quid Ingredients (10), Betel Leaf Extract (10), Betel-Quid Use (7) and Betel Leaf (5) times.
The total number of authors contributing for the title "Piper Betle" is 5148. And the total number of articles produced by the 5148 authors is 9410. The main concept of this law is "maximum number of articles are produced by minimum number of author". This law states that, the some authors are contributing more to produce articles. Most of 44 publications were produced by the author "Ko YC". The 43 publications were produced by "Lee CH" and 39 publications were produced by the "Liu TY". Most of the authors produce very few articles. The last least count of articles produce by some authors is 1.
The number of authors making n contribution to the "Piper Betle" is about 1/n2 of,
70 % of authors make one contribution
15.8 % of authors make two contributions
5.5 % of authors make three contributions
2.9 % of authors make four contributions
1.6 % of authors make five contributions
1% of authors make six contributions
< 1% of authors makes seven contributions
Betel and areca are having an important part in Indian culture, particularly to the Hindus. It is a tradition that the Priest, Bride or Bridegroom was given gifts with betel leaves and areca nuts. Piper betle leaves are used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betel landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. (11) Betel leaves cures ulcers, eye itching, stop bleeding of gums, cures gastric ulcers, cures boils, control blood sugar levels, treats cough, heals the wounds, relieves headache. In addition to the numerous health benefits, it is a cultural symbol of status and hospitality for guests. Chewing habits of people changed gradually over time. Tobacco has added with betel leaves which create many incurable diseases to the people. Though the medicinal values are recorded in conventional medicines, several of its medicinal properties have been proved recently. By this Bibliometric analysis the researcher assess the growth and quality of scientific production of Piper betle or betel.
(1.) Olle Persson and Wolfgang Glanzel. Discouraging honorific authorship. Scientometrics. 98 (2014) 1042-1044.
(2.) Gilani, AH., et.al. The presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in Piper betleLinn. Phytotherapy Research. 14 (6) (2000) 436 -442.
(3.) Ramji, N., Ramji, N., Iyer, R and Chandrasekaran, S. Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83 (1-2) (2002) 149-152.
(4.) Arambewela, LSR., Arawwawala, LDAM. and Ratnasooriya, WD. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102(2) (2005)239-245.
(5.) Owen, PL.. et.al. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 17 (4) (2008) 635-643.
(6.) Wirotesangthong, M., et.al. Inhibitory effects of Piper betleon production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells. International Imunopharmacology. 8 (3) (2008) 453-457.
(7.) Pushpavalli, G., Veeramani, C and Pugalendi, KV. Effect of Piper betleon plasma antioxidant status and lipid profile against D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats. Redox report.. 14 (7). (2009) 7-12.
(8.) Ali, I., et.al.In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betleL. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 9(7) (2010). WOS:000208654600007
(9.) Bajpai, V,, Sharma, D.,Kumar, B & Madhusudanan, KP. Profiling of Piper betleLinn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique. Biomedical Chromatography. 24(12) (2010) 1283-1286.
(10.) Arawwawala, LDAM., Hewageegana, HGSP., Arambewela, LSR & Ariyawansa, HS. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betlehot water extract. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 7(26) (2011) 157-160.
(11.) Bajpai, V., et.al. DART MS Based Chemical Profiling for Therapeutic Potential of Piper betleLandraces. Natural Product Communications. 7(12) (2012) 1627-1629.
(12.) Raj Kumar Bhardwaj and Shri Ram. Mapping of Indian research output on Osteoporosis. Annals of Library and Information Studies. 60 (Dec) (2013) 276-283.
(13.) Shri Ram. Research practices in herbal medicinal plant: a case study of podophyllotoxin. Annals of Library and Information studies. 57(March) (2010) 65-71.
(14.) Guo-Yan Yang et.al. Evidence Base of Clinical Studies on Tai Chi: A Bibliometric Analysis PLOS ONE (2015) (March 16) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120655
(15.) Aswathy.S & Gopikuttan.A. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets: A Scientometric Analysis.. SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6) (2012) 671-682.
(16.) Suresh Kumar. Author productivity in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research. Annals of Library and Information Studies. 61(4) (2014) 273-285.
I am so grateful to Olle Persson for his Bibexcel tool.
Dr. A. Thirumagal
Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India.
Full Time Ph.D Research Scholar (LIS), Manonmaniam Sundaranar Universit,Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India.
Part Time Ph.D Research Scholar (LIS), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India & Deputy Librarian, Sadakathullah Appa College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.
Caption: Image -1
Co-authors Network and number of works
kamadakavai citation map
Citation Mapping of Pajek for Piper betle Research
Collaborative map of Piper betle Research
Caption: Image--5 Lotka's law
Table--1 Quantum of Literature published by year wise Publication Year List S.No Publication Year No. of Publication % 1 1997 23 1.33 2 1998 36 2.08 3 1999 35 2.02 4 2000 34 1.97 5 2001 43 2.49 6 2002 62 3.58 7 2003 52 3.01 8 2004 58 3.35 9 2005 64 3.70 10 2006 81 4.68 11 2007 84 4.86 12 2008 95 5.49 13 2009 107 6.18 14 2010 135 7.80 15 2011 112 6.47 16 2012 126 7.28 17 2013 151 8.73 18 2014 147 8.50 19 2015 143 8.27 20 2016 142 8.21 Total 1730 100.00 Table--2 Publication Type Piper betle Research S.No Publication Type No. of Records 1 Article 1468 2 Review 107 3 Meeting Abstract 83 4 Article; Proceedings Paper 26 5 Letter 19 6 Editorial Material 14 7 Correction 7 8 News Item 3 9 Review; Book Chapter 1 10 Bibliography 1 11 Biographical-Item 1 Total 1730 Table--3 Piper betle Research by Languages Table 5- Language wise Distribution S.No Language No of Article % 1 English 1721 99.48 2 German 3 0.17 3 French 2 0.12 4 Portuguese 1 0.06 5 Spanish 1 0.06 6 Chinese 1 0.06 7 Polish 1 0.06 Total 1730 100.00 Table--4 Authorship pattern in Piper betle Research Table 4--Authorship Productivity S.No No. of Authors No. of Articles % 1 Single 91 5.26 2 Two 174 10.06 3 Three 226 13.06 4 Four 268 15.49 5 Five 268 15.49 6 Six 220 12.72 7 Seven 133 7.69 8 Eight 109 6.30 9 Nine 69 3.99 10 Ten 66 3.82 11 More than ten authors 106 6.13 Total 1730 100 Table--5 h- index score for Highly Productive authors Citation sum S. No. h-index Author within h-core 1 19 Liu TY 678 2 17 Jeng JH 969 3 16 Chang KW 642 4 16 Lee CH 656 5 16 Chang MC 912 6 16 Hahn LJ 936 7 15 Warnakulasuriya S 895 8 15 Lin SC 597 9 15 Lin CC 783 10 15 Ko YC 631 11 14 Wu DC 532 12 14 Shieh TY 578 13 14 Chen CH 486 14 13 Ralhan R 482 15 12 Wu MT 477 16 12 Chiang CP 455 17 11 Kao SY 433 18 11 Lee JM 404 19 11 Yang YH 326 20 11 Yang SF 246 S. No. All citations All articles 1 870 39 2 1061 30 3 739 24 4 836 43 5 971 27 6 1001 26 7 994 31 8 640 20 9 859 30 10 805 44 11 574 21 12 692 35 13 589 30 14 496 15 15 532 18 16 474 16 17 433 12 18 424 16 19 428 28 20 315 24 Table -6 Co-authors of Piper betle L.Research S. No. First Author Co-Author No of Records 1. Chang MC Jeng JH 27 2. Ko YC Lee CH 23 3. Hahn LJ Jeng JH 22 4. Chang MC Hahn LJ 21 5. Jeng JH Lee JJ 16 6. Lin CW Yang SF 16 7. Chang MC Lee JJ 14 8. Chiang SL Ko YC 14 9. Liao CT Wang HM 12 10. Chan CP Jeng JH 11 11. Ko YC Lee KW 11 12. Lee CH Lee KW 11 13. Chan CP Chang MC 11 14. Hahn LJ Lee JJ 11 15. Ko YC Shieh TY 11 16. Lian IB Su CC 11 17. Chen MK Yang SF 11 18. Chiang SL Lee CH 10 Table--7 Co-citation table in Piper betle Research Cited References S.No. Ko YC, 1992, V21, P261, J Oral 1 Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 0714.1992.Tb01007.X 2 Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 0714.1995.Tb01132.X 3 Jeng JH, 1994, V73, P1043, J Dent Res 4 Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77, Addict Biol, Doi 10.1080/13556210020091437 5 Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368- 8375(01)00003-3 6 Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77, Addict Biol, Doi 10.1080/13556210020091437 7 Boucher BJ, 2002, V7, P103, Addict Biol, Doi 10.1080/13556210120091464 8 Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77, Addict Biol, Doi 9 10.1080/13556210020091437 Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368- 8375(01)00003-3 10 Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368- 8375(01)00003-3 Co-cited References No. of S.No. Recs 1 Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 63 0714.1995.Tb01132.X 2 Lee CH, 2003, V88, P366, Brit J 39 Cancer, Doi 10.1038/Sj.Bjc.6600727 3 Sundqvist K, 1989, V49, P5294, 36 Cancer Res 4 Gupta PC, 2004, V33, P31, Ann 35 Acad Med Singap 5 Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 33 0714.1995.Tb01132.X 6 Ko YC, 1992, V21, P261, J Oral Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 32 0714.1992.Tb01007.X 7 Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77, Addict Biol, Doi 32 10.1080/13556210020091437 8 Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600- 31 0714.1995.Tb01132.X 9 Jeng JH, 2003, V24, P1301, Carcinogenesis, Doi 31 10.1093/Carcin/Bgg083 10 Sundqvist K, 1989, V49, P5294, 30 Cancer Res Table--8 Countries Collaboration S.No Country Collaborative Country No. of Records 1. Taiwan USA 45 2. India USA 22 3. UK USA 17 4. Taiwan UK 16 5. Peoples R China Taiwan 14 6. Sri Lanka UK 14 7. India UK 14 8. Bangladesh USA 14 9. Malaysia UK 12 10. India Japan 12 11. Japan Taiwan 10 12. Peoples R China USA 9 13. Thailand USA 9 14. France India 9 15. Japan Malaysia 8 16. Bangladesh Japan 8 17. Cambodia USA 7 18. Japan Sri Lanka 7 19. Germany Peoples R China 7 20. Malaysia Taiwan 7 21. Australia UK 6 22. Saudi Arabia USA 6 23. Indonesia UK 6 24. Norway UK 6 Table--9 Top 10 keywords S.No Keywords No. of times used to search the title "Piper Betle" 1 Cancer 198 2 Squamous-Cell Carcinoma 192 3 Betel Quid 168 4 Areca Nut 143 5 Taiwan 131 6 Risk 127 7 Expression 119 8 Head 108 9 Prevalence 107 10 Smoking 105 11 Cancer 198 Table--10 Highly Productivity Authors S.No Authors No. of Articles 1 Ko YC 44 2 Lee CH 43 3 Liu TY 39 4 Shieh TY 35 5 Warnakulasuriya S 31 6 Chen CH 30 7 Lin CC 30 8 Jeng JH 30 9 Yang YH 28 10 Chang MC 27 Out of 5148 authors S.No 1 3605 publish one article 2 812 publish two articles 3 281 publish three articles 4 147 publish four articles 5 81 publish five articles 6 64 publish six articles 7 31 publish seven articles 8 21 publish eight articles 9 20 publish nine articles 10 10 publish eleven articles 11 11 publish twelve articles 12 12 publish sixteen articles 13 16 publish two articles 14 13 publish six articles 15 14 publish eight articles 16 15 publish five articles 17 16 publish six articles 18 17 publish one article 19 18 publish one article 20 19 publish three articles 21 20 publish two articles 22 21 publish two articles 23 24 publish one article 24 26 publish one article 25 27 publish one article 26 28 publish three articles 27 30 publish one article 28 31 publish one article 29 35 publish one article 30 39 publish one article 31 43 publish one article 32 44 publish one article
Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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|Author:||Thirumagal, A.; Vanitha, A.; Mani, M.|
|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2017|
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