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BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF RESEARCH LITERATURE ON PIPER BETLE.

Introduction:

The betel plant has originated from South and South East Asia. Betel plant is an evergreen and perennial creeper, with glossy heart-shaped leaves and white catkin. For its intestinal, carminative, anti-flatulent and gastro-protective properties, chewing betel leaves are considered as an edible digestive aid. Betel leaves have the properties of warm and spicy flavor. It has the medicinal values of controlling coughs, inflammation, nose bleeding and relieves itching. It acts as the best medicine for treating dental caries, and oral infections caused by bacteriaIt stimulates the central nervous system, stimulates the intellect, increases peristalsis, stimulating spasms, relieve nature of the snoring. The database covered in the Web of Knowledge was Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Arts and Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI). In Web of Knowledge Database the key word "Piper betle" or betel was used in the Topic field 1997-2016. The result of 1730 was downloaded in a separate text files. The data was analysed with the Bibexcel. It is a powerful analytical tool. This Bibexcel was developed by Olle Persson, Inforsk, Umea Univ (Sweden). This software is designed to assist a user in analysing bibliographic data, or any data of a textual nature formatted in a similar manner. Scientific collaboration is accepted in the new interdisciplinary research. By that there is a chance of improving funds and professional advancement. (1)

Need for the study:

The Piper betle leaves, areca nuts and lime powder were used ceremonially in traditional India. It acts as a stimulant to suppress hunger and reduce stress. Piper betle leaves have been chewed along with the areca nut since very ancient times. This plant cures cough, bronchitis, burns and nose bleeding. It contains cholinomimetic and possible calcium channel antagonist constituents, which are concentrated in the aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions respectively. (2) Piper betle (Piperaceae) leaves which are traditionally used in India and China in the prevention of oral malodor was examined by bioassay-guided fractionation to yield allyl pyro catechol (APC) as the major active principle which showed promising activity against obligate oral anaerobes responsible for halitosis. The biological studies with APC indicated that the potential to reduce methylmercaptan and hydrogen sulfide was mainly due to the anti-microbial activity as established using dynamic in vitro models. (3) Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper belle leaves. (4) Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. (5) P. betel may offer a new therapeutic approach for the control of allergic diseases through inhibition of production of allergic mediators. (6) Betel leaf chewing is an old traditional practice in India and other countries of East Asia. We have investigated the antioxidant and antihyperlipidaemic potential of an alcoholic leaf-extract of Piper betel against D-galactosamine. P. betel could afford a significant antioxidant and anti hyperlipidaemic effect against D-GaIN-intoxication. (7) The leaves of this plant have been long in use intropical countries for the preparation of traditional herbal remedies. The antifungal activity exhibited by this compound warrants its use as an antifungal agent particularly for treating topical infections, as well as gargle mouthwash against oral Candida infections. (8) Piper betle Linn is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Photochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly trepans and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betel. (9) The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The betel dried powder exercise for determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination. Added to that, it is screening for phytochemicals and development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. (10)

Objectives:

The research is designed to deal with more general information processes. It is a set of methods used to study or measure texts and information. This term is often used in the field of library and information science. Raj Kumar Bhardwaj and Shri Ram had done research on Osteoporosis. They find out the literature growth and identify India's contribution. (12) The researcher examine the following objectives to analysis the downloaded data.

* To identify the literature growth of Piper betle Research

* To identify the Publication Type and language wise distribution

* To analyze authorship pattern and h-index

* To identify the Co-Authorship pattern

* To identify the country colloboration

* To analyze Co-Citation works by applying Pajek tools.

Quantum of literature for Piper betle L. Research

Medicinal plants have been largely used in traditional medicine. It acts as major source for the treatment of various diseases. Shri Ram had done research on various aspects of literature growth in Podophyllotoxin, like publication pattern, language of publications, authorship pattern, and country wise production and so on. (13) Table 1 shows the year wise global distribution Piper betle research productivity for a period of 1997- 2016. It is found that there is no uniformity shown in the year wise growth of literature. The total publication count is 1730 and the maximum productivity occurred in the year 2013, having 151 and this is 8.73 percent of the total output. Minimum productivity occurred in the year 1997 with only 23 publications and this is 1.33 percent of the total output.

Publication Types of Piper betle Research:

Table 2 reveals the distribution of the 'Piper betle' research output according to publication type. It is a usual fact that most of the scholarly literature of scientific research is published in Journals and sometimes offered in the review. In this study, out of 1730 about 1468 were published as Journal articles and 107 had published as Reviews. Publication types like Meeting abstract, Editorial material, note, correction, news items, and book review, book chapter, bibliography, and biographical-item has less number of records.

Piper betle Research Production by Language:

The distribution of Piper betle literature by language is shown in Table 3. The scholarly declaration is achieved through English language in almost all the countries irrespective of the local language of the country. (14) This event is not exclusion to the subject of Piper betle which published about 1721 (99.48%) of the research output in English. The other languages like German, French, Spanish and Chinese are identified in Piper Betel research in a minimum percentage.

Authorship Pattern of Piper betle Research:

S Aswathy and A.Gopikuttan analyzed various parameters like growth pattern, authorship pattern and distribution with regard to subject, year, institution and geographical area of space graft and rockets. (15) In Piper betel research, the authorship pattern is analyzed in Table 4. Majority of papers are four & five author papers with 268(15.49%) publications. Three authors paper constitutes 212 publications (13.6%), followed by six authors' papers constitute 220 publications (12.72%). Three authored papers constitutes 226 publications (13.06%) followed by two authored papers, which constitutes 174 publications (10.06%). The trend appears to be that the highest number of joint authors, the higher number of articles they contribute. More research was done by collaborative authors than single contribution.

Find author's h-index for highly productive research with Bibexcel:

Bibexcel tool is used to identify h-index of authors. 8095 authors contribute research in Piper betle .from 1997 to 2016. The research output is 1730. With the author field, the .doc file is created. The total number of times the article is cited is identified with the command 'tc' and jn1 file is created. Select jn1 file, type 2/3 'The Box' and run Edit out files/Select columns. The result is .col file. The command, 'run Analyze/h-index' produces the outcome i.e. hdx file. This can be opened in excel format. Table 5 shows that Liu TY published 39 research articles, with the h-index of 19. The researcher received 678 citations of 19 articles. But his total citation for his publication is 870. The highly prolific 20 scientist's h-index, citation counts, citation total sum of h-index are shown in table 5.

Co-authorship Pattern of Piper betle Research:

The co-authorship gives a social status and the total number of co-authors is 3663. The scientist gave important scientific assistance by sharing the liability and accountability of his research work. The results of citation, publication are shared by the co-authors. Bibexcel is used to analyze the co-authorship pattern. 'AU' field was selected in Bibexcel tool and converted as upper lower case. Some authors had more than one initials. Create 'New .out file' which will remove duplicates. On the basis of the result, analyze co-occurrences and pair file. The result of .coc file is given in Table 6. On the basis of .coc file, .net file was created. The table shows the name of the highly prolific first authors, their co-authors and number of contributions.

The .net file is called from the maping tool 'Pajek' and the following image was created. Total number of coauthors is described in Figure.1. The density of lines indicates the number of publications of the scientists, if they produce more publications, the line will be dark and broad in colour. Chang MC has collaborated with 27 works with Jeng JH. The line, which indicates the density of co authorship between them, is very dark. If the line is very thin, the number coauthored publication is less. Ko YC has done 23 works with Lee CH, which is also shown in Image 1. Suresh kumar also examine the author's research in the field of Computer Interaction Research. Different countries of scientist carried on research together. (16)

Co--Citation Analysis of Piper betel:

The total number of Co-citations is 2366. In co-citation analysis, studies look into the formation of scientific examination based upon citations and co-citations. By that we can find out the groups of scientists and their publications results can be drawn about the research disciplines. For Co-citation analysis of Piper betle research 'Cited Document' C1 field was in use for the analysis with the facilitates of 'Any: separator text' in the Bibexcel tool. As a result .out file was obtained. On that basis low, cit was created. The researcher selects the top 20 cited articles. On that basis of .coc files were created. The result is .net file which is given in Table 7 which shows the top twenty co-citations.

Co-citation table in Piper betle Research

This Kamadakavai map, we can view the citation and co-citation. We can find out how many time each are cited. The number is also indicated here. We can view the author name, year, and volume number, page number the journal name and which article cited.

The above images is very good and transparent also. From the Pajek, Layout/Circular/Original was selected. We can find out the Author's Name, Year of Publication, Volume, Page Numbers and the Name of the journal. Olle Persson used Google map and Pajek, which is rich and sufficiently beautiful for the illustration for combining the visualization with statistical analysis (14)

International Collaboration:

The total number of collaboration among countries is 709. Trend of Collaborative research is increasing among countries. Here many countries are involved in collaborative research. Suresh Kumar also examined author's research in the field of computer interaction research. Different countries of scientist carried on research together. (16). The highest collaboration is done by Taiwan. It collaborated with USA in 45 times. India has also done a collaborated research with USA (22), UK (14), Japan (12), Norway (5), Malaysia (5), Sweden (4), Taiwan (3), Saudi Arabia (3), Mexico (2), Myanmar (2), South Korea (2), Pakistan (2), Sri Lanka (2), Switzerland, Spain, South Africa, Italy, Maldives, and Nepal (1). The top twenty four countries were selected for study.

On the basis of the authors address field, the country was found out. The authors are ready to share their experience with other country scientists. In the below image-4 the large ball indicates the highest collaborative country & the smaller ball indicates the lowest collaboration with other countries. The collaborative publications of Taiwan & India are more so the; the size of the balls is big.

Application of Zipf law

This law was introduced in the year 1926. Zipf law explains that, the frequency of keyword occurs in number of times. Using the bibexcel tool, the data collected from web of science arranged. 501 keyword titles are used and the total number of Keywords used to search the "Piper Betle" was 7908. The first keyword is a "Cancer" used most frequently of 198 times and followed that, the second keyword is "Squamous-Cell Carcinoma" used frequently of 192 times. The third keyword related to Piper Betle is "Betel Quid" used in 168 times. And it takes the third place only. Other keywords related to Piper Betle are Betel is used in (44) times, Betel-Quid (37), Betel Nut (27), Betel-Nut (25), Betel Quid Chewers (24), Betel Quid Ingredients (16), Betel -Quid Ingredients (10), Betel Leaf Extract (10), Betel-Quid Use (7) and Betel Leaf (5) times.

Lotka's law

The total number of authors contributing for the title "Piper Betle" is 5148. And the total number of articles produced by the 5148 authors is 9410. The main concept of this law is "maximum number of articles are produced by minimum number of author". This law states that, the some authors are contributing more to produce articles. Most of 44 publications were produced by the author "Ko YC". The 43 publications were produced by "Lee CH" and 39 publications were produced by the "Liu TY". Most of the authors produce very few articles. The last least count of articles produce by some authors is 1.

The number of authors making n contribution to the "Piper Betle" is about 1/n2 of,

70 % of authors make one contribution

15.8 % of authors make two contributions

5.5 % of authors make three contributions

2.9 % of authors make four contributions

1.6 % of authors make five contributions

1% of authors make six contributions

< 1% of authors makes seven contributions

Conclusion:

Betel and areca are having an important part in Indian culture, particularly to the Hindus. It is a tradition that the Priest, Bride or Bridegroom was given gifts with betel leaves and areca nuts. Piper betle leaves are used as a folk medicine in India and other Asiatic countries. Twenty-one P. betel landraces were analyzed using a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectral technique and evaluated on the basis of molecules detected in the leaves. (11) Betel leaves cures ulcers, eye itching, stop bleeding of gums, cures gastric ulcers, cures boils, control blood sugar levels, treats cough, heals the wounds, relieves headache. In addition to the numerous health benefits, it is a cultural symbol of status and hospitality for guests. Chewing habits of people changed gradually over time. Tobacco has added with betel leaves which create many incurable diseases to the people. Though the medicinal values are recorded in conventional medicines, several of its medicinal properties have been proved recently. By this Bibliometric analysis the researcher assess the growth and quality of scientific production of Piper betle or betel.

References:

(1.) Olle Persson and Wolfgang Glanzel. Discouraging honorific authorship. Scientometrics. 98 (2014) 1042-1044.

(2.) Gilani, AH., et.al. The presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in Piper betleLinn. Phytotherapy Research. 14 (6) (2000) 436 -442.

(3.) Ramji, N., Ramji, N., Iyer, R and Chandrasekaran, S. Phenolic antibacterials from Piper betle in the prevention of halitosis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83 (1-2) (2002) 149-152.

(4.) Arambewela, LSR., Arawwawala, LDAM. and Ratnasooriya, WD. Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102(2) (2005)239-245.

(5.) Owen, PL.. et.al. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 17 (4) (2008) 635-643.

(6.) Wirotesangthong, M., et.al. Inhibitory effects of Piper betleon production of allergic mediators by bone marrow-derived mast cells and lung epithelial cells. International Imunopharmacology. 8 (3) (2008) 453-457.

(7.) Pushpavalli, G., Veeramani, C and Pugalendi, KV. Effect of Piper betleon plasma antioxidant status and lipid profile against D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis in rats. Redox report.. 14 (7). (2009) 7-12.

(8.) Ali, I., et.al.In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betleL. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 9(7) (2010). WOS:000208654600007

(9.) Bajpai, V,, Sharma, D.,Kumar, B & Madhusudanan, KP. Profiling of Piper betleLinn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique. Biomedical Chromatography. 24(12) (2010) 1283-1286.

(10.) Arawwawala, LDAM., Hewageegana, HGSP., Arambewela, LSR & Ariyawansa, HS. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betlehot water extract. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 7(26) (2011) 157-160.

(11.) Bajpai, V., et.al. DART MS Based Chemical Profiling for Therapeutic Potential of Piper betleLandraces. Natural Product Communications. 7(12) (2012) 1627-1629.

(12.) Raj Kumar Bhardwaj and Shri Ram. Mapping of Indian research output on Osteoporosis. Annals of Library and Information Studies. 60 (Dec) (2013) 276-283.

(13.) Shri Ram. Research practices in herbal medicinal plant: a case study of podophyllotoxin. Annals of Library and Information studies. 57(March) (2010) 65-71.

(14.) Guo-Yan Yang et.al. Evidence Base of Clinical Studies on Tai Chi: A Bibliometric Analysis PLOS ONE (2015) (March 16) DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120655

(15.) Aswathy.S & Gopikuttan.A. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets: A Scientometric Analysis.. SRELS Journal of Information Management. 49(6) (2012) 671-682.

(16.) Suresh Kumar. Author productivity in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research. Annals of Library and Information Studies. 61(4) (2014) 273-285.

Webliography

(17.) https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21716924/

(18.) http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/10/17684/pdf

(19.) http://docslide.net/documents/

(20.) http://www.antpedia.com/distdl.php?id=779

(21.) https://worldwidescience.org

(22.) https://www.science.gov/topicpages/p/piper+betle+inflorescence

(23.) https://www.science.gov/topicpages/p/piper+betle+linn

(24.) http://magicofherbal.blogspot.com/2010/12/

(25.) http://eol.org/pages/491360

(26.) http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/

(27.) https://www.semanticscholar.org/

Acknowledgement

I am so grateful to Olle Persson for his Bibexcel tool.

Dr. A. Thirumagal

Librarian

Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India.

librarian@msuniv.ac.in

athirumagala@yahoo.co.in

A.Vanitha

Full Time Ph.D Research Scholar (LIS), Manonmaniam Sundaranar Universit,Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India.

M. Mani

Part Time Ph.D Research Scholar (LIS), Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli--627 012, Tamilnadu, India & Deputy Librarian, Sadakathullah Appa College, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India.

Caption: Image -1

Co-authors Network and number of works

Caption: Image--2

kamadakavai citation map

Caption: Image--3

Citation Mapping of Pajek for Piper betle Research

Caption: Image--4

Collaborative map of Piper betle Research

Caption: Image--5 Lotka's law
Table--1

Quantum of Literature published by year wise

                 Publication Year List

S.No     Publication Year   No. of Publication     %

1              1997                 23            1.33
2              1998                 36            2.08
3              1999                 35            2.02
4              2000                 34            1.97
5              2001                 43            2.49
6              2002                 62            3.58
7              2003                 52            3.01
8              2004                 58            3.35
9              2005                 64            3.70
10             2006                 81            4.68
11             2007                 84            4.86
12             2008                 95            5.49
13             2009                107            6.18
14             2010                135            7.80
15             2011                112            6.47
16             2012                126            7.28
17             2013                151            8.73
  18           2014                147            8.50
19             2015                143            8.27
20             2016                142            8.21
Total                              1730          100.00

Table--2

Publication Type Piper betle Research

S.No       Publication Type              No. of Records

1          Article                            1468
2          Review                             107
3          Meeting Abstract                    83
4          Article; Proceedings Paper          26
5          Letter                              19
6          Editorial Material                  14
7          Correction                          7
8          News Item                           3
9          Review; Book Chapter                1
10         Bibliography                        1
11         Biographical-Item                   1
Total                                         1730

Table--3

Piper betle Research by Languages

Table 5- Language wise Distribution

S.No        Language      No of Article      %

1           English           1721         99.48
2            German             3           0.17
3            French             2           0.12
4          Portuguese           1           0.06
5           Spanish             1           0.06
6           Chinese             1           0.06
7            Polish             1           0.06
Total                         1730         100.00

Table--4

Authorship pattern in Piper betle Research

Table 4--Authorship Productivity

S.No     No. of Authors           No. of Articles       %

1        Single                         91            5.26
2        Two                            174           10.06
3        Three                          226           13.06
4        Four                           268           15.49
5        Five                           268           15.49
6        Six                            220           12.72
7        Seven                          133           7.69
8        Eight                          109           6.30
9        Nine                           69            3.99
10       Ten                            66            3.82
11       More than ten authors          106           6.13
Total                                  1730            100

Table--5

h- index score for Highly Productive authors

                                        Citation sum
S. No.    h-index   Author              within h-core

1         19        Liu TY                   678
2         17        Jeng JH                  969
3         16        Chang KW                 642
4         16        Lee CH                   656
5         16        Chang MC                 912
6         16        Hahn LJ                  936
7         15        Warnakulasuriya S        895
8         15        Lin SC                   597
9         15        Lin CC                   783
10        15        Ko YC                    631
11        14        Wu DC                    532
12        14        Shieh TY                 578
13        14        Chen CH                  486
14        13        Ralhan R                 482
15        12        Wu MT                    477
16        12        Chiang CP                455
17        11        Kao SY                   433
18        11        Lee JM                   404
19        11        Yang YH                  326
20        11        Yang SF                  246

S. No.    All citations   All articles

1              870             39
2             1061             30
3              739             24
4              836             43
5              971             27
6             1001             26
7              994             31
8              640             20
9              859             30
10             805             44
11             574             21
12             692             35
13             589             30
14             496             15
15             532             18
16             474             16
17             433             12
18             424             16
19             428             28
20             315             24

Table -6

Co-authors of Piper betle L.Research

S. No.  First Author   Co-Author   No of Records

1.      Chang MC       Jeng JH          27
2.      Ko YC          Lee CH           23
3.      Hahn LJ        Jeng JH          22
4.      Chang MC       Hahn LJ          21
5.      Jeng JH        Lee JJ           16
6.      Lin CW         Yang SF          16
7.      Chang MC       Lee JJ           14
8.      Chiang SL      Ko YC            14
9.      Liao CT        Wang HM          12
10.     Chan CP        Jeng JH          11
11.     Ko YC          Lee KW           11
12.     Lee CH         Lee KW           11
13.     Chan CP        Chang MC         11
14.     Hahn LJ        Lee JJ           11
15.     Ko YC          Shieh TY         11
16.     Lian IB        Su CC            11
17.     Chen MK        Yang SF          11
18.     Chiang SL      Lee CH           10

Table--7
Co-citation table in Piper betle Research

              Cited References

S.No.

       Ko YC, 1992, V21, P261, J Oral
1             Pathol Med, Doi
              10.1111/J.1600-
            0714.1992.Tb01007.X

2      Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral
              Pathol Med, Doi
              10.1111/J.1600-
            0714.1995.Tb01132.X
3       Jeng JH, 1994, V73, P1043, J
                  Dent Res
4         Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77,
              Addict Biol, Doi
         10.1080/13556210020091437
5      Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral
         Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368-
              8375(01)00003-3
6         Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77,
              Addict Biol, Doi
         10.1080/13556210020091437
7       Boucher BJ, 2002, V7, P103,
              Addict Biol, Doi
         10.1080/13556210120091464
8         Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77,
              Addict Biol, Doi
9        10.1080/13556210020091437
       Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral
         Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368-
              8375(01)00003-3
10     Jeng JH, 2001, V37, P477, Oral
         Oncol, Doi 10.1016/S1368-
              8375(01)00003-3

              Co-cited References
                                             No. of
S.No.                                         Recs

1        Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral
        Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600-        63
              0714.1995.Tb01132.X

2       Lee CH, 2003, V88, P366, Brit J        39
       Cancer, Doi 10.1038/Sj.Bjc.6600727

3        Sundqvist K, 1989, V49, P5294,        36
                   Cancer Res
4        Gupta PC, 2004, V33, P31, Ann         35
                Acad Med Singap

5        Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral
        Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600-        33
              0714.1995.Tb01132.X
6        Ko YC, 1992, V21, P261, J Oral
        Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600-        32
              0714.1992.Tb01007.X
7       Gupta PC, 2002, V7, P77, Addict
                   Biol, Doi                   32
           10.1080/13556210020091437
8        Ko YC, 1995, V24, P450, J Oral
        Pathol Med, Doi 10.1111/J.1600-        31
              0714.1995.Tb01132.X
9          Jeng JH, 2003, V24, P1301,
              Carcinogenesis, Doi              31
             10.1093/Carcin/Bgg083
10       Sundqvist K, 1989, V49, P5294,        30
                   Cancer Res

Table--8

Countries Collaboration

S.No   Country           Collaborative Country   No. of Records

1.     Taiwan            USA                     45
2.     India             USA                     22
3.     UK                USA                     17
4.     Taiwan            UK                      16
5.     Peoples R China   Taiwan                  14
6.     Sri Lanka         UK                      14
7.     India             UK                      14
8.     Bangladesh        USA                     14
9.     Malaysia          UK                      12
10.    India             Japan                   12
11.    Japan             Taiwan                  10
12.    Peoples R China   USA                     9
13.    Thailand          USA                     9
14.    France            India                   9
15.    Japan             Malaysia                8
16.    Bangladesh        Japan                   8
17.    Cambodia          USA                     7
18.    Japan             Sri Lanka               7
19.    Germany           Peoples R China         7
20.    Malaysia          Taiwan                  7
21.    Australia         UK                      6
22.    Saudi Arabia      USA                     6
23.    Indonesia         UK                      6
24.    Norway            UK                      6

Table--9 Top 10 keywords

S.No    Keywords                  No. of times used to search the
                                        title "Piper Betle"

1       Cancer                                  198
2       Squamous-Cell Carcinoma                 192
3       Betel Quid                              168
4       Areca Nut                               143
5       Taiwan                                  131
6       Risk                                    127
7       Expression                              119
8       Head                                    108
9       Prevalence                              107
10      Smoking                                 105
11      Cancer                                  198

Table--10 Highly Productivity Authors

S.No         Authors        No. of Articles

1       Ko YC                      44
2       Lee CH                     43
3       Liu TY                     39
4       Shieh TY                   35
5       Warnakulasuriya S          31
6       Chen CH                    30
7       Lin CC                     30
8       Jeng JH                    30
9       Yang YH                    28
10      Chang MC                   27

Out of 5148 authors

S.No
1         3605 publish one article
2         812 publish two articles
3         281 publish three articles
4         147 publish four articles
5         81 publish five articles
6         64 publish six articles
7         31 publish seven articles
8         21 publish eight articles
9         20 publish nine articles
10        10 publish eleven articles
11        11 publish twelve articles
12        12 publish sixteen articles
13        16 publish two articles
14        13 publish six articles
15        14 publish eight articles
16        15 publish five articles
17        16 publish six articles
18        17 publish one article
19        18 publish one article
20        19 publish three articles
21        20 publish two articles
22        21 publish two articles
23        24 publish one article
24        26 publish one article
25        27 publish one article
26        28 publish three articles
27        30 publish one article
28        31 publish one article
29        35 publish one article
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Author:Thirumagal, A.; Vanitha, A.; Mani, M.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:4493
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