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B Glossary.

Abattoir See: Slaughter house.

Abortion Termination of pregnancy.

Ad libitum feeding (ad lib feeding) A system of feeding in which no limit is placed on feed intake.

Age at slaughter The number of days from a pig's date of birth to that pig's date of slaughter.

Age at weaning The number of days from a piglet's birth to that pig's removal from the sow.

Arrival date The date when a breeding company delivers a replacement gilt or boar to a farm or the date when the gilt or boar joins the breeding herd after selection.

Artificial insemination The deposition of spermatozoa in the female genitalia by artificial rather than natural means.

Assets, current Items that are used or sold and can be converted into cash within a 12-mo period without disrupting the business. Examples include cash, cash value of bonds, stocks and life insurance, accounts receivable, nondepreciable items such as grain, fresh flowers, forage inventories, feeder and market livestock, and supplies such as vermiculite and fertilizer.

Assets, fixed Items that have combined, depreciated value; includes the operation's buildings, land, machinery, vehicles, breeding stock, other long-term assets, and any other disposable items of value.

Atrophied piglets The wasting away or decreasing in size of muscle, fat, or any tissue or organ. May result from weakening disease or from disease.

Availability, of breeding stock The quantity of breeding stock of any class ready for shipment.

Availability, of nutrients A feed's nutrient concentration that is absorbed and utilized by the animal.

Average An arithmetic mean; the sum divided by the sample size.

Average, weighted A sum divided by the number of contributing units.

Backcross The breeding of F1 females to a male of the same breed as the F1's parents.

Baconer A class of finishing pig in the United Kingdom; typically in the weight category of 59 to 70 kg (130 to 155 lb).

Barrow Male pig that was castrated when young.

Boar A male pig that has not been castrated (intact).

Boar, breeding A male, uncastrated intact pig that is used in the breeding herd. Syn: Stock boar

Boar, replacement A male that will be used in the breeding herd.

Boar, unworked An intact (uncastrated) male before the date of his first mating.

Boar, working An intact (uncastrated) male that will be used only for breeding purposes after the first day of mating.

Boar, vasectomised A male that is made infertile by means of surgery.

Breeding herd The livestock retained to provide for the perpetuation of the herd or band.

Carcass The major portion of a meat animal remaining after slaughter. Varies among animals, but usually the head and internal organs have been removed. Skin and shanks are removed from cattle and sheep.

Casualty slaughter A pig that is euthanized because of injury or disease.

Conception rate In cattle breeding, the percentage of first services that conceive.

Condemnation (1) Describing an animal, carcass, or food that has been declared unfit for human consumption. (2) Referring to real estate property acquired for public purposes under the right of eminent domain.

Condition scoring The assessment of a sow's physical condition; method is based on the sow's shape, level of body fat, and how easily "H" bones can be felt when pressure is applied with the hands.

Congenital Acquired during prenatal life; certain conditions that exist at birth; often used in the context of birth defects.

Congenital defect An abnormality of a newborn piglet present at birth; can be fatal.

Contemporary group A group of cattle of the same breed and sex that are raised in the same management group (same location on the same feed and pasture). Individual animals can then be accurately compared with the others in the group. Contemporary groups should include as many cattle as can be accurately compared.

Controlled feeding A predetermined amount of feed delivered at each meal.

Correlation The degree of relation between variables, sets of data, or traits. Positively correlated traits vary in the same direction; negatively correlated traits vary in opposite directions.

Correlated genetic response A genetic change in one trait caused by selection for another trait.

Creep feed A system of feeding young domestic animals by placing a special fence around feed for the young. The fence excludes mature animals but permits the young to enter. Or, feed is provided to nursing piglets.

Critical temperature, maximum Environmental temperature high enough to reduce an animal's performance.

Critical temperature, minimum Environmental temperature below which an animal must create extra heat to maintain body temperature.

Crossbred An offspring that results from the breeding of two purebred parents of different breeds.

Criss-cross A method of breeding crossbred animals. Breed A males are usually bred to females with Breed B and Breed B males are usually bred to Breed A females.

Cull (1) Anything worthless or nonconforming that is separated from other similar and better items; the act of removing the inferior items; to cull out. (2) The lowest marketing grade of meat carcasses or dressed poultry. (3) Any animal or fowl eliminated from the herd or flock because of unthriftiness, disease, poor conformation, etc.; a reject.

Culling percentage, females The number of females culled/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average female inventory.

Culling percentage, sows The number of sows culled/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average sow inventory.

Cutter A class of finishing pig in the United Kingdom; typically in the weight category of 50 to 80 kg (110 to 178 lb).

Cycle The age of a sow calculated by the number of reproductive cycles completed also parity.
   A sow remains in her first cycle from entry date until the first
   mating after her first farrowing. She then moves into her second
   cycle.

   This term has advantages over parity in that all periods are of
   approximately equal length, that is one farrowing interval (though
   this may vary from herd to herd).


Con: Parity

Daily live weight gain The gross weight of a live animal as compared with the dressed weight after slaughter.

Dam line A breed selected to contribute the female parents of the slaughter generation in a hybrid breeding program.

Days to market The number of days from a pig's date of birth to that pig's date of slaughter.

Death percentage, females The number of females that die/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average female inventory.

Death percentage, sows The number of sows that die/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average sow inventory.

Dressing percentage Carcass weight divided by live weight and multiplied by 100. Usually the cold carcass weight is used. The dressing percentage for cattle averages around 50% to 60%, hogs average around 70%.

Depreciation The decrease in value of business assets caused by wear and obsolescence.

Emaciated Backfat less than 0.6". H bone painfully and easily visible. Body shape: backbone, rib cage, hip bones prominent, sharp to touch.

Embryo Any organism in its earliest stages of development.

Empty days The number of days between weaning and conception.

Energy--digestible The proportion of energy in a feed that can be digested and absorbed by an animal.

Energy--gross (of feed) A measure of the chemical energy of feed by means of a calorimeter.

Energy--metabolizable The total amount of energy in feed less the losses in feces, combustible gases, and urine. Also called available energy.

Energy--net The amount of energy that remains after deducting from a feed's total energy value the amount of energy lost in feces, urine, combustible gases, and heat increment. Sometimes called work of digestion.

Enteritis Any inflammatory condition of the lining of the intestines of animals or people. Characteristics of enteritis are frequent evacuations of a liquid or very thin, foul-smelling stool that may or may not contain blood; and straining, lethargy, and anorexia. In acute cases, there is a rise in body temperature. The condition is seen as a symptom of a number of infectious diseases or it may be caused by specific bacteria or viruses. Other common causes include plant and animal poisons, parasites, overeating, faulty nutrition, and poor environmental factors.

Entry date The date when a boar is first bred or a gilt is first mated.

Entry date (25-d arrival rule) In Germany and France, the date when a gilt becomes a sow automatically if she remains in the herd for more than 25 d even if she has been mated.

Entry date (200-d-old rule) The date when gilts automatically become sows after they reach 200 d of age.

Equity Net ownership of a business; the difference between the assets and liabilities of an individual or business as shown on the balance sheet or financial statement (assets _ liabilities = owner equity).

Estrus The period of sexual excitement (heat) and a certain hormonal profile, at which time the female will accept coitus with the male.

Estrous Pertaining to estrus (heat) in animals.

Event date The date when an event occurs.

Farrowing Normal-delivery of one or more live, stillborn, or mummified pigs, on or after the 110th day of pregnancy.

Farrowing crate A crate or cage in which a sow is placed at time of farrowing. The crate is constructed as to prevent the sow from turning around or crushing the newborn pigs as she lies down.

Farrowing date The date of birth of the first pig of a litter.

Farrowing, failure Failure to farrow within 120 d after an effective service.

Farrowing index The number of farrowings per sow per year divided by average sow inventory.

Farrowing interval The number of days between a sow's two consecutive farrowing dates.

Farrowing rate The number of farrowings/yr divided by the number of farrowing services.

Fat Backfat 0.9". No detection of H bone. Body shape: thickening of trunk behind front legs and in neck region. Rear rounded.

Fat (1) (a) The tissues of an animal that bear an oily or greasy substance. (b) Any animal or fowl that abounds in fat. (2) The oily substance in milk.

Feed (1) Harvested forage, such as hay, silage, fodder, grain, or other processed feed for livestock. (2) The quantity of feed in one portion. (3) To furnish with essential nutrients.

Feed consumed/yr--total The initial feed inventory, plus feed purchases and farm-produced feed; subtract the ending feed inventory, feed sales, and feed eaten by other livestock.

Feed conversion ratio The rate at which an animal converts feed to meat. If an animal requires 4 lb of feed to gain 1 lb, it is said to have a 4:1 feed conversion ratio.

Feed efficiency A term for the number of pounds of feed required for an animal to gain 1 lb of weight.

Feeder pig (USA) A pig 8-12 wk of age destined for finishing.

Feed intake/d The rate at which animals consume feed. NOTE: What we really measure is the rate of FEED DISAPPEARANCE, which includes both consumption AND waste. In slatted systems with poorly-designed troughs, waste can easily exceed 5% of allocation.

Female herd The total number of all maiden gilts on a farm or those selected from the finishing accommodation, plus all mated sows until they are culled and removed.

Female herd turnover rate percentage A statistic reached by adding the culling percentage and the death percentage for all females in a herd.

Female-to-boar ratio The average female inventory divided by the average boar (breeding and unworked) inventory.

Fetus (USA) An unborn animal.

First cross (F1 or F1 cross) The first-generation progeny that is produced by crossbreeding two different lines.

F2 generation The second-generation progeny produced by crossing two F1 individuals.

First litter sow After a successful pregnancy, a sow between the date of the first effective service and the date of the next effective service.

Fixed cross A crossbreeding or hybrid system that places breeds or lines in fixed positions as sire and dam lines; the final progeny are slaughtered and purebred or crossbred parents are provided as replacements.

Flat deck Specialized housing with perforated floors and temperature-controlled environment for recently weaned pigs.

Fostering Transferring piglets from one litter to another.

Full feeding A feed or ration being fed to the limit of an animal's appetite.

Full siblings Individuals that have the same parents; can include littermates and full brothers and sisters from repeated services of the same parents.

Gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.

Generation interval The period of time between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next.

Genetic correlation The extent of similarity between two traits (ranging from -1 to +1) due solely to genetic influences. Two traits can be controlled by the same genes. Positive genetic correlation indicates that selection for one trait will result in a positive, correlated response in another trait.

Genetic lag The time required for genes to pass from the nucleus to the slaughter generation. Successive generation intervals in the nucleus, daughter nucleus, and multiplier layers in the breeding pyramid comprise this period.

Genetic level A particular sow or boar's position in a breeding pyramid.

Genetic status The genetic composition of boars and sows in common terms, such as to purebred or hybrid. Syn: Line

Gestation Period of pregnancy, or the time between service and the subsequent farrowing or abortion (the day of service is counted as day 0).

Gilt A female that has arrived in the breeding herd but has not yet been mated. An in-pig gilt is a female that has been served and therefore should properly be described as a sow.

Gilt pool Replacement gilts used for breeding.

Gilt replacement rate percentage The number of gilts that enter the herd/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average sow inventory in the same period.

Grandparent The parent stock (boar or sow) in commercial production in a multiplier herd.

Great-grandparent The grandparent stock (boar or sow) in a nucleus herd.

Grower pig A pig after transfer to (UK) or from (USA) the nursery to the moment of transfer into the finisher building.

Con: USA and UK terminology

Syn: Growing pig
COUNTRY        USA              EUROPE
Start Weight   50 lb (23 kg)    5 kg (11 lb)
End Weight     120 lb (55 kg)   30 kg (66 lb)


Grower pig Swine from about 40 to 100 lb.

Growth promoters Non-nutrient feed additives that decrease the feed conversion ratio and increase growth rate.

Growth rate The per-day rate at which live weight increases between two successive weighings.

Heat period Estrus; the period during which a female is sexually receptive.

Half-siblings A half-brother or half-sister.

Half-sibs, maternal Half-siblings that have the same dam.

Half-sibs, paternal Half-siblings that have the same sire.

Heavy hogs A finished pig class in the United Kingdom in the weight category over 82 kg (180 lb) carcass weight.

Hedging gain or loss A net gain or loss resulting from trading in pig futures.

Herd size, female The average number of sows and gilts in a herd. Con: Herd size, sow

Herd size, sow The average number of mated females (but not unserved gilts) in a herd.

Heritability The proportion of the variation in traits attributable to genetics. Heritability varies from zero to one. The higher the heritability of a trait, the more accurately the individual performance predicts breeding value and the more rapid should be the response due to selection for that trait.

Heterosis The amount of superiority observed or measured in crossbred animals compared with the average of their purebred parents; hybrid vigor.

Hog (1) a pig of any size or (2) a British term for a castrated male pig.

Hybrid An animal produced from the crossing or mating of two animals of different breeds.

Hybrid vigor The increase of size, speed of growth, and vitality of a crossbred over its parents.

Hysterectomy

(1) Technique used in some specific pathogen-free laboratories to remove unborn pigs from the sow. The entire uterus is removed with the pigs inside. This operation makes the sow useless, and she is slaughtered immediately after the operation.

(2) Surgical removal of all or parts of the uterus.

Ideal Backfat 0.7" to 0.8". H bone can only just be felt. Body shape: tube shaped. "Lean but fit" look.

Indexing A system for comparing animals with a herd, or area, based on the average of the group; usually the figure 100 is used for an average index; animals receiving an index of 100 or over are the top end while those indexing less than 100 are the bottom end.

Induction of farrowing A treatment that can cause farrowing in a pregnant sow in late pregnancy.

Insurance Guarantee against loss for fire, casualty or third-party liability in exchange for premiums paid on an enterprise, buildings, equipment, or livestock.

Intensity of selection A standardized measure that compares selected individuals and a group.

Interest Amount of funds paid to a lender for the use of money.

Interference level A minimum level of performance.

Killing-out percentage The carcass weight multiplied by 100 and divided by the live weight.

Labor and fringe benefits Wages and noncash benefits such as staff housing, social security, health insurance, and pension contributions.

Lactation The process of forming and secreting milk.

Lairage death In the United Kingdom, a pig that dies between unloading at the slaughterhouse and the point of slaughter.

Late foster sow A sow that weans her own litter and then weans piglets from other sow(s). Syn: Nursemaid sow

Leak Leakage of semen from the vulva during or after artificial insemination.

Leaving date The date at which the sow leaves the herd, i.e. is sold, culled or dies.

Liabilities Money, goods, and/or services that are owed.

Litter The multiple offspring born during the same labor; also, a substance used by animals that is appropriate for absorption of waste products.

Litter number See: Cycle.

Litter scatter graph The percentage of litters with more than and/or less than a specified number of liveborn piglets.

Litter weight A litter's total weight.

Litters farrowed per crate per yr The total number of farrowings/yr divided by the average number of farrowing crates.

Litters per female per yr The total number of farrowings/yr divided by the average total female inventory.

Litters per mated female per yr The number of litters/sow each year. Syn: Farrowing index

Live births per female per yr The total number of live births/yr divided by the average total female inventory.

Live births per sow per yr The total number of live births/yr divided by the average sow herd size.

Live-born piglets Piglets that are born alive.

Live births/litter The total number of live births divided by the number of litters farrowed. Live birthweight, average

The total birthweight of pigs that are born alive divided by the total number of live pigs weighed in the same time period.

Live weight The gross weight of a live animal as compared with the dressed weight after slaughter.

Losses Deaths.

Losses, causes preweaning Common causes for preweaning deaths include congenital defects, low viability, low birthweight, scour, starvation, or death by being laid on or killed by the sow deliberately.

Losses, causes post-weaning Common causes for post-weaning deaths include scour, dysentery, respiratory and nervous system diseases, stress, and injury.

Maiden gilt See: Gilt.

Maintenance ration The amount of feed needed to support an animal when it is doing no work, yielding no product, and gaining no weight.

Margin The sum obtained by the difference between a certain type of revenues and related expenses.

Market hogs In the United States, finished pigs destined for slaughter.

Market weight, average The total weight of all marketed pigs divided by the number of pigs marketed in the same period.

Marketable pork produced/yr The weight of ending inventory, plus sales, minus the beginning inventory, minus purchases.

Mating (1) To pair off two animals of opposite sexes for reproduction. Mating may be for a single season or for life. (2) In plants, to be cross pollinated.

Mated females The total number of females in a breeding herd that have had at least one mating.

Mated female death loss percentage The number of sows that die/yr multiplied by 100 and divided by the average sow inventory.

Mated female-to-service boar ratio See: Sow-to-boar ratio.

Mean A middle point between two extremes; the average.

Megajoule (MJ) An SI (Systeme Internationale d'Unities) unit of energy; 4.184 MJ = 1,000 calories = 1 kilocalorie.

Morbidity The condition of being diseased, or the incidence or prevalence of some particular disease. The morbidity rate is equivalent to the incidence rate.

Mortality rate The number of overall deaths, or deaths from a specific disease, usually expressed as a rate; i.e., the number of deaths from a disease in a given population during a specified period, divided by the average number of people or animals exposed to the disease and at risk of dying from the disease during that time.

Mortality (preweaning) Death that occurs between live birth and weaning.

Mortality (post-weaning) Death that occurs in finisher pigs between weaning and slaughter.

Mummification (1) In animal reproduction, the drying up and shriveling of the unborn young.

Nonproductive sow days Total number of days that elapse between the first service date and the date when a sow is culled, dies, aborts, or is repeat served or fails to farrow. The number of days that a sow is kept in a herd while she is nonproductive.

Not in pig A sow that fails to become pregnant up to 110 d after a presumed effective service.

Nursery A place for housing either (a) lactating sows and their piglets (older term) or (b) weaning pigs (newer term).

Nursery, cold Specialized housing for newly weaned pig that lacks supplementary heating.

Nursery, hot Specialized housing for newly weaned pigs that has supplementary heating. Syn: Flat deck

Nursery, preSpecialized, temperature-controlled housing for early-weaned pigs (3 to 4-wk-old until 6 wk old).

Nursemaid sow See: Late foster sow.

Nursing pig A pig that has not been weaned.

Oestrus (UK) See: Estrus.

Opportunity cost The hypothetical cost or benefit of a forgone opportunity.

Overfat Backfat 1". No detection of H bone. Body shape: excessively thickened trunk behind front legs and in neck region. Bulbous shape.

Parity The number of times a female has borne offspring.

Parturition Giving birth; called farrowing or pigging in swine.

Performance testing The systematic collection of comparative production information for use in decision making to improve efficiency and profitability of beef production.

Phenotypic correlation The observed relationship between traits, caused by both genetic and environmental effects.

Piglet A young pig of either sex.

Pigs born live/female The number of pigs that are born alive/yr divided by the average sow inventory in the same period.

Pigs sold/yr The total number of pigs of a defined type sold/yr.

Pigs sold per sow per yr The sales of stated type/yr divided by the average sow inventory.

Pigs weaned per farrowing crate per yr The number of pigs weaned/yr divided by the average number of farrowing crates during the same time period.

Pigs weaned per female per yr The number of pigs weaned/yr divided by the average female inventory during the same time period.

Pigs weaned per sow per yr The number of pigs weaned/yr divided by the average sow inventory during the same time period.

Pigs weaned per sow-place per yr The number of pigs weaned/yr divided by the average sow capacity during the same time period.

Pork The meat of pigs.

Porker Any young hog.

Post-weaning loss Pigs that die between weaning and slaughter, expressed as a percentage of the number of at-risk pigs.

Post-weaning death loss percentage The post-weaning death loss multiplied by 100 and divided by the number of pigs weaned in the same group.

Pregnancy The condition of a female animal having a living fetus in the uterus; occurs after the ovum has been fertilized by the male sperm cell. See: Gestation period.

Pregnancy rate, 40-d The number of sows that become pregnant within 40 d of service divided by the number of sows serviced in the same time period.

Preweaning loss A pig that is born alive but dies before weaning.

Preweaning death loss percentage The number of preweaning death losses multiplied by 100 and divided by the number of liveborn pigs in the same group.

Premature farrowing The birth of fetuses before the 110th day of pregnancy wherein some survive for more than 24 hr.

Premature pigs Piglets that are born alive before the 110th day of pregnancy and survive for more than 24 hr.

Progeny testing Determining the breeding value of an animal by studying its progeny.

Purebred Designating an animal belonging to one of the recognized breeds of livestock. Such animals are registered or eligible for registry in the official herdbook of the breed. Purebred, registered, and pedigree stock are often used interchangeably, and the term "thoroughbred" is often improperly used for "purebred."

Rent and lease Payments that are made for leased or rented property or land.

Repair and maintenance The costs of repairing or maintaining buildings, equipment, or machinery.

Repeat breeder A female that returns to estrus and is served before the anticipated farrowing date.

Replacement gilt Females that have been selected to be in the breeding herd.

Replacement rate percentage The number of pigs mated for the first time multiplied by 100 and divided by the average sow inventory during the same time period.

Restricted feeding A system of feeding pigs (particularly sows) whereby feed is provided only during certain periods of the day and in less than ad libitum quantities.

Rotation cross Systems of crossing two or more breeds wherein the crossbred females are bred to males of the breed contributing the least genes to that female's genotype. Rotation systems maintain relatively high levels of heterosis and produce replacements from within the system. Opportunity to select replacement heifers is greater for rotation systems than for other crossbreeding systems.

Scours Loose stools or diarrhea usually caused by an infectious agent.

Selection Choosing certain individuals for breeding purposes to propagate or improve some desired quality or characteristic in the offspring.

Semen A fluid substance produced by the male reproductive system containing spermatozoa suspended in secretions of the accessory glands.

Service For a sow, one or more completed matings within the same estrous period. For boars, all the matings in a particular service.

Service, date of The date of the first mating in any one estrous period.

Service, effective A successful mating until proven otherwise.

Service period The period of time during when one or more matings can occur.

Service, repeat An additional service in the same estrous cycle.

Service, return to Symptoms of heat in a sow more than 5 d after service, measured from the first day of mating.

Service, normal or regular return to Symptoms of heat in a sow 18 to 24 d after previous service, measured from the first day of mating.

Service, irregular return to Symptoms of heat in a sow outside the 18 to 24 d interval, measured from the first day of mating.

Service, early return to Symptoms of heat in a sow prior to 18 d post-service, measured from the first day of mating.

Shoat A young pig.

Sire line A breed of males and females in a hybrid breeding program that exclusively contributes to the sires of the slaughter generation.

Slaughter The killing of pigs for food.

Slaughterhouse Location where pig slaughter occurs. Syn: Abattoir, Packing house

Slaughter weight The live weight of a pig at slaughter.

Sow A female swine, usually one that shows evidence of having produced pigs or one that is obviously pregnant.

Sow death loss percentage See: Death percentage, sows.

Sow inventory See: Herd size, sow.

Sow-to-boar ratio The average sow inventory divided by the average breeding boar inventory.

Sow-to-gilt ratio The average sow inventory divided by the average gilt inventory.

Sows weaned/yr The number of sows that gave birth and whose pigs were removed from them, regardless of how long they lactated.

Stage of production The phases of the pig production process; includes Breeder, Preweaning, Nursery, Grower, Finisher, and Off-test.

Standing reflex A sow's response to pressure on her back; useful in AI. This may be elicited by pressing firmly on the sow or actually sitting astride her. A strong positive response is shown by the sow standing still, pushing upwards and giving characteristic grunts. It can be measured on a three-point scale where 3 indicates the strongest positive reaction and 1 means a total lack of interest on the sow's part.

Stig The identification tag on a pig's ear.

Stillborn Born lifeless; dead at birth having not taken a breath.

Stillborn percentage The number of stillborn piglets multiplied by 100 and divided by the total number of pigs born alive in the same group.

Store pig An animal not yet ready for slaughter.

Substandard pig A pig at weaning that is low in weight and/or vigor.

Suckling pig A young pig still nursing its mother. When slaughtered at this stage, it produces a small carcass for roasting whole.

Supplies Materials used in operation of pig enterprise; includes clothing, cleaning products, small tools, and other materials.

Target A goal to be achieved; a level of production to aim for.

Taxes Compulsory charge that is levied by a federal, state, or local unit of government against income or wealth for the common good.

Testing, performance See: Performance testing.

Thin Backfat 0.6". H bone easily felt, or visible protrusion. Body shape: hollowness at loin, (flat or "slab" sides). Cavity around tail setting.

Total births/litter The total number of live births, plus the number of stillborn and mummified pigs/litter, divided by the number of litters farrowed in the same time period.

Total female inventory The total number of replacement gilts and mated females in a herd.

Total female-to-boar ratio The average total female inventory divided by the total number of pigs born alive in the same group.

Total pigs born The total number of pigs born in a litter, including liveborn, stillborn, and mummified pigs.

Transit death A pig that dies in transport between the farm and the slaughterhouse or final disembarcation point.

Trucking cost (USA) The total freight charges and associated expenses related transport of pigs. Transport costs (UK) See: Trucking cost (USA).

Utilities Water, electricity, gas, telephone, and other fuels used in the pig production enterprise.

Vet and medicine All veterinary fees and medications directly related to the pig enterprise.

Wasted days The days between service and an unsuccessful outcome.

Wean (1) To make a young animal cease to depend on its mother's milk. (2) To accustom partly grown birds to do without artificial heat.

Weaning age, piglet The number of days from the birth of a litter of piglets to weaning or removal from the sow.

Weaning age, sow The number of days from a sow's farrowing until she is separated from her piglets.

Weaning, late The separation and weaning of a late foster sow from her foster piglets.

Weaning, split The weaning of only part of a litter; allows smaller piglets continued access to the sow.

Weaning percentage The proportion of pigs of a given population of live pigs born that are weaned. Weaning to service interval The time between the weaning date and the date of first service.

Weaning weight A piglet's weight at weaning.

Yield Grade in meat animals, referring to the amount of lean meat produced in a carcass.
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Title Annotation:SECTION VI Appendices
Publication:Pig Production, Biological Principles and Applications
Article Type:Glossary
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Words:5222
Previous Article:A Human resources.
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