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Ayurvedic influences in folk medicine: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner of Jhalokathi in Barisal district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Ayurvedic, Unani and folk medicinal systems are traditional medicinal systems in Bangladesh and have existed as such for centuries. Ayurvedic system, with its own defined formulary and practices dates back to at least five thousand years ago and is recognized by the Bangladesh Government. The country has a number of Ayurvedic colleges, the students of which, following graduation, claim their titles nowadays as doctors, but previously were known as Kavirajes. Unani system is less ancient and is believed to have arrived in the Indian sub-continent with the arrival of the Muslims, which happened a little more than one thousand years ago. Unani system also has its own defined formularies and medical treatises. Unani colleges have been established in Bangladesh whose students following graduation are known as hakims or Hekims. On the other hand, folk medicinal system has probably existed in the Indian sub-continent from the earliest days of human settlement and definitely out-dates both Ayurveda and Unani. Folk medicines possibly existed in the Indian sub-continent initially as tribal medicines, and with the rise of the mainstream population (Bengali-speaking population in Bangladesh), tribal medicinal systems of the mainstream tribe came to be known as folk medicine. There is no recognized institution for folk medicine. Instead, anybody can practice folk medicine after learning from a 'guru', or reading a few books, or simply practicing following obtaining some medicinal plant information from any sort of diverse sources.

Folk medicinal practitioners are also known as Kavirajes or occasionally Vaidyas. Practically every village, town or city in Bangladesh has one or more folk medicinal practitioners, who cater mostly to the medical needs of the poorer sections of the rural and urban people. The knowledge of the Kavirajes is inter-generational, i.e. kept closely guarded and passed within family members from one generation to another. The origin of such knowledge is unknown, but may have been derived from initial experimentation with animals and human beings. Some Kavirajes claim to have acquired their knowledge from their fathers and grandfathers (occasionally mothers and grandmothers), some claim to have been apprenticed to a guru for a number of years before practicing independently, some claim to have acquired their knowledge in dreams, some from watching animals eating specific plants when suffering from a distinct ailment, and yet others claim that their knowledge has been derived from reading Ayurvedic textbooks, of which many popular texts are present and readily available in the country.

There is no doubt that the two most ancient systems, namely Ayurveda and folk medicine has interacted with each other over the centuries. Ayurveda possibly owes a lot to the original inhabitants of the country regarding selection of medicinal plants, for Ayurveda came with the Aryans to the Indian sub-continent, possibly from Central Asia at a time, when various indigenous communities were already settled within the region which communities were more knowledgeable about the medicinal properties of the local plant species. On the other hand, the Aryans introduced a superior system of medicine with well defined complex formulations of medicinal plants and various complex methods of preparation (fermentation, distillation, decoction), along with the use of metals, herbo-metallic complexes, and minerals and animal parts. Folk medicine on the other hand, still is simple and usually Kavirajes treat any specific disease with juice obtained from a plant or plant part or direct consumption of a single plant or plant part. On the other hand, a significant number of the plants used by the Kavirajes or even tribal healers are also considered as Ayurvedic drug plants by Ayurvedic practitioners.

Towards documenting the traditional medicinal practices of Bangladesh, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the Kavirajes and tribal medicinal practitioners of the country for a number of years (Nawaz et ah, 2009; Rahmatullah et ah, 2009a-c; Chowdhury et ah, 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012ad; Sarker et al., 2012). During our ethnomedicinal surveys, we have documented possible Ayurvedic influences on Chakma tribal medicines of Bangladesh (Rahmatullah et al., 2012e). The objective of this study was to document plants and medicinal formulations of a folk medicinal healer in Jhalokathi of Barisal district, Bangladesh, who claimed his formulations were Ayurveda-based and to evaluate his formulations for possible Ayurvedic influences. A further objective was to evaluate the efficacy of his formulations on the basis of available scientific reports on the various medicinal plants that he used in his formulations.

Materials and Methods

Informed consent was first obtained from the Kaviraj, Niranjan Pal, by religion Sonaton Hindu, age around 75 years, and practicing according to him for the last 50 years. He claimed to have acquired his knowledge from his father and grandfather. He was also associated with an Ayurvedic medicine manufacturer, named Sebasri Oushadhalay. The Kaviraj also claimed himself to be a specialist in female diseases. Consent was obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. Interviews were conducted in Bengali language, both Kaviraj and the interviewers belonging to the mainstream Bengali speaking population. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Mrtin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kaviraj took the interviewers on field-trips through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. On occasions, the process was reversed with the Kaviraj first naming the plant and describing the medicinal uses of the plant, and then taking the interviewers to spots where the plant grew and then pointed out the plant. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kaviraj were photographed and collected on the spot, dried and pressed, and then brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.

Results and Discussion

The Kaviraj mentioned nearly 90 plants, which he used in his various formulations, but only 44 plants will be described in this paper. Of these 44 plants, one plant could not be identified. The rest 43 plants were distributed into 30 families. While some of the formulations of the Kaviraj were simple and essentially consisted of one plant or plant part for treatment of a specific ailment, other formulations were exceedingly complex and consisted of a combination of plants or plant parts. It was also observed that the Kaviraj used different parts of the same plant or different combinations of a particular plant for treatment of multiple diseases. The results are shown in Table 1.

The plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, was used to treat three different diseases, namely hemorrhoids, blood dysentery, and acne. For treatment of hemorrhoids, leaves of the plant were used along with roots of Plumbago zeylanica, fruits of Piper longum, rhizomes of Zingiber officinalis, and fruits of Terminalia chebula. Hemorrhoid, particularly bleeding hemorrhoid is known in Ayurveda as 'shonitarsha', and is treated with an Ayurvedic formulation called Triphalaguggulu, which is taken orally. It is to be noted that this Ayurvedic formulation, among other ingredients, also contains Terminalia chebula and Piper longum, the first being helpful in its wound and inflammation healing property and easing bowel movement and so healing constipation, while the second is known to help digestion and assimilation of food nutrients (Mehra et al., 2011). Thus the two plants can help hemorrhoid patients through both easy passage of stools and healing of inflammation in hemorrhoids. Another Ayurvedic preparation, Takrarishta, also contains Terminalia chebula along with other plants like Piper nigrum, and is used for treatment of hemorrhoids. The use of Terminalia chebula in traditional treatment of hemorrhoids has also been described by others (Chauhan et al., 2012).

For treatment of blood dysentery, the Kaviraj used Kalanchoe pinnata along with Cynodon dactylon and Terminalia arjuna. Cynodon dactylon is also used by the tribal communities of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India for treatment of diarrhea, while Kalanchoe pinnata has been reported to be used by the same tribal communities for treatment of dysentery (Panda et al., 2011). Cynodon dactylon is also used by the tribals of Jhabua district, Madhya Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery and intestinal bleeding (Wagh et al., 2011). Terminalia arjuna is used to cure diarrhea by some tribes of Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India (Kar et al., 2013). Asparagus racemosus was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of night blindness, blood dysentery, and filariasis. The plant is considered a highly useful plant in Ayurveda and is known as Shatavari in Ayurvedic treatises and has been described to have ulcer healing effect among other properties (Alok et al., 2013).

The plant, Azadirachta indica, was used by the Kaviraj for several purposes. In combination with Justicia adhatoda, Solanum lasiocarpum, and Trichosanthes dioica, it was used for treatment of leprosy. By itself, the plant was used for treatment of acne, helmintic infections, and as a blood purifier. Together with Ocimum tenuiflorum, Ecbolium viride, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, and Nymphaea nouchali, the plant was used for treatment of allergy. Traditional and Ayurvedic uses of Azadirachta indica include treatment of acne, leprosy and helmintic infections (Asif, 2012). Justicia adhatoda is used in traditional medicines of Southeast Asia for treatment of leprosy (Dhankar et al., 2011). The leaves of Trichosanthes dioica are also used in some parts of India to treat leprosy. Anti-allergic properties of Tinospora cordifolia have been demonstrated in animal models (Nayampalli et al., 1986).

Artocarpus heterophyllus was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of vomiting, low semen density, frequent passing of stool, less frequency of urination and hydrocele, and in combination with Piper betle and Zingiber officinale for treatment of headache. Analgesic and immunomodulatory activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus have been reported (Prakash et al., 2013), of which the former activity can prove beneficial for headache. The seeds of the plant are considered diuretic in Ayurveda, where the plant is known as Kantakiphala (Khare, 2007); thus the seeds can prove useful in treatment of less frequency of urination. The analgesic activity of Piper betle leaves has also been reported (Alam et al., 2012). Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale also reportedly has analgesic activity (Raji et al., 2002); thus the combination of Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper betle, and Zingiber officinale can together produce a strong synergistic analgesic effect, which can be beneficial for relieving headache. Zingiber officinale has reported constituents like gingerol and shogaol with reported analgesic effects (Khare, 2007). Piper betle and Zingiber officinale are also considered Ayurvedic medicinal plants, with the names, respectively, of Taambula and Aardraka.

Piper longum was used for treatment of multiple diseases by the Kaviraj. In combination with fruits of Terminalia chebula and Swertia chirata and seeds of Cuminum cyminum, fruits of the plant were used to treat fever. Ethnomedicinal uses of Piper longum to treat fever have been reported (Khushbu et al., 2011). In Ayurveda, the plant is known as Pippali and used for treatment of chronic fevers. The anti-pyretic effects of aqueous extract of Swertia chirata roots has also been reported, indicating that the plant is potentially useful for treatment of fevers (Bhargava et al., 2009). In Ayurveda, the plant is known as Kiraata and used, among other purposes, for treatment of malaria and malarial fever (Khare, 2007). In combination with Holarrhena antidysenterica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica, and Morinda angustifolia, Piper longum was used by the Kaviraj to treat blood dysentery. In Ayurveda, the plant Holarrhena antidysenterica, is known as Kutaja and is used for treatment of dysentery and Shonitarsha (bleeding hemorrhoids) (Pal et al., 2009). Piper longum has been experimentally observed to be effective against dysentery (Thaina et al., 2005). Aegle marmelos is a common ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Shamkuwar et al., 2012); in Ayurveda, the plant is known as Bilva. Zingiber officinale has been shown to have gastroprotective effects, in that it is useful in curing ulcer (Malhotra and Singh, 2003). Piper nigrum, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale, and Cuminum cyminum are all ingredients in an Ayurvedic preparation named Hingwashtak churna, which has been shown to protect against gastric lesions (Shirwaikar et al., 2006). Piper nigrum is known in Ayurveda as Maricha and is prescribed in Ayurvedic texts for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders (Khare, 2007).

Solanum lasiocarpum was used by the Kaviraj in combination with Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum tamala, Piper longum, and Cinnamomum verum to treat influenza. In Ayurveda (i.e. Sanskrit language), Cinnamomum tamala is known as Tejapatra. Ancient Ayurvedic texts mention the use of Cinnamomum tamala for treatment of fever (which is a symptom of influenza) (Smerq and Sharma, 2011). The plant has carminative and antidiarrheal uses in Ayurveda. Cinnamomum verum is known in Ayurveda as Daaruchini, and is used for treatment of flu, among other ailments (Khare, 2007). In combination with Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Flagellaria indica, Justicia adhatoda, and Alstonia scholaris, Solanum lasiocarpum was also used by the Kaviraj to treat allergy. Azadirachta indica is known as Nimba in Ayurveda and used to treat cutaneous affections (Khare, 2007). Curcuma longa is known in Ayurveda as Haridraa and is used for treating inflammations and as a blood purifier. Notably, some Kavirajes consider allergy to arise from accumulation of toxins in blood. Alstonia scholaris has been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts as Saptaparna, and is used as a febrifuge. Justicia adhatoda, known in Ayurveda as Vaasaka, is used for treatment of bronchial, pulmonary and asthmatic affections (Khare, 2007).

Withania somnifera was used in multiple ways by the Kaviraj. By itself, the plant was used to treat tuberculosis. Ayurvedic texts mention the use of Fritillaria roylei Hook (Liliaceae, Ayurvedic name--Kshira kaakoli) for treatment of tuberculosis, and further mentions that Withania somnifera can be a substitute for Fritillaria roylei. Withania somnifera is known in Ayurvedic texts as Ashwagandhaa. The plant is also used in Ayurveda for treatment of swellings or inflammation, as well as a diuretic. The Kaviraj used the plant in combination with Allium sativum for treatment of edema. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends using Withania somnifera to treat impotency (Khare, 2007). Notably, the Kaviraj also used the plant in combination with Nigella sativa, Allium cepa, Wedelia chinensis, Phyllanthus emblica, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Santalum album, and Elaeocarpus lucidus for treatment of low semen volume and low sperm density. Ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa (Ayurvedic name--Palaandu) has been shown to significantly restore normal sexual behavior in male rats (Malviya et al., 2013). The aphrodisiac potential of Syzygium aromaticum (Ayurvedic name--Lavanga) has also been mentioned (Yakubu et al., 2007). Ayurvedic uses also mention it as a stimulant (Khare, 2007).

Withania somnifera was used in combination with Abroma augusta, Saraca asoca, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Piper cubeba by the Kaviraj for treatment of irregular menstruation, leucorrhea, and anemia. Abroma augusta (Ayurvedic name--Pivari) has been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts to be useful for dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea (Khare, 2007). The bark of Saraca asoca (Ayurveda name--Hempushpa) is used in Ayurveda as a uterine tonic and for treatment of suppressed menses, leucorrhea, menstrual pain, menorrhagia, and complaints of menopause (Khare, 2007). Piper cubeba (Ayurveda name--Kankola) is used in Ayurvedic preparations for treatment of urinary tract infections, and so can be beneficial for treatment of leucorrhea.

Taken together, a number of the plants used by the Kaviraj are considered as Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their uses by the Kaviraj matches mentioned Ayurvedic uses. This observation suggests that at least some interactions have taken place over the centuries between Ayurvedic physicians and folk medicine practitioners, which are not surprising, considering the fact that the two systems have existed side-by-side for millennia. Several plants used by the Kaviraj can also be scientifically validated in their uses from existing scientific studies on the pharmacological properties of the plants. Ayurveda uses complex formulations of medicinal plants; the approach is total in the sense that the various plants used balance each other so that the total action is synergistic and any given plant can negate any other plant's adverse effects, if any. So if a particular plant is used for treatment of the disease or symptoms and forms the major ingredient but has at the same time other adverse effects, that effect is balanced through introduction of other plants. Folk medicine is not so complicated, but still deserves further scientific attention towards possible discovery of new and effective drugs.

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Rahmatullah, M., T. Ishika, M. Rahman, A. Swarna, T. Khan, M.N. Monalisa, S. Seraj, S.M. Mou, M.J. Mahal and K.R. Biswas, 2011a. Plants prescribed for both preventive and therapeutic purposes by the traditional healers of the Bede community residing by the Turag River, Dhaka district. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 325-331.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, M.M. Rahman, S. Seraj, M.J. Mahal, S.M. Mou, D. Nasrin, Z. Khatun, F. Islam and M.H. Chowdhury, 2011b. A survey of medicinal plants used by Garo and non-Garo traditional medicinal practitioners in two villages of Tangail district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 350-357.

Rahmatullah, M., and K.R. Biswas, 2012a. Traditional medicinal practices of a Sardar healer of the Sardar (Dhangor) community of Bangladesh. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18: 10-19.

Rahmatullah, M., A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, Z. Khatun, F.I. Jahan and R. Jahan, 2012b. Medicinal plants and formulations used by the Soren clan of the Santal tribe in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh for treatment of various ailments. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 342-349.

Rahmatullah, M., Z. Khatun, A. Hasan, W. Parvin, M. Moniruzzaman, A. Khatun, M.J. Mahal, M.S.A. Bhuiyan, S.M. Mou and R. Jahan, 2012c. Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 366-373.

Rahmatullah, M., M.N.K. Azam, Z. Khatun, S. Seraj, F. Islam, M.A. Rahman, S. Jahan, M.S. Aziz and R. Jahan, 2012d. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 9: 380-385.

Rahmatullah, M., A.R. Chowdhury, R.T. Esha, M.R. Chowdhury, S. Adhikary, K.M.A. Haque, A. Paul and M. Akber, 2012e. Ayurvedic influence on use of medicinal plants in Chakma traditional medicine. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 107-112.

Raji, Y., U.S. Udoh, O.O. Oluwadara, O.S. Akinsomisoye, O. Awobajo and K. Adeshoga, 2002. Antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of the rhizome extract of Zingiber officinale. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 5: 121-124.

Sarker, S., S. Seraj, M.M. Sattar, W.M. Haq, M.H. Chowdhury, I. Ahmad, R. Jahan, F. Jamal and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners of six villages in Thakurgaon district, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5: 332-343.

Sarker, B., F. Akther, U.A.R. Sifa, I. Jahan, M. Sarker, S.K. Chakma, P.K. Podder, Z. Khatun and M. Rahmatullah, 2012. Ethnomedicinal investigations among the Sigibe clan of the Khumi tribe of Thanchi sub-district in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6: 378-386.

Shaheen, Md.E.K., Md.A. Syef, S.S. Saha, Md.S. Islam, Md.D.A. Hossain, Md.A.I. Sujan and M. Rahmatullah, 2011. Medicinal plants used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in two villages of Khakiachora and Khasia Palli in Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Advances in Applied and Natural Sciences, 5: 9-19.

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Symun Naher, Bushra Ferdous, Tuli Datta, Umme Faria Rashid, Tamanna Nahian Tasnim, Sharmin Akter, Sadia Moin Mou, Mohammed Rahmatullah

Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh

Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Kaviraj from
Jhalokathi, Barisal district, Bangladesh.

Serial   Scientific             Family Name       Local Name
Number   Name

1        Ecbolim viride         Acanthaceae       Nilkonthi
           (Forsk.) Alst.
2        Justicia               Acanthaceae       Bashok
           adhatoda L.
3        Cuminum cyminum L.     Apiaceae          Shadajeera
4        Alstonia scholaris     Apocynaceae       Chatain
           (L.) R. Br.
5        Holarrhena             Apocynaceae       Kurchi
           antidysenteric
           a  (Roxb. ex
           Fleming) Wall.
           ex A. DC.
6        Rauwolfia serpentina   Apocynaceae       Shorpo gondha
           Benth. ex Kurz.
7        Wedelia chinensis      Asteraceae        Bhringoraj
           (Osbeck) Merr.
8        Saraca asoca           Caesalpiniaceae   Ashok
           (Roxb.) Wilde
9        Terminalia arjuna      Combretaceae      Arjun
           (Roxb.) W. & A.
10       Terminalia             Combretaceae      Horitoki
           chebula
           (Gaertn.) Retz
11       Kalanchoe pinnata      Crassulaceae      Pathorkuchi
           (Lam.) Pers.

12       Trichosanthes          Cucurbitaceae     Potol
           dioica Roxb.
13       Elaeocarpus            Elaeocarpaceae    Bamon [shada
          lucidus Roxb.                             (white) and
                                                    lal (red)
                                                    variety]
14       Phyllanthus            Euphorbiaceae     Amloki
           emblica L.
15       Flagellaria indica     Flagellariaceae   Abeti
           L.
16       Swertia chirata        Gentianaceae      Chirata
           (Roxb. ex Flem.)
           Karsten
17       Ocimum tenuiflorum     Lamiaceae         Tulsi
           L.
18       Cinnamomum tamala      Lauraceae         Tejpata
           Nees and Ebern.
19       Cinnamomum             Lauraceae         Daruchini
           verum Presl.
20       Allium cepa            Liliaceae         Peyaj
           L.
21       Allium sativum L.      Liliaceae         Roshun
22       Asparagus racemosus    Liliaceae         Shotomul,
           Willd.                                   Shotomuli

23       Azadirachta            Meliaceae         Neem, Neeb
           indica A. Juss.

24       Tinospora              Menispermacea     Guloncho
           cordifolia Willd.    e
25       Artocarpus             Moraceae          Kanthal
           heterophyllus

           Lam.

26       Myristica fragrans     Myristicaceae     Jaifol
           Houtt.
27       Syzygium aromaticum    Myrtaceae         Lobongo
           (L.) Merr. & L.M.
           Perry
28       Nymphaea nouchali      Nymphaeaceae      Shapla
           Burm. f.
29       Piper betle L.         Piperaceae        Paan

30       Piper chaba Blume      Piperaceae        Choi
31       Piper cubeba L. f.     Piperaceae        Chub chini
32       Piper longum           Piperaceae        Peepul
         L.

33       Piper nigrum           Piperaceae        Gol morich
           L.
34       Plumbago               Plumbaginaceae    Chita
           zeylanica L.
35       Cynodon dactylon       Poaceae           Durba ghas
           (L.) Pers.
36       Morinda                Rubiaceae         Daru haridra
           angustifolia
           Roxb.
37       Aegle marmelos         Rutaceae          Bael
           (L.) Corr.
38       Santalum album L.      Santalaceae       Shet chondon
39       Solanum                Solanaceae        Kontikari
           lasiocarpum
           Dunal

40       Withania somnifera     Solanaceae        Ashwagond ha
           (L.) Dunal

41       Abroma augusta L.      Sterculiaceae     Olot kombol
42       Curcuma longa L.       Zingiberaceae     Holud
43       Zingiber               Zingiberaceae     Ada
           officinale
           Roscoe

44       Unidentified           Unidentified      Maha lakshmi
                                                    vilas

Serial   Scientific             Parts used
Number   Name

1        Ecbolim viride         Leaf
           (Forsk.) Alst.
2        Justicia               Leaf, bark
           adhatoda L.
3        Cuminum cyminum L.     Seed
4        Alstonia scholaris     Bark
           (L.) R. Br.
5        Holarrhena             Bark of root
           antidysenteric
           a  (Roxb. ex
           Fleming) Wall.
           ex A. DC.
6        Rauwolfia serpentina   Leaf
           Benth. ex Kurz.
7        Wedelia chinensis      Leaf
           (Osbeck) Merr.
8        Saraca asoca           Bark
           (Roxb.) Wilde
9        Terminalia arjuna      Bark
           (Roxb.) W. & A.
10       Terminalia             Fruit
           chebula
           (Gaertn.) Retz
11       Kalanchoe pinnata      Leaf
           (Lam.) Pers.

12       Trichosanthes          Leaf
           dioica Roxb.
13       Elaeocarpus            Bark
          lucidus Roxb.

14       Phyllanthus            Fruit
           emblica L.
15       Flagellaria indica     Root
           L.
16       Swertia chirata        Fruit
           (Roxb. ex Flem.)
           Karsten
17       Ocimum tenuiflorum     Leaf
           L.
18       Cinnamomum tamala      Leaf
           Nees and Ebern.
19       Cinnamomum             Bark
           verum Presl.
20       Allium cepa            Bulb
           L.
21       Allium sativum L.      Clove
22       Asparagus racemosus    Leaf, root
           Willd.

23       Azadirachta            Leaf, fruit
           indica A. Juss.

24       Tinospora              Leaf
           cordifolia Willd.
25       Artocarpus             Leaf, root,
           heterophyllus          seed

           Lam.

26       Myristica fragrans     Fruit
           Houtt.
27       Syzygium aromaticum    Floral bud
           (L.) Merr. & L.M.
           Perry
28       Nymphaea nouchali      Leaf
           Burm. f.
29       Piper betle L.         Leaf

30       Piper chaba Blume      Bark
31       Piper cubeba L. f.     Fruit
32       Piper longum           Fruit, leaf
         L.

33       Piper nigrum           Fruit
           L.
34       Plumbago               Root
           zeylanica L.
35       Cynodon dactylon       Leaf
           (L.) Pers.
36       Morinda                Fruit
           angustifolia
           Roxb.
37       Aegle marmelos         Fruit
           (L.) Corr.
38       Santalum album L.      Bark
39       Solanum                Leaf, flower,
           lasiocarpum            fruit, root,
           Dunal                  stem, seed

40       Withania somnifera     Leaf, root
           (L.) Dunal

41       Abroma augusta L.      Leaf
42       Curcuma longa L.       Rhizome
43       Zingiber               Rhizome
           officinale
           Roscoe

44       Unidentified           Leaf

Serial   Scientific             Disease, Symptoms,
Number   Name                   Formulations, and
                                Administration

1        Ecbolim viride         See Azadirachta indica.
           (Forsk.) Alst.
2        Justicia               See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           adhatoda L.          See Azadirachta indica.
3        Cuminum cyminum L.     See Piper longum.
4        Alstonia scholaris     See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           (L.) R. Br.
5        Holarrhena             See Piper longum.
           antidysenteric
           a  (Roxb. ex
           Fleming) Wall.
           ex A. DC.
6        Rauwolfia serpentina   See Withania somnifera.
           Benth. ex Kurz.
7        Wedelia chinensis      See Withania somnifera.
           (Osbeck) Merr.
8        Saraca asoca           See Withania somnifera.
           (Roxb.) Wilde
9        Terminalia arjuna      See Kalanchoe pinnata.
           (Roxb.) W. & A.
10       Terminalia             See Piper longum.
           chebula              See Kalanchoe pinnata.
           (Gaertn.) Retz       See Azadirachta indica.
11       Kalanchoe pinnata      Hemorrhoids. Leaves of
           (Lam.) Pers.           Kalanchoe pinnata,
                                  roots of Plumbago
                                  zeylanica, fruits of
                                  Piper longum, dried
                                  rhizomes of Zingiber
                                  officinale and dried
                                  fruits of Terminalia
                                  chebula are powdered
                                  and passed through a
                                  cloth to remove coarse
                                  particles. 3g of the
                                  powder is taken each
                                  time with water thrice
                                  daily.
                                Blood dysentery. Leaves
                                  of Kalanchoe pinnata
                                  are combined with
                                  leaves of Cynodon
                                  dactylon and bark of
                                  Terminalia arjuna. 2-3
                                  spoonful of juice
                                  extracted from the
                                  crushed mixture is
                                  orally administered
                                  four times daily for 1
                                  week. Acne. Crushed
                                  leaves are applied as
                                  poultice on
                                  acne-affected areas.
12       Trichosanthes          See Azadirachta indica.
           dioica Roxb.
13       Elaeocarpus            See Withania somnifera.
          lucidus Roxb.

14       Phyllanthus            See Withania somnifera.
           emblica L.           See Piper longum.
15       Flagellaria indica     See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           L.
16       Swertia chirata        See Piper longum.
           (Roxb. ex Flem.)
           Karsten
17       Ocimum tenuiflorum     See Azadirachta indica.
           L.
18       Cinnamomum tamala      See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           Nees and Ebern.
19       Cinnamomum             See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           verum Presl.         See Withania somnifera.
20       Allium cepa            See Withania somnifera.
           L.
21       Allium sativum L.      See Withania somnifera.
22       Asparagus racemosus    Night blindness. Young
           Willd.                 leaves are fried in a
                                  little amount of ghee
                                  and taken orally every
                                  morning.
                                Blood dysentery. Four
                                  teaspoonful of juice
                                  obtained from crushed
                                  leaves is mixed with
                                  7-8 teaspoonful of milk
                                  and taken twice daily
                                  in the morning and
                                  evening.
                                Filariasis. Two
                                  teaspoonful of juice
                                  obtained from crushed
                                  roots is taken with
                                  sugarcane molasses in
                                  the form of a sherbet.

23       Azadirachta            See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           indica A. Juss.      Leprosy. Leaves of
                                  Azadirachta indica,
                                  Justicia adhatoda,
                                  Solanum lasiocarpum and
                                  Tricosanthes dioica are
                                  combined and crushed to
                                  collect juice. 5-6
                                  teaspoonful of the
                                  juice is taken twice
                                  daily for 1 month.
                                Acne. Crushed leaves
                                  are applied as poultice
                                  over acne-affected
                                  areas for 1 week.
                                Helmintic infections in
                                  children. Two spoonful
                                  of juice obtained from
                                  crushed leaves is taken
                                  twice daily.
                                Allergy. Leaves of
                                  Azadirachta indica are
                                  combined with leaves of
                                  Ocimum tenuiflorum,
                                  leaves of Ecbolium
                                  viride, fruits of
                                  Terminalia chebula,
                                  leaves of Tinospora
                                  cordifolia and leaves
                                  of Nymphaea nouchali.
                                  Two spoonful of juice
                                  extracted from the
                                  crushed mixture is
                                  taken once daily for 1
                                  week.
                                Blood purification.
                                  Fruits are taken
                                  orally.
24       Tinospora              See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           cordifolia Willd.    See Azadirachta indica.
25       Artocarpus             Vomiting. Macerated
           heterophyllus          leaves are taken orally
                                  with a little water.
           Lam.                 Hydrocele. Roots are
                                  tied around the waist.
                                Headache. Leaves of
                                  maha lakshmi vilas
                                  (unidentified plant)
                                  are mixed with leaves
                                  of Piper betle and
                                  rhizomes of Zingiber
                                  officinale and leaves
                                  of Artocarpus
                                  heterophyllus bearing
                                  ripe fruits. Juice
                                  obtained from the
                                  crushed mixture is
                                  taken with honey.
                                Low semen density,
                                  frequent passing of
                                  stool, less frequency
                                  of urination. Seeds are
                                  orally taken.
26       Myristica fragrans     See Withania somnifera.
           Houtt.
27       Syzygium aromaticum    See Withania somnifera.
           (L.) Merr. & L.M.
           Perry
28       Nymphaea nouchali      See Azadirachta indica.
           Burm. f.
29       Piper betle L.         See Artocarpus
                                  heterophyllus.
30       Piper chaba Blume      See Piper longum.
31       Piper cubeba L. f.     See Withania somnifera.
32       Piper longum           See Solanum lasiocarpum.
         L.                     Fever. Fruits of Piper
                                  longum are powdered
                                  with fruits of
                                  Terminalia chebula,
                                  fruits of Swertia
                                  chirata, and seeds of
                                  Cuminum cyminum in a
                                  haman dista (locally
                                  prepared mortar and
                                  pestle). The powder is
                                  passed through a clean
                                  cloth to remove coarse
                                  particles. 1-3g of the
                                  powder is mixed with
                                  warm water and taken
                                  thrice daily. For
                                  children, the dosage is
                                  half the above amount.
                                Hemorrhoids. Fruits and
                                  roots of Piper longum
                                  are combined with
                                  roots of Plumbago
                                  zeylanica, bark of
                                  Piper chaba, and dried
                                  rhizomes of Zingiber
                                  officinale and powdered
                                  in a haman dista and
                                  passed through a cloth
                                  to get rid of coarse
                                  particles. The powder
                                  is them mixed with warm
                                  water. 1-3g of the
                                  resulting mixture is
                                  taken 3-4 times daily.
                                Blood dysentery. Fruits
                                  of Piper longum are
                                  mixed  with  bark  of
                                  root  of Holarrhena
                                  antidysenterica,
                                  dried  fruit  pulp  of
                                  Aegle marmelos, rhizome
                                  of Zingiber officinale,
                                  fruits of Piper nigrum,
                                  fruits of Phyllanthus
                                  emblica, root of
                                  Plumbago zeylanica,
                                  fruits of Morinda
                                  angustifolia, crushed
                                  and the juice
                                  extracted. 24
                                  teaspoonful of the
                                  juice is taken thrice
                                  daily. See Kalanchoe
                                  pinnata.

33       Piper nigrum           See Solanum lasiocarpum.
           L.                   See Piper longum.
34       Plumbago               See Piper longum.
           zeylanica L.         See Kalanchoe pinnata.
35       Cynodon dactylon       See Kalanchoe pinnata.
           (L.) Pers.
36       Morinda                See Piper longum.
           angustifolia
           Roxb.
37       Aegle marmelos         See Piper longum.
           (L.) Corr.
38       Santalum album L.      See Withania somnifera.
39       Solanum                Chicken pox.  Roots
           lasiocarpum            are  soaked  in water
           Dunal                  followed by drinking
                                  the water twice daily.
                                  Typhoid. Whole plants
                                  (leaf, flower, fruit,
                                  root, stem, seed) are
                                  boiled in water. When
                                  the volume of water has
                                  been reduced by half,
                                  the decoction is
                                  cooled, strained and
                                  the liquid portion is
                                  taken daily.
                                Influenza. About 6 anna
                                  (local measure, 16
                                  annas approximates 1
                                  kg) amount of leaves
                                  and stems of Solanum
                                  lasiocarpum are mixed
                                  with 12 fruits of Piper
                                  nigrum, 12 leaves of
                                  Cinnamomum tamala, 2
                                  fruits of Piper longum,
                                  1 chatak (local
                                  measure, 16 chataks
                                  approximate 1 kg) sea
                                  salt, bark of
                                  Cinnamomum verum, 2
                                  tolas (local measure,
                                  80 tolas approximate 1
                                  kg) powdered mishri
                                  (crystalline sugar) and
                                  added to 1/2 ser (local
                                  measure, 1 ser
                                  approximates 1 kg)
                                  water. The combination
                                  is put in an earthen
                                  vessel and boiled. When
                                  the volume has reached
                                  about VV poa (local
                                  measure, 4 poas
                                  approximate 1 kg), the
                                  boiling is stopped and
                                  the decoct ion strained
                                  to separate liquid from
                                  the solid. The strained
                                  liquid is orally
                                  administered in a
                                  slightly warm state
                                  along with water.
                                Abscess with severe
                                  pain but non-formation
                                  of pus. Seeds are
                                  thoroughly crushed and
                                  applied as poultice
                                  over the abscess.
                                Allergy. Whole plants
                                  of Solanum lasiocarpum
                                  are combined with
                                  rhizomes of Curcuma
                                  longa, leaves of
                                  Azadirachta indica,
                                  leaves of Tinospora
                                  cordifolia, roots of
                                  Flagellaria indica,
                                  leaves or bark of
                                  Justicia adhatoda, bark
                                  of Alstonia scholaris
                                  and soaked in 1/2 cup
                                  water. The water is
                                  then taken over a
                                  period of two weeks.
                                See Azadirachta indica.
40       Withania somnifera     Edema. Leaves of
           (L.) Dunal             Withania somnifera are
                                  mixed with cloves of
                                  Allium sativum and 200
                                  ml water and the
                                  combination is boiled
                                  till the volume reaches
                                  50 ml. The decoction is
                                  then strained to
                                  separate liquid portion
                                  from solids. Five
                                  teaspoonfuls of the
                                  liquid are taken twice
                                  daily.
                                Low semen volume and
                                  low sperm density.
                                  Leaves of Withania
                                  somnifera are mixed
                                  with seeds of Nigella
                                  sativa, bulb of Allium
                                  cepa, leaves of Wedelia
                                  c hinensis, fruits of
                                  Phyllanthus emblica,
                                  fruits of Myristica
                                  fragrans, bark of
                                  Cinnamomum verum, dried
                                  floral buds of Syzygium
                                  aromaticum, bark of
                                  Santalum album, bark of
                                  Elaeocarpus lucidus
                                  (both red and white
                                  variety), crushed, and
                                  juice extracted. Four
                                  teaspoonfuls of the
                                  juice are taken twice
                                  daily.
                                Irregular menstruation,
                                  leucorrhea, anemia.
                                  Leaves of Withania
                                  somnifera, Abroma
                                  augusta, bark of Saraca
                                  asoca, leaves of
                                  Rauwolfia serpentina,
                                  and fruits of Piper
                                  cubeba are crushed
                                  together and the juice
                                  extracted. Two
                                  teaspoonfuls of the
                                  juice are taken daily
                                  for 1 week. For
                                  irregular menstruation,
                                  two teaspoonful of the
                                  juice is taken for 10
                                  days every night; for
                                  leucorrhea two
                                  teaspoonful of the
                                  juice is taken daily
                                  every night for 7 days.
                                Tuberculosis. 6g of
                                  root powder is taken
                                  with honey twice daily
                                  in the morning and
                                  evening. Weakness in
                                  children. 5g of root
                                  powder is taken with
                                  milk or ghee (clarified
                                  butter) every day for 1
                                  month.
41       Abroma augusta L.      See Withania somnifera.
42       Curcuma longa L.       See Solanum lasiocarpum.
43       Zingiber               See Piper longum.
           officinale           See Artocarpus
           Roscoe                 heterophyllus.
                                See Kalanchoe pinnata.
44       Unidentified           See Artocarpus
                                  heterophyllus.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Naher, Symun; Ferdous, Bushra; Datta, Tuli; Rashid, Umme Faria; Tasnim, Tamanna Nahian; Akter, Sharm
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2013
Words:7361
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