Ayurvedic influences in folk medicine: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner of Jhalokathi in Barisal district, Bangladesh.
Ayurvedic, Unani and folk medicinal systems are traditional medicinal systems in Bangladesh and have existed as such for centuries. Ayurvedic system, with its own defined formulary and practices dates back to at least five thousand years ago and is recognized by the Bangladesh Government. The country has a number of Ayurvedic colleges, the students of which, following graduation, claim their titles nowadays as doctors, but previously were known as Kavirajes. Unani system is less ancient and is believed to have arrived in the Indian sub-continent with the arrival of the Muslims, which happened a little more than one thousand years ago. Unani system also has its own defined formularies and medical treatises. Unani colleges have been established in Bangladesh whose students following graduation are known as hakims or Hekims. On the other hand, folk medicinal system has probably existed in the Indian sub-continent from the earliest days of human settlement and definitely out-dates both Ayurveda and Unani. Folk medicines possibly existed in the Indian sub-continent initially as tribal medicines, and with the rise of the mainstream population (Bengali-speaking population in Bangladesh), tribal medicinal systems of the mainstream tribe came to be known as folk medicine. There is no recognized institution for folk medicine. Instead, anybody can practice folk medicine after learning from a 'guru', or reading a few books, or simply practicing following obtaining some medicinal plant information from any sort of diverse sources.
Folk medicinal practitioners are also known as Kavirajes or occasionally Vaidyas. Practically every village, town or city in Bangladesh has one or more folk medicinal practitioners, who cater mostly to the medical needs of the poorer sections of the rural and urban people. The knowledge of the Kavirajes is inter-generational, i.e. kept closely guarded and passed within family members from one generation to another. The origin of such knowledge is unknown, but may have been derived from initial experimentation with animals and human beings. Some Kavirajes claim to have acquired their knowledge from their fathers and grandfathers (occasionally mothers and grandmothers), some claim to have been apprenticed to a guru for a number of years before practicing independently, some claim to have acquired their knowledge in dreams, some from watching animals eating specific plants when suffering from a distinct ailment, and yet others claim that their knowledge has been derived from reading Ayurvedic textbooks, of which many popular texts are present and readily available in the country.
There is no doubt that the two most ancient systems, namely Ayurveda and folk medicine has interacted with each other over the centuries. Ayurveda possibly owes a lot to the original inhabitants of the country regarding selection of medicinal plants, for Ayurveda came with the Aryans to the Indian sub-continent, possibly from Central Asia at a time, when various indigenous communities were already settled within the region which communities were more knowledgeable about the medicinal properties of the local plant species. On the other hand, the Aryans introduced a superior system of medicine with well defined complex formulations of medicinal plants and various complex methods of preparation (fermentation, distillation, decoction), along with the use of metals, herbo-metallic complexes, and minerals and animal parts. Folk medicine on the other hand, still is simple and usually Kavirajes treat any specific disease with juice obtained from a plant or plant part or direct consumption of a single plant or plant part. On the other hand, a significant number of the plants used by the Kavirajes or even tribal healers are also considered as Ayurvedic drug plants by Ayurvedic practitioners.
Towards documenting the traditional medicinal practices of Bangladesh, we had been conducting ethnomedicinal surveys among the Kavirajes and tribal medicinal practitioners of the country for a number of years (Nawaz et ah, 2009; Rahmatullah et ah, 2009a-c; Chowdhury et ah, 2010; Hasan et al., 2010; Hossan et al., 2010; Mollik et al., 2010a,b; Rahmatullah et al., 2010a-g; Akber et al., 2011; Biswas et al., 2011a-c; Haque et al., 2011; Islam et al., 2011; Jahan et al., 2011; Rahmatullah et al., 2011a,b; Sarker et al., 2011; Shaheen et al., 2011; Das et al., 2012; Hasan et al., 2012; Hossan et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012; Rahmatullah et al., 2012ad; Sarker et al., 2012). During our ethnomedicinal surveys, we have documented possible Ayurvedic influences on Chakma tribal medicines of Bangladesh (Rahmatullah et al., 2012e). The objective of this study was to document plants and medicinal formulations of a folk medicinal healer in Jhalokathi of Barisal district, Bangladesh, who claimed his formulations were Ayurveda-based and to evaluate his formulations for possible Ayurvedic influences. A further objective was to evaluate the efficacy of his formulations on the basis of available scientific reports on the various medicinal plants that he used in his formulations.
Materials and Methods
Informed consent was first obtained from the Kaviraj, Niranjan Pal, by religion Sonaton Hindu, age around 75 years, and practicing according to him for the last 50 years. He claimed to have acquired his knowledge from his father and grandfather. He was also associated with an Ayurvedic medicine manufacturer, named Sebasri Oushadhalay. The Kaviraj also claimed himself to be a specialist in female diseases. Consent was obtained to disseminate any information provided both nationally and internationally. Interviews were conducted in Bengali language, both Kaviraj and the interviewers belonging to the mainstream Bengali speaking population. Actual interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method of Mrtin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kaviraj took the interviewers on field-trips through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. On occasions, the process was reversed with the Kaviraj first naming the plant and describing the medicinal uses of the plant, and then taking the interviewers to spots where the plant grew and then pointed out the plant. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kaviraj were photographed and collected on the spot, dried and pressed, and then brought back to Dhaka for complete identification by Mr. Manjur-Ul-Kadir Mia, ex-Curator and Principal Scientific Officer of the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Voucher specimens were deposited with the Medicinal Plant Collection Wing of the University of Development Alternative.
Results and Discussion
The Kaviraj mentioned nearly 90 plants, which he used in his various formulations, but only 44 plants will be described in this paper. Of these 44 plants, one plant could not be identified. The rest 43 plants were distributed into 30 families. While some of the formulations of the Kaviraj were simple and essentially consisted of one plant or plant part for treatment of a specific ailment, other formulations were exceedingly complex and consisted of a combination of plants or plant parts. It was also observed that the Kaviraj used different parts of the same plant or different combinations of a particular plant for treatment of multiple diseases. The results are shown in Table 1.
The plant, Kalanchoe pinnata, was used to treat three different diseases, namely hemorrhoids, blood dysentery, and acne. For treatment of hemorrhoids, leaves of the plant were used along with roots of Plumbago zeylanica, fruits of Piper longum, rhizomes of Zingiber officinalis, and fruits of Terminalia chebula. Hemorrhoid, particularly bleeding hemorrhoid is known in Ayurveda as 'shonitarsha', and is treated with an Ayurvedic formulation called Triphalaguggulu, which is taken orally. It is to be noted that this Ayurvedic formulation, among other ingredients, also contains Terminalia chebula and Piper longum, the first being helpful in its wound and inflammation healing property and easing bowel movement and so healing constipation, while the second is known to help digestion and assimilation of food nutrients (Mehra et al., 2011). Thus the two plants can help hemorrhoid patients through both easy passage of stools and healing of inflammation in hemorrhoids. Another Ayurvedic preparation, Takrarishta, also contains Terminalia chebula along with other plants like Piper nigrum, and is used for treatment of hemorrhoids. The use of Terminalia chebula in traditional treatment of hemorrhoids has also been described by others (Chauhan et al., 2012).
For treatment of blood dysentery, the Kaviraj used Kalanchoe pinnata along with Cynodon dactylon and Terminalia arjuna. Cynodon dactylon is also used by the tribal communities of Mayurbhanj district, Orissa, India for treatment of diarrhea, while Kalanchoe pinnata has been reported to be used by the same tribal communities for treatment of dysentery (Panda et al., 2011). Cynodon dactylon is also used by the tribals of Jhabua district, Madhya Pradesh, India for treatment of dysentery and intestinal bleeding (Wagh et al., 2011). Terminalia arjuna is used to cure diarrhea by some tribes of Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, India (Kar et al., 2013). Asparagus racemosus was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of night blindness, blood dysentery, and filariasis. The plant is considered a highly useful plant in Ayurveda and is known as Shatavari in Ayurvedic treatises and has been described to have ulcer healing effect among other properties (Alok et al., 2013).
The plant, Azadirachta indica, was used by the Kaviraj for several purposes. In combination with Justicia adhatoda, Solanum lasiocarpum, and Trichosanthes dioica, it was used for treatment of leprosy. By itself, the plant was used for treatment of acne, helmintic infections, and as a blood purifier. Together with Ocimum tenuiflorum, Ecbolium viride, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, and Nymphaea nouchali, the plant was used for treatment of allergy. Traditional and Ayurvedic uses of Azadirachta indica include treatment of acne, leprosy and helmintic infections (Asif, 2012). Justicia adhatoda is used in traditional medicines of Southeast Asia for treatment of leprosy (Dhankar et al., 2011). The leaves of Trichosanthes dioica are also used in some parts of India to treat leprosy. Anti-allergic properties of Tinospora cordifolia have been demonstrated in animal models (Nayampalli et al., 1986).
Artocarpus heterophyllus was used by the Kaviraj for treatment of vomiting, low semen density, frequent passing of stool, less frequency of urination and hydrocele, and in combination with Piper betle and Zingiber officinale for treatment of headache. Analgesic and immunomodulatory activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus have been reported (Prakash et al., 2013), of which the former activity can prove beneficial for headache. The seeds of the plant are considered diuretic in Ayurveda, where the plant is known as Kantakiphala (Khare, 2007); thus the seeds can prove useful in treatment of less frequency of urination. The analgesic activity of Piper betle leaves has also been reported (Alam et al., 2012). Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale also reportedly has analgesic activity (Raji et al., 2002); thus the combination of Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper betle, and Zingiber officinale can together produce a strong synergistic analgesic effect, which can be beneficial for relieving headache. Zingiber officinale has reported constituents like gingerol and shogaol with reported analgesic effects (Khare, 2007). Piper betle and Zingiber officinale are also considered Ayurvedic medicinal plants, with the names, respectively, of Taambula and Aardraka.
Piper longum was used for treatment of multiple diseases by the Kaviraj. In combination with fruits of Terminalia chebula and Swertia chirata and seeds of Cuminum cyminum, fruits of the plant were used to treat fever. Ethnomedicinal uses of Piper longum to treat fever have been reported (Khushbu et al., 2011). In Ayurveda, the plant is known as Pippali and used for treatment of chronic fevers. The anti-pyretic effects of aqueous extract of Swertia chirata roots has also been reported, indicating that the plant is potentially useful for treatment of fevers (Bhargava et al., 2009). In Ayurveda, the plant is known as Kiraata and used, among other purposes, for treatment of malaria and malarial fever (Khare, 2007). In combination with Holarrhena antidysenterica, Aegle marmelos, Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica, and Morinda angustifolia, Piper longum was used by the Kaviraj to treat blood dysentery. In Ayurveda, the plant Holarrhena antidysenterica, is known as Kutaja and is used for treatment of dysentery and Shonitarsha (bleeding hemorrhoids) (Pal et al., 2009). Piper longum has been experimentally observed to be effective against dysentery (Thaina et al., 2005). Aegle marmelos is a common ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Shamkuwar et al., 2012); in Ayurveda, the plant is known as Bilva. Zingiber officinale has been shown to have gastroprotective effects, in that it is useful in curing ulcer (Malhotra and Singh, 2003). Piper nigrum, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale, and Cuminum cyminum are all ingredients in an Ayurvedic preparation named Hingwashtak churna, which has been shown to protect against gastric lesions (Shirwaikar et al., 2006). Piper nigrum is known in Ayurveda as Maricha and is prescribed in Ayurvedic texts for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders (Khare, 2007).
Solanum lasiocarpum was used by the Kaviraj in combination with Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum tamala, Piper longum, and Cinnamomum verum to treat influenza. In Ayurveda (i.e. Sanskrit language), Cinnamomum tamala is known as Tejapatra. Ancient Ayurvedic texts mention the use of Cinnamomum tamala for treatment of fever (which is a symptom of influenza) (Smerq and Sharma, 2011). The plant has carminative and antidiarrheal uses in Ayurveda. Cinnamomum verum is known in Ayurveda as Daaruchini, and is used for treatment of flu, among other ailments (Khare, 2007). In combination with Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, Flagellaria indica, Justicia adhatoda, and Alstonia scholaris, Solanum lasiocarpum was also used by the Kaviraj to treat allergy. Azadirachta indica is known as Nimba in Ayurveda and used to treat cutaneous affections (Khare, 2007). Curcuma longa is known in Ayurveda as Haridraa and is used for treating inflammations and as a blood purifier. Notably, some Kavirajes consider allergy to arise from accumulation of toxins in blood. Alstonia scholaris has been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts as Saptaparna, and is used as a febrifuge. Justicia adhatoda, known in Ayurveda as Vaasaka, is used for treatment of bronchial, pulmonary and asthmatic affections (Khare, 2007).
Withania somnifera was used in multiple ways by the Kaviraj. By itself, the plant was used to treat tuberculosis. Ayurvedic texts mention the use of Fritillaria roylei Hook (Liliaceae, Ayurvedic name--Kshira kaakoli) for treatment of tuberculosis, and further mentions that Withania somnifera can be a substitute for Fritillaria roylei. Withania somnifera is known in Ayurvedic texts as Ashwagandhaa. The plant is also used in Ayurveda for treatment of swellings or inflammation, as well as a diuretic. The Kaviraj used the plant in combination with Allium sativum for treatment of edema. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends using Withania somnifera to treat impotency (Khare, 2007). Notably, the Kaviraj also used the plant in combination with Nigella sativa, Allium cepa, Wedelia chinensis, Phyllanthus emblica, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Santalum album, and Elaeocarpus lucidus for treatment of low semen volume and low sperm density. Ethyl acetate fraction of Allium cepa (Ayurvedic name--Palaandu) has been shown to significantly restore normal sexual behavior in male rats (Malviya et al., 2013). The aphrodisiac potential of Syzygium aromaticum (Ayurvedic name--Lavanga) has also been mentioned (Yakubu et al., 2007). Ayurvedic uses also mention it as a stimulant (Khare, 2007).
Withania somnifera was used in combination with Abroma augusta, Saraca asoca, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Piper cubeba by the Kaviraj for treatment of irregular menstruation, leucorrhea, and anemia. Abroma augusta (Ayurvedic name--Pivari) has been mentioned in Ayurvedic texts to be useful for dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea (Khare, 2007). The bark of Saraca asoca (Ayurveda name--Hempushpa) is used in Ayurveda as a uterine tonic and for treatment of suppressed menses, leucorrhea, menstrual pain, menorrhagia, and complaints of menopause (Khare, 2007). Piper cubeba (Ayurveda name--Kankola) is used in Ayurvedic preparations for treatment of urinary tract infections, and so can be beneficial for treatment of leucorrhea.
Taken together, a number of the plants used by the Kaviraj are considered as Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their uses by the Kaviraj matches mentioned Ayurvedic uses. This observation suggests that at least some interactions have taken place over the centuries between Ayurvedic physicians and folk medicine practitioners, which are not surprising, considering the fact that the two systems have existed side-by-side for millennia. Several plants used by the Kaviraj can also be scientifically validated in their uses from existing scientific studies on the pharmacological properties of the plants. Ayurveda uses complex formulations of medicinal plants; the approach is total in the sense that the various plants used balance each other so that the total action is synergistic and any given plant can negate any other plant's adverse effects, if any. So if a particular plant is used for treatment of the disease or symptoms and forms the major ingredient but has at the same time other adverse effects, that effect is balanced through introduction of other plants. Folk medicine is not so complicated, but still deserves further scientific attention towards possible discovery of new and effective drugs.
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Symun Naher, Bushra Ferdous, Tuli Datta, Umme Faria Rashid, Tamanna Nahian Tasnim, Sharmin Akter, Sadia Moin Mou, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh
Corresponding Author: Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1209 Bangladesh
Phone: 88-01715032621; Fax: 88-02-8157339; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Table 1: Medicinal plants and formulations of the Kaviraj from Jhalokathi, Barisal district, Bangladesh. Serial Scientific Family Name Local Name Number Name 1 Ecbolim viride Acanthaceae Nilkonthi (Forsk.) Alst. 2 Justicia Acanthaceae Bashok adhatoda L. 3 Cuminum cyminum L. Apiaceae Shadajeera 4 Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae Chatain (L.) R. Br. 5 Holarrhena Apocynaceae Kurchi antidysenteric a (Roxb. ex Fleming) Wall. ex A. DC. 6 Rauwolfia serpentina Apocynaceae Shorpo gondha Benth. ex Kurz. 7 Wedelia chinensis Asteraceae Bhringoraj (Osbeck) Merr. 8 Saraca asoca Caesalpiniaceae Ashok (Roxb.) Wilde 9 Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Arjun (Roxb.) W. & A. 10 Terminalia Combretaceae Horitoki chebula (Gaertn.) Retz 11 Kalanchoe pinnata Crassulaceae Pathorkuchi (Lam.) Pers. 12 Trichosanthes Cucurbitaceae Potol dioica Roxb. 13 Elaeocarpus Elaeocarpaceae Bamon [shada lucidus Roxb. (white) and lal (red) variety] 14 Phyllanthus Euphorbiaceae Amloki emblica L. 15 Flagellaria indica Flagellariaceae Abeti L. 16 Swertia chirata Gentianaceae Chirata (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karsten 17 Ocimum tenuiflorum Lamiaceae Tulsi L. 18 Cinnamomum tamala Lauraceae Tejpata Nees and Ebern. 19 Cinnamomum Lauraceae Daruchini verum Presl. 20 Allium cepa Liliaceae Peyaj L. 21 Allium sativum L. Liliaceae Roshun 22 Asparagus racemosus Liliaceae Shotomul, Willd. Shotomuli 23 Azadirachta Meliaceae Neem, Neeb indica A. Juss. 24 Tinospora Menispermacea Guloncho cordifolia Willd. e 25 Artocarpus Moraceae Kanthal heterophyllus Lam. 26 Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae Jaifol Houtt. 27 Syzygium aromaticum Myrtaceae Lobongo (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 28 Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaeaceae Shapla Burm. f. 29 Piper betle L. Piperaceae Paan 30 Piper chaba Blume Piperaceae Choi 31 Piper cubeba L. f. Piperaceae Chub chini 32 Piper longum Piperaceae Peepul L. 33 Piper nigrum Piperaceae Gol morich L. 34 Plumbago Plumbaginaceae Chita zeylanica L. 35 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Durba ghas (L.) Pers. 36 Morinda Rubiaceae Daru haridra angustifolia Roxb. 37 Aegle marmelos Rutaceae Bael (L.) Corr. 38 Santalum album L. Santalaceae Shet chondon 39 Solanum Solanaceae Kontikari lasiocarpum Dunal 40 Withania somnifera Solanaceae Ashwagond ha (L.) Dunal 41 Abroma augusta L. Sterculiaceae Olot kombol 42 Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Holud 43 Zingiber Zingiberaceae Ada officinale Roscoe 44 Unidentified Unidentified Maha lakshmi vilas Serial Scientific Parts used Number Name 1 Ecbolim viride Leaf (Forsk.) Alst. 2 Justicia Leaf, bark adhatoda L. 3 Cuminum cyminum L. Seed 4 Alstonia scholaris Bark (L.) R. Br. 5 Holarrhena Bark of root antidysenteric a (Roxb. ex Fleming) Wall. ex A. DC. 6 Rauwolfia serpentina Leaf Benth. ex Kurz. 7 Wedelia chinensis Leaf (Osbeck) Merr. 8 Saraca asoca Bark (Roxb.) Wilde 9 Terminalia arjuna Bark (Roxb.) W. & A. 10 Terminalia Fruit chebula (Gaertn.) Retz 11 Kalanchoe pinnata Leaf (Lam.) Pers. 12 Trichosanthes Leaf dioica Roxb. 13 Elaeocarpus Bark lucidus Roxb. 14 Phyllanthus Fruit emblica L. 15 Flagellaria indica Root L. 16 Swertia chirata Fruit (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karsten 17 Ocimum tenuiflorum Leaf L. 18 Cinnamomum tamala Leaf Nees and Ebern. 19 Cinnamomum Bark verum Presl. 20 Allium cepa Bulb L. 21 Allium sativum L. Clove 22 Asparagus racemosus Leaf, root Willd. 23 Azadirachta Leaf, fruit indica A. Juss. 24 Tinospora Leaf cordifolia Willd. 25 Artocarpus Leaf, root, heterophyllus seed Lam. 26 Myristica fragrans Fruit Houtt. 27 Syzygium aromaticum Floral bud (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 28 Nymphaea nouchali Leaf Burm. f. 29 Piper betle L. Leaf 30 Piper chaba Blume Bark 31 Piper cubeba L. f. Fruit 32 Piper longum Fruit, leaf L. 33 Piper nigrum Fruit L. 34 Plumbago Root zeylanica L. 35 Cynodon dactylon Leaf (L.) Pers. 36 Morinda Fruit angustifolia Roxb. 37 Aegle marmelos Fruit (L.) Corr. 38 Santalum album L. Bark 39 Solanum Leaf, flower, lasiocarpum fruit, root, Dunal stem, seed 40 Withania somnifera Leaf, root (L.) Dunal 41 Abroma augusta L. Leaf 42 Curcuma longa L. Rhizome 43 Zingiber Rhizome officinale Roscoe 44 Unidentified Leaf Serial Scientific Disease, Symptoms, Number Name Formulations, and Administration 1 Ecbolim viride See Azadirachta indica. (Forsk.) Alst. 2 Justicia See Solanum lasiocarpum. adhatoda L. See Azadirachta indica. 3 Cuminum cyminum L. See Piper longum. 4 Alstonia scholaris See Solanum lasiocarpum. (L.) R. Br. 5 Holarrhena See Piper longum. antidysenteric a (Roxb. ex Fleming) Wall. ex A. DC. 6 Rauwolfia serpentina See Withania somnifera. Benth. ex Kurz. 7 Wedelia chinensis See Withania somnifera. (Osbeck) Merr. 8 Saraca asoca See Withania somnifera. (Roxb.) Wilde 9 Terminalia arjuna See Kalanchoe pinnata. (Roxb.) W. & A. 10 Terminalia See Piper longum. chebula See Kalanchoe pinnata. (Gaertn.) Retz See Azadirachta indica. 11 Kalanchoe pinnata Hemorrhoids. Leaves of (Lam.) Pers. Kalanchoe pinnata, roots of Plumbago zeylanica, fruits of Piper longum, dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and dried fruits of Terminalia chebula are powdered and passed through a cloth to remove coarse particles. 3g of the powder is taken each time with water thrice daily. Blood dysentery. Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata are combined with leaves of Cynodon dactylon and bark of Terminalia arjuna. 2-3 spoonful of juice extracted from the crushed mixture is orally administered four times daily for 1 week. Acne. Crushed leaves are applied as poultice on acne-affected areas. 12 Trichosanthes See Azadirachta indica. dioica Roxb. 13 Elaeocarpus See Withania somnifera. lucidus Roxb. 14 Phyllanthus See Withania somnifera. emblica L. See Piper longum. 15 Flagellaria indica See Solanum lasiocarpum. L. 16 Swertia chirata See Piper longum. (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karsten 17 Ocimum tenuiflorum See Azadirachta indica. L. 18 Cinnamomum tamala See Solanum lasiocarpum. Nees and Ebern. 19 Cinnamomum See Solanum lasiocarpum. verum Presl. See Withania somnifera. 20 Allium cepa See Withania somnifera. L. 21 Allium sativum L. See Withania somnifera. 22 Asparagus racemosus Night blindness. Young Willd. leaves are fried in a little amount of ghee and taken orally every morning. Blood dysentery. Four teaspoonful of juice obtained from crushed leaves is mixed with 7-8 teaspoonful of milk and taken twice daily in the morning and evening. Filariasis. Two teaspoonful of juice obtained from crushed roots is taken with sugarcane molasses in the form of a sherbet. 23 Azadirachta See Solanum lasiocarpum. indica A. Juss. Leprosy. Leaves of Azadirachta indica, Justicia adhatoda, Solanum lasiocarpum and Tricosanthes dioica are combined and crushed to collect juice. 5-6 teaspoonful of the juice is taken twice daily for 1 month. Acne. Crushed leaves are applied as poultice over acne-affected areas for 1 week. Helmintic infections in children. Two spoonful of juice obtained from crushed leaves is taken twice daily. Allergy. Leaves of Azadirachta indica are combined with leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum, leaves of Ecbolium viride, fruits of Terminalia chebula, leaves of Tinospora cordifolia and leaves of Nymphaea nouchali. Two spoonful of juice extracted from the crushed mixture is taken once daily for 1 week. Blood purification. Fruits are taken orally. 24 Tinospora See Solanum lasiocarpum. cordifolia Willd. See Azadirachta indica. 25 Artocarpus Vomiting. Macerated heterophyllus leaves are taken orally with a little water. Lam. Hydrocele. Roots are tied around the waist. Headache. Leaves of maha lakshmi vilas (unidentified plant) are mixed with leaves of Piper betle and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus bearing ripe fruits. Juice obtained from the crushed mixture is taken with honey. Low semen density, frequent passing of stool, less frequency of urination. Seeds are orally taken. 26 Myristica fragrans See Withania somnifera. Houtt. 27 Syzygium aromaticum See Withania somnifera. (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry 28 Nymphaea nouchali See Azadirachta indica. Burm. f. 29 Piper betle L. See Artocarpus heterophyllus. 30 Piper chaba Blume See Piper longum. 31 Piper cubeba L. f. See Withania somnifera. 32 Piper longum See Solanum lasiocarpum. L. Fever. Fruits of Piper longum are powdered with fruits of Terminalia chebula, fruits of Swertia chirata, and seeds of Cuminum cyminum in a haman dista (locally prepared mortar and pestle). The powder is passed through a clean cloth to remove coarse particles. 1-3g of the powder is mixed with warm water and taken thrice daily. For children, the dosage is half the above amount. Hemorrhoids. Fruits and roots of Piper longum are combined with roots of Plumbago zeylanica, bark of Piper chaba, and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and powdered in a haman dista and passed through a cloth to get rid of coarse particles. The powder is them mixed with warm water. 1-3g of the resulting mixture is taken 3-4 times daily. Blood dysentery. Fruits of Piper longum are mixed with bark of root of Holarrhena antidysenterica, dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos, rhizome of Zingiber officinale, fruits of Piper nigrum, fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, root of Plumbago zeylanica, fruits of Morinda angustifolia, crushed and the juice extracted. 24 teaspoonful of the juice is taken thrice daily. See Kalanchoe pinnata. 33 Piper nigrum See Solanum lasiocarpum. L. See Piper longum. 34 Plumbago See Piper longum. zeylanica L. See Kalanchoe pinnata. 35 Cynodon dactylon See Kalanchoe pinnata. (L.) Pers. 36 Morinda See Piper longum. angustifolia Roxb. 37 Aegle marmelos See Piper longum. (L.) Corr. 38 Santalum album L. See Withania somnifera. 39 Solanum Chicken pox. Roots lasiocarpum are soaked in water Dunal followed by drinking the water twice daily. Typhoid. Whole plants (leaf, flower, fruit, root, stem, seed) are boiled in water. When the volume of water has been reduced by half, the decoction is cooled, strained and the liquid portion is taken daily. Influenza. About 6 anna (local measure, 16 annas approximates 1 kg) amount of leaves and stems of Solanum lasiocarpum are mixed with 12 fruits of Piper nigrum, 12 leaves of Cinnamomum tamala, 2 fruits of Piper longum, 1 chatak (local measure, 16 chataks approximate 1 kg) sea salt, bark of Cinnamomum verum, 2 tolas (local measure, 80 tolas approximate 1 kg) powdered mishri (crystalline sugar) and added to 1/2 ser (local measure, 1 ser approximates 1 kg) water. The combination is put in an earthen vessel and boiled. When the volume has reached about VV poa (local measure, 4 poas approximate 1 kg), the boiling is stopped and the decoct ion strained to separate liquid from the solid. The strained liquid is orally administered in a slightly warm state along with water. Abscess with severe pain but non-formation of pus. Seeds are thoroughly crushed and applied as poultice over the abscess. Allergy. Whole plants of Solanum lasiocarpum are combined with rhizomes of Curcuma longa, leaves of Azadirachta indica, leaves of Tinospora cordifolia, roots of Flagellaria indica, leaves or bark of Justicia adhatoda, bark of Alstonia scholaris and soaked in 1/2 cup water. The water is then taken over a period of two weeks. See Azadirachta indica. 40 Withania somnifera Edema. Leaves of (L.) Dunal Withania somnifera are mixed with cloves of Allium sativum and 200 ml water and the combination is boiled till the volume reaches 50 ml. The decoction is then strained to separate liquid portion from solids. Five teaspoonfuls of the liquid are taken twice daily. Low semen volume and low sperm density. Leaves of Withania somnifera are mixed with seeds of Nigella sativa, bulb of Allium cepa, leaves of Wedelia c hinensis, fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, fruits of Myristica fragrans, bark of Cinnamomum verum, dried floral buds of Syzygium aromaticum, bark of Santalum album, bark of Elaeocarpus lucidus (both red and white variety), crushed, and juice extracted. Four teaspoonfuls of the juice are taken twice daily. Irregular menstruation, leucorrhea, anemia. Leaves of Withania somnifera, Abroma augusta, bark of Saraca asoca, leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina, and fruits of Piper cubeba are crushed together and the juice extracted. Two teaspoonfuls of the juice are taken daily for 1 week. For irregular menstruation, two teaspoonful of the juice is taken for 10 days every night; for leucorrhea two teaspoonful of the juice is taken daily every night for 7 days. Tuberculosis. 6g of root powder is taken with honey twice daily in the morning and evening. Weakness in children. 5g of root powder is taken with milk or ghee (clarified butter) every day for 1 month. 41 Abroma augusta L. See Withania somnifera. 42 Curcuma longa L. See Solanum lasiocarpum. 43 Zingiber See Piper longum. officinale See Artocarpus Roscoe heterophyllus. See Kalanchoe pinnata. 44 Unidentified See Artocarpus heterophyllus.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Naher, Symun; Ferdous, Bushra; Datta, Tuli; Rashid, Umme Faria; Tasnim, Tamanna Nahian; Akter, Sharm|
|Publication:||American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2013|
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