Avian diversity associated with a crawfish impoundment unit in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana, USA.
Key words: crawfish, aquaculture, water birds, habitat, predation, management.
Crawfish (Procambarus spp.) are cultivated in south Louisiana by establishing self-perpetuating populations of crawfish in shallow earthen impoundments that are flooded for crawfish production in the cool months. A common misconception about crawfish aquaculture in Louisiana is that all crawfish are cultivated in ricefields. In fact, at least one-quarter of the 46,000 ha of crawfish impoundments in the state involve rice-crawfish rotations (Huner 1995). The remaining crawfish impoundments are located in low-lying crop lands or impounded wooded wetlands.
Predaceous fishes are excluded from crawfish impoundments (Huner and Barr 1991). As a result, high populations of large invertebrates (insects, mollusks, crawfishes, and other crustaceans) and small vertebrates (minnows, tadpoles, and frogs) can be found in crawfish impoundments compared to surrounding, unmanaged wetlands. This dense concentration of food organisms is attractive to predaceous water birds (Rettig 1994, Fleury and Sherry 1995, Huner 1995, Frederick et al. 1996; Fig. 1). Likewise, plant material, especially seeds, edible roots, tubers, and succulent leaves, provide excellent feeding opportunities for herbivorous water birds (Perry et al. 1970, Nassar et al. 1991). Furthermore, other avian species are attracted to the periphery of crawfish impoundments, especially those adjacent to brushy, wooded areas (Martin 1985, Martin and Hamilton 1985, Remsen et al. 1991).
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Predaceous water birds also prey on crawfish in crawfish impoundments (Martin and Hamilton 1985, Huner 1995). At times, herbivorous water birds, such as ducks and geese, may trample and destroy emergent, forage vegetation (Huner 1995). Because crawfish are polytrophic and consume significant quantities of invertebrates and seeds as well as detritus (Momot 1995), all water birds feeding in crawfish ponds compete with the crawfish for food. Thus, even though crawfish impoundments represent high quality water bird habitat, farmers are concerned about negative effects of predation, destruction of forage vegetation, and competition for food by water birds on their crawfish crops.
This report documents the avian use and diversity at a small crawfish impoundment unit in southern Louisiana and the agricultural area surrounding it. However, our data do not permit a definitive discussion of the nature of the impact of water birds on crawfish production.
STUDY AREA AND METHODS
The University of Louisiana at Lafayette College of Applied Sciences Experimental Farm occupies 240 ha of land in western St. Martin Parish in south-central Louisiana. The farm is located roughly halfway between the village of Cade and the town of St. Martinville just south of Louisiana Highway 92. The farm is located at the junction of the natural loessal terrace and adjacent alluvial lowland about 2 km west of Bayou Teche (Soil Conservation Service 1977). Subdivisions include managed (aquaculture, primarily crawfish) and forested, semi-natural, short-hydroperiod wetlands as well as livestock (beef, dairy, horse, sheep, and goat) pasture, organic waste lagoons, hay fields, and crop lands (primarily sugar cane). Roughly one-third of the property is devoted to each of the following uses: wetland systems, livestock, and crops.
Water bird use of the wetland systems, especially a 25-ha crawfish impoundment unit, was continuously monitored from 1992 through 1998. Over 90% of the observations were made during a 30-60 minute period approximately an hour after dawn. Water birds observed in the 25 separate ponds were recorded. The total number of daily observation periods during the study period was 1,091: 1992, 44; 1993, 174; 1994, 177; 1995, 155; 1996, 156; 1997, 201; and 1998, 184.
The main pond was 11.4 ha in area and total water area for all ponds was about 18 ha. The ponds were primarily used for cultivating crawfish with rice grown during the summer months to serve as the forage base for the crawfish. The impoundments were flooded for crawfish production from September-October through June-July with depths of 30-40 cm. The rice forage crop established in the ponds was irrigated during most summers with depths of 10-15 cm.
Beginning in 1987 and continuing through 1999, all areas of the farm were regularly visited by amateur and professional ornithologists. These birders assisted us in recording the bird species using the farm and providing a general idea about seasonal abundance. Nomenclature and order reported here were based on Dittmann (1998) and Dickinson (1999). Reference checklists for the region included the Fontenot (1999) checklist for south-central Louisiana, the Musumeche (1997) checklist for the adjacent Spanish Lake wetland in Iberia Parish, and the Vermillion (1997) checklist for the state of Louisiana. The data presented in this communication are based on birds that have physically used the property as opposed to "flyover" data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Summaries of all water birds recorded at the UL at Lafayette crawfish impoundment unit from January 1992 through December 1998 are presented in Tables 1a (overall) and 1b (annual). Monthly utilization of the unit by the water birds during this seven year period is summarized in Table 2. The 225 bird species observed on the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm from September 1987 through January 2000 are listed in Table 3.
The relatively small UL at Lafayette crawfish impoundment unit provides habitat for a remarkable diversity of water birds considering its size (Table 1a,b). In general, 15 to 20 individual water birds will be present at any particular time during the fall-winter-spring period when all ponds are flooded for crawfish production. During the summer, there are usually 5 to 10 water birds present.
Large numbers of long-legged water birds are especially conspicuous when crawfish ponds are drained in the spring (Table 2). As many as 1,000 birds including herons, egrets, ibises, spoonbills, and storks may be present during the week-long period required to drain the main pond unit. Herons and egrets are also attracted in smaller numbers in August or September when rice irrigation water is drained for fish control. Few crawfish are present but numerous invertebrates, small fish, and tadpoles provide good foraging opportunities.
Flocks of 50 to 150 White Ibis, dark ibises (Plegadis spp., primarily White-faced Ibis), Great Egrets, Snowy Egrets, and Little Blue Herons are also encountered during the fall, winter and spring when prey, primarily crawfish, is abundant and vulnerable as a consequence of low oxygen or low water levels. Several hundred Cattle Egrets are regularly attracted to the main crawfish impoundment at two times of year: when rice forage is being flooded in July and when it is being refilled in the fall for crawfish production. At both times, terrestrial arthropods are forced to climb above the rising waters into the emergent vegetation and become vulnerable to the birds. Both Little Blue Herons and ibises may be encountered in good numbers at these times as well.
With the exception of Yellow-crowned Night-Herons, the numbers of herons, egrets, and ibises are relatively low in April and May despite their conspicuous presence in area rookeries (Vermillion, pers. comm.). We believe that the UL at Lafayette aquaculture unit is outside the foraging range of the nesting birds even though significant quantities of prey are present.
Summary data do not distinguish between cormorant, duck, shorebird, gull, and tern species present during the study period (Table 1a, b and Table 2). A number of individual species of these taxa have been recorded (Table 3). The dominant species within each taxon are as follows:
Cormorant--Neotropic Cormorant and Double-Crested Cormorant. Duck--Wood Duck, Blue-winged Teal, and Ring-necked Duck. Shorebirds--Black-necked Stilt, Greater Yellowlegs, Lesser Yellowlegs, and "peeps." Gulls--Laughing Gull and Ring-billed Gull. Terns--Forster's Tern.
Migratory coots, cormorants, gulls, and terns are encountered in greatest numbers from late fall into mid-spring (Table 2). A decline in duck numbers in mid-winter correlates with both reduction in food resources, seasonal rains expanding available natural habitat, and nearby, intense waterfowl hunting in neighboring crawfish ponds. Geese rarely land but are present during fall and winter months. Flyovers, especially of Snow Geese, are common then.
Migratory shorebirds are most likely to be encountered from late summer into early fall whenever mud flat or poorly vegetated, shallow water habitat is available. Although there is a well documented spring movement of shorebirds in the area (Lowery 1974), all ponds are full of water so that favored shallow water habitat is not available to attract any appreciable numbers of shorebirds.
Water bird numbers do vary from year to year. For example, the greatest number of American Coots encountered in 10 years were present during the 1996-1997 season skewing their representation somewhat compared to other water bird species (Table 1a, b).
The seasonal diversity and abundance of water birds associated with the UL at Lafayette crawfish impoundment unit is consistent with other studies of the water bird use of Louisiana crawfish impoundments and rice-field systems (Martin and Hamilton 1985, Martin 1985; Remsen et al. 1991, Rettig 1994, Fleury and Sherry 1995). The data demonstrate that small crawfish units have significant value as water bird habitat.
Depredation and Competition Issues
The question of water bird depredation has been a major concern to crawfish farmers (Fleury and Sherry 1995; Huner 1995). Furthermore, all water birds compete, in some way, with crawfish for food resources, plant, animal, or both.
The following bird taxa were regularly observed to take crawfish during the course of this study: Pied-billed Grebe, Neotropic Cormorant, Double-crested Cormorant, Great Egret, Snowy Egret, Little Blue-Heron, White Ibis, White-faced Ibis, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, Ring-billed Gull, Laughing Gull, Forster's Tern, and Belted Kingfisher. Therefore, crawfish were preyed upon by birds that wade, dive, and swim-dive to take prey. Thus, crawfish in all areas of our ponds were vulnerable to different groups of predaceous water birds at sometime during the regular September through June crawfish season.
Romaire (1993) used a crawfish pond management model to determine the theoretical impact of predaceous water birds on crawfish production. He did not address the issue of competition for food resources. Ideal crawfish production was about 2,000 kg/ha. Romaire found that predation when ponds were drained probably did not have an impact on crawfish production in well-managed crawfish ponds. Heavy predation during the winter and early spring reduced the model crawfish production by approximately 50 percent. Crawfish production in the UL at Lafayette's two commercial-sized ponds has been consistent with Romaire's predation projections during the 1992-1998 study period (Huner 1999).
Several factors besides vertebrate predation are known to adversely effect crawfish survival and production levels including failure to control predaceous fishes, poor water quality, reduced harvesting intensity, and high crawfish population densities (Huner and Barr 1991, Martin and Hamilton 1985). However, populations of crawfish-eating wading birds are continuing to increase (Fleury and Sherry 1995), and we have found additional species of water birds including cormorants, gulls, terns, and grebes to be crawfish predators in crawfish impoundments. These birds were rarely observed by Martin and Hamilton (1985) who concluded that wading birds had no negative impact on crawfish production in crawfish impoundments. Finally, no one has, to our knowledge, addressed the issue of competition for food resources between birds and crawfish. We conclude, therefore, that definitive studies on the impact of avian predators and competitors on crawfish production in crawfish impoundments are long overdue.
In 28 years, Musumeche (1997) has documented over 240 bird species in the Spanish Lake wetland in Iberia Parish. Musumeche's study area is located approximately 10 km to the southwest of the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm. We report here 225 bird species during a 13 year period (Table 3). Musumeche's study area is dominated by alluvial valley habitat but the western boundary is loessal prairie (Soil Conservation Service 1978). Therefore, that area is similar on a macro-scale to that encountered on a micro-scale at the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm. As a result, most of the bird species that Musumeche lists as common during the appropriate season have been regularly observed on the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm. There is a similar correspondence to observations on nesting species with at least 47 species nesting or believed to be nesting on the farm.
The Fontenot (1999) checklist for south-central Louisiana includes 314 species from Acadia, Lafayette, St. Martin, and eastern Vermillion Parishes. Seasonal abundance and nesting of species common to the UL at Lafayette site in St. Martin Parish and the Spanish Lake site in Iberia Parish are consistent with the broader area covered in Fontenot's checklist.
Land use at the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm is representative, on a micro-scale, of that practiced by agricultural interests throughout south-central Louisiana. Dominant crops are crawfish, often in rotation with rice, sugarcane, corn, soybeans, and cattle. Although individual farm holdings may not include agricultural wetlands, pastures, forested areas, and croplands, the region, taken as a whole, provides a vital landscape of such habitats accounting for the avian diversity documented by Musumeche (1997) and Fontenot (1999).
TABLE 1A. Total number * of water birds observed at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette crawfish impoundment unit from January 1992 through December 1998. Taxon Total Percent Pied-billed Grebe 2,023 2.4 American White Pelican 1 <0.1 Cormorants 5,004 6.0 Anhinga 43 0.1 American Bittern 13 <0.1 Least Bittern 5 <0.1 Great Blue Heron 889 1.1 Great Egret 8,328 10.0 Snowy Egret 15,093 18.1 Little Blue Heron 11,167 13.4 Tricolored Heron 661 0.8 Reddish Egret 1 <0.1 Green Heron 89 0.1 Black-crowned Night-Heron 525 0.6 Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 1,406 1.7 White Ibis 8,850 10.6 Dark Ibis 4,492 5.9 Roseate Spoonbill 162 0.2 Wood Stork 175 0.2 Geese 8 <0.1 Ducks 6,514 7.8 Sora 92 0.1 Common Moorhen 4 <0.1 American Coot 10,007 12.0 Shorebirds ** 2,361 2.8 Gulls 2,927 3.5 Terns 1,802 2.2 Belted Kingfisher 243 0.3 * Total number observed was 83,335 birds. ** Does not include Killdeer and Common Snipe. TABLE 1B. Average number of water birds per observation day at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette Experimental Farm from January 1992 to December 1998. * Year Taxon 92 93 94 95 Pied-Billed Grebe -- 0.1 3.1 0.7 American White Pelican -- -- -- -- Cormorants 0.1 0.2 1.6 2.8 Anhinga -- -- + -- American Bittern -- -- + -- Least Bittern -- -- -- -- Great Blue Heron 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.8 Great Egret 15.6 2.5 7.8 5.4 Snowy Egret 24.0 6.3 15.9 11.6 Little Blue Heron 1.3 5.0 5.6 7.4 Tricolored Heron 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.2 Reddish Egret -- -- -- -- Green Heron 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 Black-crowned Night-Heron + 0.1 0.9 0.8 Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 1.4 0.5 0.7 0.1 White Ibis 11.2 1.3 6.2 6.1 Dark Ibis 0.1 4.0 8.2 1.5 Roseate Spoonbill -- -- -- + Wood Stork -- 0.8 -- -- Geese + -- -- -- Ducks 1.5 5.1 3.5 11.5 Sora -- -- -- 0.2 Common Moorhen -- -- -- -- American Coot 0.1 -- 0.1 9.8 Shorebirds ** 0.1 + 0.4 0.5 Gulls 0.6 + 3.7 2.9 Terns 0.3 0.3 3.1 1.0 Belted Kingfisher -- 0.1 0.2 0.3 Totals 57.4 27.4 62.1 63.7 Number of observation days 44 174 177 155 Year Taxon 96 97 98 Pied-Billed Grebe 4.0 2.3 1.4 American White Pelican -- -- + Cormorants 2.5 11.0 8.7 Anhinga + + 1.6 American Bittern + + + Least Bittern + + + Great Blue Heron 1.2 1.2 0.8 Great Egret 12.7 6.8 9.5 Snowy Egret 23.1 11.4 16.7 Little Blue Heron 21.2 10.7 16.1 Tricolored Heron 1.7 0.3 0.7 Reddish Egret -- + -- Green Heron 0.1 + 0.1 Black-crowned Night-Heron 0.1 0.9 0.1 Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 4.0 1.0 1.6 White Ibis 19.2 10.4 5.9 Dark Ibis 8.6 1.4 5.2 Roseate Spoonbill 0.3 0.4 0.4 Wood Stork -- 0.2 + Geese + + + Ducks 8.0 6.6 4.7 Sora 0.2 0.1 0.1 Common Moorhen + + + American Coot 33.4 12.4 4.6 Shorebirds ** 8.9 1.3 3.5 Gulls 1.2 7.0 1.2 Terns 2.8 1.6 1.9 Belted Kingfisher 0.4 0.3 0.2 Totals 153.6 87.3 85.0 Number of observation days 156 201 184 * Total number observed was 83,335 birds. ** Does not include Killdeer and Common Snipe. + Birds observed but mean value <0.1. TABLE 2. Seasonality of water birds observed at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette crawfish impoundment unit, January 1992 through December 1998. Percent occurrence per month Taxon J F M A M J Pied-billed Grebe 13.6 23.0 8.9 2.1 0.7 0.3 American White Pelican 100 0 0 0 0 0 Cormorants 13.8 23.2 31.9 11.3 3.3 13.4 Anhinga 0 0 0 0 48.8 48.8 American Bittern 0 23.1 0 0 7.7 7.7 Least Bittern 0 0 0 0 80.0 20.0 Great Blue Heron 17.0 12.6 6.2 4.2 2.7 4.3 Great Egret 6.2 6.6 8.9 5.3 4.3 45.3 Snowy Egret 4.2 7.1 5.9 2.9 4.5 51.4 Little Blue Heron 1.6 1.8 5.9 4.7 5.4 21.8 Tricolored Heron 1.8 2.4 1.4 2.3 5.9 56.3 Reddish Egret 0 0 0 0 0 100 Green Heron 0 0 0 2.2 9.0 37.1 Black-crowned Night-Heron 3.8 0 0 3.8 5.3 80.8 Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 0 0 0 0.4 15.9 67.2 White Ibis 15.0 9.5 3.5 <0.1 0 35.1 Dark Ibis 12.7 8.3 4.8 0.1 0 0.9 Roseate Spoonbill 0 0 0 0 0.6 88.9 Wood Stork 0 0 0 0 0 19.4 Goose 25.0 12.5 0 0 0 0 Duck 2.3 7.4 11.6 13.2 9.9 2.2 Sora 12.0 2.2 5.4 3.3 0 0 Common Moorhen 0 0 0 25.0 25.0 0 American Coot 11.1 22.4 29.2 14.7 <0.1 <0.1 Shorebirds 1.8 0.3 0 1.3 3.0 7.1 Gulls 14.5 49.3 25.9 5.9 0.2 0.1 Terns 32.1 39.1 6.8 <0.1 0 0 Belted Kingfisher 15.2 8.2 3.7 0.4 0 0 Percent occurrence per month Taxon J A S O N D Pied-billed Grebe 0 0.6 0.4 10.8 23.1 16.3 American White Pelican 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cormorants <0.1 <0.1 0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Anhinga 0 0 0 0 0 2.3 American Bittern 0 0 0 0 23.1 38.5 Least Bittern 0 0 0 0 0 0 Great Blue Heron 1.9 4.3 5.6 8.9 13.7 19.1 Great Egret 7.0 2.7 0.6 2.4 5.2 5.5 Snowy Egret 9.2 3.3 0.7 3.1 3.2 4.4 Little Blue Heron 27.2 11.2 4.6 6.1 6.5 3.4 Tricolored Heron 13.9 8.0 2.6 2.1 1.7 1.7 Reddish Egret 0 0 0 0 0 0 Green Heron 15.7 25.8 10.1 0 0 0 Black-crowned Night-Heron 9.7 0 0 0 0 0 Yellow-crowned Night-Heron 13.9 2.3 0.4 0 0 0 White Ibis 6.5 2.0 2.0 3.0 11.5 12.0 Dark Ibis 10.1 1.4 2.6 29.3 14.7 16.1 Roseate Spoonbill 10.5 0 0 0 0 0 Wood Stork 80.6 0 0 0 0 0 Goose 0 0 0 0 37.5 25.0 Duck 1.9 3.3 12.4 17.5 16.5 25.0 Sora 0 0 2.2 19.6 33.7 21.7 Common Moorhen 50.0 0 0 0 0 0 American Coot <0.1 0 0 1.0 7.6 13.9 Shorebirds 15.2 8.3 20.6 24.5 15.0 3.1 Gulls 0 0 0 0 0.1 4.1 Terns 0 0 0 0.6 0.2 21.1 Belted Kingfisher 1.2 2.1 7.4 20.6 20.2 21.0 TABLE 3. Birds observed at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette Experimental Farm from 1987-1999. Names and hierarchal organization based on Dittmann (1998). Common name Scientific name 1. Pied-billed Grebe * Podilymbus podiceps 2. American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 3. Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus 4. Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus 5. Anhinga Anhinga anhinga 6. Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens 7. American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus 8. Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis 9. Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias 10. Great Egret Ardea alba 11. Snowy Egret Egretta thula 12. Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea 13. Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor 14. Reddish Egret Egretta rufescens 15. Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis 16. Green Heron * Butorides virescens 17. Black-crowned Night-Heron Nycticorax nycticorax 18. Yellow-crowned Night-Heron Nyctanassa violacea 19. White Ibis Eudocimus albus 20. Glossy Ibis Plegadus falcinellus 21. White-faced Ibis Plegadus chihi 22. Roseate Spoonbill Ajaja ajaja 23. Wood Stork Mycteria americana 24. Black Vulture Coragyps atratus 25. Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura 26. Fulvous Whistling-Duck * Dendrocygna bicolor 27. Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons 28. Snow Goose Chen caerulescens 29. Ross' Goose Chen rossii 30. CanadaGoose Branta canadensis 31. Wood Duck * Aix sponsa 32. Gadwall Anas strepera 33. American Wigeon Anas americana 34. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 35. Mottled Duck Anas fulvigula 36. Blue-winged Teal Anas discors 37. Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera 38. Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata 39. Northern Pintail Anas acuta 40. Green-winged Teal Anas crecca 41. Canvasback Aythya valisineria 42. Redhead Aythya americana 43. Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris 44. Greater Scaup Aythya marila 45. Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis 46. Bufflehead Bucephala albeola 47. Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus 48. Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator 49. Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis 50. Osprey Pandion haliaetus 51. Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus 52. Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis 53. Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus 54. Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipter striatus 55. Cooper's Hawk Accipter cooperii 56. Red-shouldered Hawk * Buteo lineatus 57. Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus 58. Red-tailed Hawk * Buteo jamaicensis 59. American Kestrel Falco sparverius 60. Merlin Falco columbarius 61. Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus 62. Northern Bobwhite * Colinus virginianus 63. King Rail Rallus elegans 64. Virginia Rail Rallus limicola 65. Sora Porzana carolina 66. Purple Gallinule Porphyrula martinica 67. Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus 68. American Coot Fulica americana 69. Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola 70. Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus 71. Killdeer * Charadrius vociferus 72. Black-necked Stilt * Himantopus mexicanus 73. American Avocet Recurviostra americana 74. Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca 75. Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes 76. Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria 77. Willet Catoptrophorus semipalmatu 78. Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularia 79. Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla 80. Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri 81. Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla 82. White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fusicollis 83. Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii 84. Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos 85. Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus 86. Ruff Philomachus pugnax 87. Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus 88. Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus 89. Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago 90. American Woodcock Scolopax minor 91. Wilson's Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor 92. Laughing Gull Larus articilla 93. Bonaparte's Gull Larus philadelphia 94. Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis 95. Herring Gull Larus argentatus 96. Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica 97. Caspian Tern Sterna caspia 98. Royal Tern Sterna maxima 99. Common Tern Sterna hirundo 100. Forster's Tern Sterna forsteri 101. Rock Dove * Columba livia 102. Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto 103. White-winged Dove Zenaida asiatica 104. Mourning Dove * Zenaida macroura 105. Common Ground-Dove Columbina passerina 106. Yellow-billed Cuckoo * Coccyzus americanus 107. Barn Owl * Tyto alba 108. Eastern Screech-Owl * Otus asio 109. Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus 110. Barred Owl Strix varia 111. Long-eared Owl Asio otus 112. Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus 113. Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor 114. Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus 115. Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica 116. Ruby-throated Hummingbird * Archilochus colubris 117. Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon 118. Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus 119. Red-bellied Woodpecker * Melanerpes carolinus 120. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius 121. Downy Woodpecker * Picoides pubescens 122. Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus 123. Northem Flicker * Colaptes auratus 124. Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus 125. Eastem Wood-Pewee Contopus virens 126. Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens 127. Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum 128. Least Flycatcher Empiodonax minimus 129. Eastem Phoebe Sayornis phoebe 130. Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubinus 131. Great Crested Flycatcher * Myiarchus crinitus 132. Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus dominicensis 133. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus forficatus 134. Loggerhead Shrike * Lanius ludovicianus 135. White-eyed Vireo * Vireo griseus 136. Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons 137. Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius 138. Red-eyed Vireo * Vireo olivaceus 139. Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus 140. Blue Jay * Cyanocitta cristata 141. American Crow * Corvus brachyrhynchos 142. Fish Crow * Corvus ossifragus 143. Purple Martin * Progne subis 144. Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor 145. Northern Rough-winged Swallow Strelgidopteryx serripennis 146. Bank Swallow Riparia riparia 147. Cliff Swallow Hirundo pyrrhonota 148. Barn Swallow * Hirundo rustica 149. Carolina Chickadee * Parus carolinesis 150. Tufted Titmouse * Parus bicolor 151. Carolina Wren * Thrythorus ludovicianus 152. Bewick's Wren Thryomanes bewickiii 153. House Wren Troglodytes aedon 154. Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes 155. Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis 156. Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris 157. Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa 158. Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula 159. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea 160. Eastern Bluebird * Sialia sialis 161. Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus 162. Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus 163. American Robin Turdus migratorius 164. Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis 165. Northern Mockingbird * Mimus polyglottos 166. Brown Thrasher * Toxostoma rufum 167. European Starling * Sturnus vulgaris 168. American Pipit Anthus rubescens 169. Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum 170. Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina 171. Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata 172. Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla 173. Northern Parula Parula americana 174. Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia 175. Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia 176. Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata 177. Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens 178. Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca 179. Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica 180. Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus 181. Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum 182. Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia 183. American Redstart Stenophaga ruticilla 184. Prothonotary Warbler * Protonotaria citrea 185. Worm-earing Warbler Helmitheros vermivorus 186. Swainson's Warbler Limnopthlypis swainsonii 187. Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus 188. Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis 189. Common Yellowthroat * Geothlypis trichas 190. Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla 191. Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis 192. Summer Tanager * Piranga rubra 193. Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea 194. Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus 195. Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina 196. Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla 197. Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus 198. Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus 199. Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis 200. Le Conte's Sparrow Ammodramus leconteii 201. Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia 202. Lincoln's Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii 203. Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana 204. White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis 205. Northern Cardinal * Cardinalis cardinalis 206. Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus 207. Blue Grosbeak Guiraca caerulea 208. Indigo Bunting * Passerina cyanea 209. Painted Bunting * Passerina ciris 210. Dickcissel * Spiza americana 211. Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus 212. Red-winged Blackbird * Agelaius phoeniceus 213. Eastern Meadowlark * Sturnella magna 214. Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 215. Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinas 216. Brewer's Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus 217. Great-tailed Grackle Quiscalus mexicanus 218. Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major 219. Common Grackle * Quiscalus quiscalus 220. Brown-headed Cowbird * Molothrus ater 221. Orchard Oriole * Icterus spurius 222. Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula 223. House Finch Carpodacus mexicanus 224. American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis 225. House Sparrow * Passer domesticus * 47 species are known or thought to be nesting.
Individuals who have assisted in identifying birds at the UL at Lafayette Experimental Farm have included: W. J. Bernard, III, Mark J. Broussard, Paul Chadwick, Bruce Fleury, Bill Fontenot, Paul Leberg, Billy Leonard, Tibor Mikuska, David Patton, and Bill Vermillion. Gregory Richard and Pamela Richard assisted with data reduction/summarization. Partial support for this project was provided by the Louisiana Crawfish Promotion and Research Board.
DICKINSON, M. A. (Ed.). 1999. Field guide to the birds of North America (3rd ed.). National Geographic Society, Washington, DC. 480 pp.
DITTMAN, D. L. 1998. Checklist of Louisiana birds. Louisiana Ornithological Society, Lafayette, Louisiana.
FLEURY, B. E. AND T. W. SHERRY. 1995. Long-term population trends of colonial wading birds in the southern United States: The impact of crayfish aquaculture on Louisiana populations. The Auk 112:613-632.
FONTENOT, B. 1999. Checklist of south-central Louisiana birds. Lafayette Nature Station, 1205 East Alexander, Lafayette, Louisiana 70501.
FREDERICK, P. C., K. L. BILDSTEIN, B. E. FLEURY, AND J. OGDEN. 1996. Conservation status of large, nomadic populations of white ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the United States. Conservation Biology 10:203-216.
HUNER, J. V. 1995. How crawfish impoundments sustain wetland vertebrates in the South. Pp. 32-40. In National Ecosystem Management Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. Conservation Technology Information Center, West Lafayette, Indiana.
HUNER, J. V. 1999. The relationship between pond size and crawfish (Procambarus spp.) production. Freshwater Crayfish 12:573-583.
HUNER, J. V. AND J. E. BARR. 1991. Red swamp crawfish. Biology and exploitation, 3rd ed. Louisiana Sea Grant College Program, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 147 pp.
MARTIN, R. P. 1985. Ecology of foraging wading birds at crayfish ponds and the impact of bird predation on commercial crayfish harvest. Thesis. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 121 pp.
MARTIN, R. P. AND R. B. HAMILTON. 1985. Wading bird predation in crawfish ponds. Louisiana Agriculture 28:3-5.
MOMOT, W. T. 1995. Redefining the role of crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Reviews in Fisheries Science 3:33-63.
MUSUMECHE, M. J. 1997. Birds of Iberia Parish. Iberia Parish Tourist Commission, New Iberia, Louisiana. 8 pp.
NASSAR, J. R., D. C. HAYDEN, P. J. ZWANK, AND J. V. HUNER. 1991. Multiple-use impoundments for attracting waterfowl and producing crawfish. U. S. Dept. Int., Fish & Wildlife Service, Nat. Wetl. Res. Center, Slidell, Louisiana. 48 pp.
PERRY, W. G., JR., T. JOANEN, AND L. McNEASE. 1970. Crawfish-waterfowl, a multiple use concept for impounded marshes. Proc. 24th Ann. Conf. Southeastern Assoc. Game & Fish Commissioners 24:506-519.
REMSEN, J. V., M. M. SWAN, S. W. CARDIFF, AND K. V. ROSENBERG. 1991. The importance of the rice-growing region of south Louisiana to winter populations of shorebirds, raptors, waders, and other birds. J. Louisiana Ornithology 1:34-47.
RETTIG, V. 1994. Use of agricultural fields by migrating and wintering shorebirds in south-west Louisiana. Thesis. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 100 pp.
ROMAIRE, R. P. 1993. "CRAWPOP": A computer model to simulate population dynamics of red swamp crawfish in ponds. School of Forestry, Wildlife, and Fisheries, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. 1977. Soil survey of St. Martin Parish, Louisiana. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in Cooperation with the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 73 pp.
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. 1978. Soil survey of Iberia Parish, Louisiana. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in Cooperation with the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 58 pp.
VERMILLION, B. 1997. Louisiana Backyard Wildlife Management. Louisiana Dept. Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 99 pp.
Jay V. Huner and Michael J. Musumeche Crawfish Research Center University of Louisiana at Lafayette Lafayette, LA 70504
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|Author:||Huner, Jay V.; Musumeche, Michael J.|
|Publication:||The Proceedings of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences|
|Article Type:||Statistical Data Included|
|Date:||Jan 1, 1999|
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