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Automatic battery replacement of robot.

INTRODUCTION

Surveillance robots are used in many places in our day today life i.e. buildings, factories, supermarkets, etc. Where robots are travel along the patrol path. The time duration capability of every robot is very critical and the power supply when it is relied. The high capacities batteries are used while it is large sized and minimize the mobility of robots. To solve this battery recharging problem the docking station is to be used as long term activity of robots. Nowadays the size and the prize of mobile robots have minimized, they are used in home applications. The improvement and properties of a surveillance robot (Song, G., 2009) with recharging capabilities for home security application and automatic docking was proposed. This system has a docking station and surveillance robot. Monitoring systems are generally fixed on locations such as windows, doors and walls in home security systems. The multiple ultrasonic sensor modules for the home security surveillance system have been developed. The robot system gathers information and detects the abnormal events such as lethal gas leakage and fire alarm applications. The development of a patrol robot in self-patrol mode is used in for home security with network assisted interactions. Multi-level and multi sensor based intelligent recharging system for mobile. The proposed system will be used to replace the battery whenever the on board battery level becomes low. This method is useful to maintain the battery of the robot active always while it is on surveillance applications.

The main aim of this paper is to replace the battery of the robot automatically. The three wheel robot is designed and the path through which the robot reaches the replacement area is to be finding out by using MATLAB image processing. The docking station is designed in which the robot will replace the battery easily. The image processing results will be compared with the current position that can be helpful to reach the target area. The main usage of this application the surveillance robot can work for many hours without lack of power or energy.

The existing method is improvement and properties of a surveillance robot with recharging capabilities for home security application and automatic docking was proposed. The palm-sized surveillance robot has three wheels and triangular shape with and it is used communicates with the wireless home router through Wi-Fi. The ZigBee is used to communicate with the docking station and serves as a mobile WSN gateway. The docking station has a structure of trapezoidal with an arc-shaped docking interface. A proposed system consists of a docking system method depends on the own localization of the robot and next form of the infrared detectors used. For a recharging operation the robot can goes to the docking station, when the battery is low. The results show that the robot achieved a success rate of ninety percent after sixty different docking attempts.

The proposed system is that the robot is designed with automatic battery replacement capabilities. the robot can automatically move to the replacement area for replacing the battery automatically when the on board battery is below 20%. The recharging time gets reduced because of changing the battery. the path through which the robot travels to the target area will be find out by matlab image processing. the IR transmitter and the receiver section are also useful for reaching the replacement area.

2. Surveillance Robot:

The hardware section of robot consists of two IR sensors, Microcontroller, servo motor, USB camera and two DC motors, etc., where the the wheels of the robot are used to rotate the two dc motors. For tilting of the camera for a large view, the servo motor is used. The ZigBee module is used for robot communication with docking station. For an obstacle avoidance the surveillance robot depends on the two Infra-red sensors to perform the operation. To stop the surveillance robot, the core board is generally used. The core board of this system contains microcontroller and switch controller. The ADC is in built of the microcontroller to perform the operation and used for real time status on battery. When detecting that on board preset voltage is higher than the battery voltage, while the microcontroller used to tells the robot to reach the docking station to perform an operation of exchanging the battery and also shows to do the work again. The robot uses MATLAB image processing to find out the exchanging area. The video of the path will be captured by the camera in the robot and the video will be converted into frames. The frames of the path will be compared with the frame of docking area. by using the values obtained from image processing the robot will travel to the exchanging area. The length between the robot and the docking station is normally calculated by encoder. In this proposed paper PIC16F877A is used. It contains of 10-bit multi-channel ADC, High-performance RISC CPU.

3. Matlab Image Processing:

The video of the path will be captured by the camera in the robot and the video will be converted into frames. The frames of the path will be compared with the frame of docking area. These image processing will be done by the MATLAB image processing. The image processing will give the distance values and according to the values the robot will move to the replacement area. The outputs from image processing will help the robot till the robot enters the IR area. Once the robot comes into the IR area then the IR receiver will sense the IR signals from the transmitter IR in the docking section

4. Hardware Section of Robot:

The robot is controlled by using the PIC microcontroller and PIC 16F877A is used because of its availability and low cost as shown in fig 4.1.

It has many interfaces and inbuilt 10 bit analog to digital converter. The robot will move by using the three wheels which are shaped in triangular and can be controlled by using two DC motors. The relay unit is used for controlling the DC motors, single pole single throw relay is used. The IR sensor unit is used as a receiver to receive the IR signal from the transmitter IR sensor which is fixed in docking station.

The docking station (Milo C. Silverman, 2002) is used for the battery replacement of the robot while the battery level comes down and during the need of charge. The docking station is used for the battery replacement of the robot while the battery level comes down and during the need of charge.

The output is the hardware implementation of robot with its hardware components called core board, dc motor, relay unit and the IR section. The output obtained from the MATLAB image processing are the distance values that are found out by comparing the frames of the video path and the frame of the replacement area.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The output is the hardware implementation of robot with its hardware components called core board, dc motor, relay unit and the IR section. The output obtained from the MATLAB image processing are the distance values that are found out by comparing the frames of the video path and the frame of the replacement area.

5.1 Hardware Model of Robot:

The hardware implementation of the robot is shown in the fig. 5.1.

The robot controlled by using the PIC microcontroller and PIC 16F877A is used because of its availability and low cost. It has many interfaces and inbuilt 10 bit analog to digital converter. The robot will move by using the three wheels which are shaped in triangular and can be controlled by using two DC motors.

The relay unit is used for controlling the DC motors, single pole single throw relay is used. The IR sensor unit is used as a receiver to receive the IR signal from the transmitter IR sensor which is fixed in docking station the complete robot section is shown in the fig. 5.2.

5.2 Output of Matlab Image Processing:

The video of the path will be captured by the camera in the robot and the video will be converted into frames. The frames of the path will be compared with the frame of docking area. These image processing will be done by the MATLAB image processing. The image processing will give the distance values and according to the values the robot will move to the replacement area. The outputs from image processing will help the robot till the robot enters the IR area. the MATLAB output values will be useful for the robot to enter into the IR area from its surveillance place. After entering into the IR transmission area the robot starts receiving the IR signals from the transmitter IR fixed in the replacement area, it will automatically move without manual control.

The sample video of a path has taken and the image processing results will were calculated. The hardware model of the robot was designed. The robot is programmed to move to the docking station by using the input values calculated by the image processing and also the IR sensor receiver.

5.3 The Docking Station:

5.3.1 The Hardware Components of Docking Station: The core board of docking station is consisting of a PIC microcontroller to control the operations of docking station (Riccardo Cassinis,). The servo motor control programs are programmed in PIC microcontroller to move during replacement. The LCD display is used to display the name of the Robot and the tilting angle values of servo motor. There are two transformers, in that one is used for stepping down the power supply from the main board to the servo motor and another one is used for stepping down the power supply from the main board to the PIC microcontroller.

5.3.2 Complete Setup of Docking Station:

The docking station (Se-gon Roh, 2008) is made up of ilam sheets whish are light weight in their nature and can be easily drilled for any type of arrangements. It is more advantageous than metal or glass. There are totally three IR sensors used for the replacement process. When the first IR sensor is cut, the exhausted battery will be removed and it will take some time to replace the battery till he second IR is cut as shown in the Fig. 5.4. There is another one that is the third IR sensor unit to make the robot move in a straight line till the replacement process gets over. The servo motor can carry three kilograms of weight and the angle tilting is from 0 degree to 270 degree.

When the servo leads comes to 90 degree automatically the battery can be moved. After the tilting of servo and replacement of the battery the servo motor will come to its normal position that is 0 degree. The robot will then move in reverse direction and continues its work. The robot is operating by using a auxiliary battery and the auxiliary battery will be charged by using the main battery which can supply the power to it and can be replaced when the battery level becomes low.

5.3.3 Docking Robot:

Step1: Movement of robot

The robot moves to the docking station by sensing the infrared rays and ones when the first IR is cut, the robot will automatically be docked as shown in the fig. 5.5. Then the first IR will make the robot wait for removing the exhausted battery and after removal the robot will move and stop at second IR. Then the full charged battery will be moved into the robot. After replacing the robot comes in reverse direction and continues its work.

Step 2: Entering of robot into the docking station The robot senses the first IR and waits for removal of exhausted battery is shown in the fig. 5.6. After removing the empty battery into the docking station the robot moves forward till the second IR is cut. When the second IR is cut the robot stops for some time for the replacement of battery from the battery frame. There is another one that is the third IR sensor unit to make the robot move in a straight line till the replacement process gets over.

Step3: Robot docking process

The servo motor can carry three kilograms of weight and the angle tilting is from 0 degree to 270 degree. When the servo leads comes to 90 degree automatically the battery can be moved. After the tilting of servo and replacement of the battery the servo motor will come to its normal position that is 0 degree. The robot will then move in reverse direction and continues its work. The robot is operating by using an auxiliary battery and the auxiliary battery will be charged by using the main battery which can supply the power to it and can be replaced when the battery level becomes low.

5. Conclusion:

In this the robot docking station with battery replacement was introduced. There is no manual control is needed for controlling the robot. The MATLAB image processing helps us to overcome the disadvantage of the line follower based path tracking. The robot can move back to the docking station when the battery is too low. The robot can work 4.5 hours with 12V Li-ion battery which is required 3.5 hours for the fast full charging. In other words, the robot only works 14 hours about and it spends 10 hours on waiting for exchanging station in a day without the battery replacement. Because of this the working hours of the robot will be very less hence it cannot be always active. With this design, it only takes 30 seconds to accomplish the automatic battery exchanging process, so that the robot will have long term autonomy. The future work in this paper will be construction of many numbers of docking stations in and around the home and also keeping a battery frame with many numbers of batteries.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 12 March 2015

Accepted 28 April 2015

Available online 1 June 2015

Corresponding Author: Udayakumar, E., M.E-Communication Systems, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

Tel: +7708837143, E-mail: udayakumar.sujith@gmail.com.

REFERENCES

Milo C. Silverman, Dan Nies, Boyoon Jung and Gaurav S. Sukhatme, 2002. "The Docking station For Autonomous Robot Recharging", IEEE International conference, pp: 1050-1055.

Riccardo Cassinis, Fabio Tampalini, Paol Bartolini and Roberto Fedrigotti, "Docking and charging system for autonomous mobile robots".

Se-gon Roh, Jae Hoon Park, Young Hoon Lee, Young Kouk Song, Kwang Woong Yang, Moosung Choi, Hong-Seok Kim, Hogil Lee and Hyouk Ryeol Choi, 2008. "Flexible Docking Mechanism with Error-Compensation Capability for Auto Recharging System of Mobile Robot", 6: 731-739.

Song, G., K. Yin, Zhou and X. Cheng, 2009. "A Surveillance Robot With Hopping Capabilities For Home Security", IEEE Transaction Consum Electron, 55(4): 2034-2039.

Yongxian Song, Juanli Ma Yuan Feng Naibao He, 2012. "Design of Green house Big Awning System Based on Field Bus", IEEE conference, pp: 135-138.

(1) Udayakumar, E., (2) Dr. K. Srihari, (3) Roopa Sree, A., (4) Nikhill, S., (5) Gokhul Raj, N.K., (6) Arun Pradeep, B.

(1) PG Scholar--Communication Systems, Department of ECE, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

(2) Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

(3) PG Scholar--Embedded System Technologies, Department of ECE, Maharaja Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

(4) UG Student--Department of ECE, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, India.

(5) UG Student--Department of Mechanical, KGISL Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India.

(6) UG Student--Department of EEE, Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore, India.

Video Parameters: 15.00 frames per second, RGB24 256x256.
101 total video frames available.

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Article Details
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Author:Udayakumar, E., Srihari K., Roopa Sree, A., Nikhill, S., Gokhul Raj, N.K., Arun Pradeep, B.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 15, 2015
Words:2871
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