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Autogenous vaccination and immunomodulation for management of cutaneous papillomatosis in a crossbred cow.

Introduction

Cutaneous papillomatosis (warts) in bovines is a contagious hyperplasia or benign neoplasm caused by bovine papilloma viruses (BPVs). BPV have specific tropism for squamous epithelial cells and full viral replication occurs only in the more terminally differentiated squamous epithelial cells (Smith, 2002). There are twelve well characterized types of BPVs, BPV1 to 12 inducing papilloma and fibropapilloma (Hatama, 2012). BPV-1 and 2 are associated with fibropapillomas and the lesions commonly appear on surface of head skin, neck, abdomen, teats, udder and external genitalia and in mucosa of the urinary bladder. BPV-3, 4, 6 and 9 are associated with epithelial papillomas and lesions commonly occur on back, upper gastrointestinal tract, teats respectively. BPV-5 causes both fibro-papillomatosis and epithelial papillomatosis and the lesions appear on teats. Although pathological nature of BPV-7, 8, 10, 11 and 12 have not been fully determined yet, association of teat lesions with BPV-7, 8, 10 and 11 and tongue lesions with BPV-12 are suggested (Freitas et al., 2011).

Although various methods have been advocated for treatment of cutaneous papillomatosis with limited efficacy (Turk et al., 2005). Present paper describes successful treatment of cutaneous papillomatosis in a crossbred cow.

History and Clinical findings

A four year old cross breed cow was brought with history of cauliflower like nodular growths on udder, ventral side of abdomen, ears, face and neck since last three months. On clinical examination, animal had multiple papilloma, varying in size from 5 to 100 mm in diameter, disseminated predominantly on udder, ventral abdomen, ears, head and neck (Fig. 1 and 2). Animal was looking apparently healthy and all the haemato-biological parameters were within normal range.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Based on these clinical signs the case was diagnosed as generalized cutaneous papillomatosis. Case was managed with autogenous vaccine and immunomodulator.

Preparation of autogenous vaccine and treatment

Older growth samples were resected under aseptic conditions, minced and suspended in normal saline. The suspension was filtered through muslin cloth and was treated with formalin to inactivate virus. The suspension was kept overnight and antibiotic (Strepto-pencillin 2 mg/ ml) was added to the suspension. Autogenous vaccine was administered @ 5 ml, subcutaneously and was revaccinated at 7 day intervals for four weeks. Levamisole was administered @3.5 mg/ kg, PO, S.I.D, for three days. Sloughing of warts from affected areas was observed after three weeks of treatment and significant clinical recovery was observed after six weeks of treatment (Fig.3 and 4) also no recurrence of papilloma noticed recovery was observed after six weeks of treatment (Fig.3 and 4) with no recurrence of papilloma.

Discussion

Bovine papillomatosis is a contagious disease of cattle occurring as warts/papilloma on skin and mucosa, caused by BPV types 1 to 12 (Vidhya et al., 2009). It is not a life threatening disease, but causes serious economic loss to farmers (Salib and Farghali, 2011). Diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs and electron microscopic studies, in present case diagnosis was based on the clinical signs (Pangty et al., 2011).

Although various methods like autogenous vaccination, use of immunomodulators, paraimmunity inducers and drugs like ivermectin and potassium antimony thiomalate are recommended in the treatment of bovine papillomatosis, but the successful treatment still remains challenging (Hatama, 2012).

Successful outcome of the present case is justified by Turk et al. (2005). They opined that papillomatosis is noticed commonly in immune deficient animals and supplementation of immunomodulators will further found that the use of paraimmunity inducer along with autogenous vaccination enhanced the faster recovery.

Summary

A case of generalised cutaneous papillomatosis in cross breed cow and its successful management is described.

References

Freitas, A.C., Silva, M.A.R., Jesus, A.L.S., Mariz, F.C., Cordeiro, M.N., Albuquerque, B.M. F. and Batista, M.V.A. (2011). Recent insights into Bovine Papillomavirus. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 33: 6004-12.

Hatama, S. (2012). Cutaneous Papillomatosis in Cattle. J. Disaster Res. 7: 319-22.

Pangty, K., Dey, S. and Somvanshi, R. (2011). Preliminary anti-tumour peptide therapy trial in bovine papillomavirus induced experimental hamster tumour model. Current Sci. 7: 1020-31.

Salib, F.A., and Farghali, H.A. (2011). Clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic studies on Bovine Papillomatosis in Northern Oases, Egypt in 2008. Vet. World. 4: 53-59.

Smith, B. P. (2002). Large Animal Internal Medicine. 3rd Ed. Mosby Inc. p. 1211-12.

Turk, N., Milas, Z. and Staresinal, V. (2005). Severe bovine papillomatosis: detection of bovine papilloma virus in tumor tissue and efficacy of treatment using autogenous vaccine and parammunity inducer. Veterinarski. Arhiv. 75: 391-97.

Vidya, S., Somvanshi, R. and Tiwari, A.K. (2009). Papillomatosis in Indian cattle: Occurrence and etiopathology. Indian. J. Vet. Pathol. 33: 52-57.

Jayashree Pattar (1) and Priyanka

Veterinary Dispensary Mamadapur Tq. Gokak Dist. Belgaum (Karnataka)

(1.) Corresponding author E-mail: jayashri.vet@gmail.com
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Pattar, Jayashree; Priyanka
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2013
Words:789
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