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Australian contributions to tourist behaviour studies.

1. Introduction

At the end of the nineteenth century the noted Australia novelist Joseph Furphy produced his magnum opus "Such is Life." It had the by line "temper democratic; bias, offensively Australian" (Clark, 1981). In the twenty first century and in Australian life there is still much of the democratic temper; arguably this means there is not an excessive concern about status within and beyond scholarly walls. What has changed is the desire to be more than offensively and fiercely nationalistic, and instead to see the work of writers, and University researchers in particular, as internationally respected and influential.

The present review about tourist behaviour research by individuals based in Australia is shaped by this desire to represent their international influence. The studies of interest have been conducted either by Australian citizens or by scholars hailing from international locations who have worked in the country for at least five years. Many countries in the world produce some tourism research, and a portion of this work considers what tourists choose to do, how they think and how they behave. It can be quickly appreciated that national studies which merely replicate work already conducted in another setting may be locally valuable, but they do tend to simply consolidate rather than extend the knowledge base of the field. In this review, Australian studies and research efforts which follow international predecessors in the field will be of only passing interest. More directly, four substantial thematic areas in tourist behaviour studies are highlighted. It will be suggested that there are some special conceptual highlights from the Australian research addressing the themes of tourists' motivation, issues in market segmentation, understanding the onsite experience, and assessing the impacts and outcome of tourists' travel.

The originality of the contributions of Australian tourism researchers can be seen as taking one of two forms. There may be originality in some of the work done in terms of it being completed quite some time ago, thus establishing a claim for its formative and pioneering value. A second source of originality may be more contemporary. Such material deals with the fresh treatment of themes and the introduction of novel perspectives to the wider world of tourism scholarship. The review is conducted through an immersive and active process of assessing the work of many people but no direct citation data will be employed to avoid the kind of competitive fracas which such records can generate. It is not inappropriate, however, to record that ten of the scholars cited frequently have more than 1000 Google citations for their work with several recording substantially higher figures of recognition.

The scale or level of focus of this review also needs to be considered. It is the formal requirement of doctoral theses that the student produces a contribution to knowledge. The present review acknowledges many high quality doctoral efforts within the country, but opts to consider major streams and programs of published work rather than focussing on individual pieces. The review has been built by scanning current major tourism journals and publishers, including past issues of this journal. Additionally, attention has been given to the one-time prominent Australian journal, The Journal of Tourism Studies (1990-2005) and the publications of the Council for Australian Tourism and Hospitality Education conferences (1992-2015). Building on these information sources, it is the intention and the ambition of this review to delineate the more enduring, insightful and internationally appealing Australian contributions to tourist behaviour studies.

2. The Australian landscape for tourist behaviour studies

Most tourists who cross continents in the English speaking world know that there are subtle variations in the way concepts and words are used. For example, some tourism humour derives from such examples as North American listeners believing that Australians using the diminutive "ta" for thank you, are referring to a road surface; or that an English listener hearing the Australian expression "you old bastard" may see it as a slight on someone's parentage rather than a term of affection (James, 2005). So too, the focus of our tourism research interests--the very words behaviour and experience--have shifting meanings across continents. This review uses behaviour in its widest sense to embrace physically observable acts as well as the cognitive and emotional links underpinning what people do and how they think and feel. When used in this way the term is synonymous with experience. The British and European traditions, influenced by geographers and sociologists, tend to use experience as the predominant term of interest and eschew behaviour because they believe it is linked too closely to the positivist tradition of psychology research known as behaviourism. North American scholars use the concept experience less frequently, preferring the term tourism behaviour which they effectively borrow from the rather more direct commercial interests of consumer behaviour studies.

Terminology and its precise meaning constitute one component of the landscape of Australian tourism research. An orientation to the world is another point of contextual difference and identity for Australian tourist behaviour researchers. Tribe (2009), amongst others, has documented the force fields which operate on researchers and which determine their wellbeing and choices. A distinctive feature of the Australian tourist behaviour research landscape is that the force field can be seen as open ended rather than tightly constrained. It is, for example, entirely possible for a researcher in the United Kingdom, the United States or China to write about their interest area and publish their work exclusively in the local ambit of only British, North American or Chinese tourism journals. This is not possible if an Australian academic seeks to be successful (Pearce, 2011a). Not only are there a limited number of quality local journals, and the present journal is the one clear and continuing exception, but promotion committees and scholarly acclaim is derived from making an international contribution.

The paradigms, methods and content of research interest are further examples of the academic culture of fusion which characterises studying tourism in the continent of Australia. By far the largest cohort of Australian tourist behaviour researchers had backgrounds in psychology, education or marketing rather than the more theoretical and conceptual leanings of sociology and anthropology. Australian based scholars educated in these psychology, marketing and education fields were able to benefit from the fusion of lines of international inquiry since these study areas were built on studies on both sides of the Atlantic. Fusion also derives from Australia's place in the geopolitical world which involves a necessary national economic orientation to Asia (FitzGerald, 1997). In tourism, the economic importance of the Asian market can be appreciated by the simple statistic that 40% of the country's international tourists are from Asia (UNWTO, 2015). This figure is substantially higher than for any other country in the western world; only New Zealand at 27% has a comparable dependence. It is perhaps not surprising therefore that Australian tourist behaviour research benefits from a diversity of international influences and interests.

One result of these influences is that there is, arguably, a tolerance of research styles, approaches, themes and content in tourist behaviour research in Australia. A review of 5 years of CAUTHE conference papers (2011-2015) provides evidence. From 132 papers selected as relevant to tourist behaviour, 41% are post positivist and highly empirical, 36% are descriptive and interpretive case studies and discussions, and 23% are attempts to develop critical theory or explore new concepts and topics for further treatment. Asian themes and interests are evident in 17% of the tourist behaviour papers and Asian names, predominantly but not exclusively postgraduate students, are visible on 22% of the papers.

3. Notable contributions

3.1. Tourist motivation

It requires effort to visit Australia. It is perhaps not surprising therefore that there has been a long standing interest in why tourists travel to destinations such as Australia, effectively a question of tourist motivation. The Australian researcher Leiper (1979) constructed a tourism systems model to contextualise the flow of tourists and frame tourist behaviour studies. In this foundation piece, Leiper conceptualised the key role of tourist motivation as the true driver of tourism flows. Early debates about tourist motivation also flowed across the continents with the work of Dann (1977, 1981), Plog (1974), and Crompton (1979) being challenged by Pearce (1980), Smith (1990a, 1990b), and later Ryan (1998). A key Australian contribution compared tourist motivation theories and outlined seven criteria for a good conceptual understanding of the topic which was feasible for pragmatic research use (Pearce, 1992). The incorporation of these principles and the continuing authorship of the pleasure motivation chapter in one of tourism's original textbooks has helped communicate these Australian perspectives (McIntosh, Goeldner, & Ritchie, 1995).

The specific Australian development to arise from these discussions was, in time, the travel career pattern (TCP) approach proposed by Pearce and Lee (2005) and summarised in Pearce (2005, 2011b). The travel career patter approach built on and improved on an earlier travel career ladder proposal. At core, the travel career pattern work systematically reorganized and empirically connected a wide range of tourist motivation items and offered a dynamic link between sets of motivation factors and tourists' age and previous travel experiences. The approach continues to be developed, with further conceptual links to neuroscience (Pearce, 2011b), and the addition of specialist factors relating to health (Pearce & Panchal 2011) and the Chinese market (Li, Pearce, & Zhou, 2015).

A core layer of motives was identified at the heart of the TCP model. These motives, specifically to escape and relax, to experience novelty and to build relationships, were relatively unaffected by how much travelling the participants had experienced. There were further motives that were structured into middle and outer layers of importance. For the most experienced travellers, the middle layer of motives such as for self-development and involvement with nature were more important than the outer layer, which included such motives as autonomy and romance. By way of contrast those with limited travel experience tended to see all motives as almost equally important. Overall the motive patterns were broadly consistent in studies of Asian and western travellers. Two large-scale studies confirmed the notion that individuals tend to have a travel career that is dependent on both their holiday experiences and the stage or age people are at in their life cycle. There has been some support for the work both in qualitative and quantitative ways by a range of researchers including Holden (1999), Paris and Teye (2010), Bowen and Clarke (2009), and Murphy, Benckendorff, Moscardo, & Pearce (2010). Although the TCP work has contributed to the theoretical understanding of travel motivation, and bridged some gaps between theoretical research and business practice, the approach still needs further examination.

The Australian contribution to motivation studies has not been confined to one approach. Other scholars, in partnership with international colleagues, have been active in employing means ends analysis. This work embraces a variety of novel inductive approaches to tourist motivation built on interviews, travel blogs and reworking of industry consultancy reports (Jewell & Crotts, 2002; Moscardo, Morrison, Pearce, Lang, & O'Leary, 1996a, 1996b; Jiang, Scott, Ding, & Zou, 2012). The utility of a push-pull approach has also been endorsed in several Australian studies (Wu & Pearce, 2014). Some work has used open ended and interview approaches to tourist motivation (Packer & Ballantyne, 2002) or forms of narrative analysis (Ross, 2014). Such inductive and means-ends studies are visible in Australian work on women and their motivation for tourist experiences (Small, 2002, 2007) and on the quest for positive experiences (Filep, 2014; Filep & Greenacre, 2007).

Some of this recent tourist motivation analysis has a strong teleological or forward looking function where tourists anticipate the benefits they might receive from their travels (Moscardo, 2011, 2014). In this style, there are several Australian based authors writing about the integration of well-being, quality of life and motivation (Dolnicar, Lazarevski, & Yanamandram, 2012). The integrative approach proposed by Dolnicar and colleagues is actually given a distinctively Australian name--the Grevillea model. The name is an allusion to a hardy, local plant where the bright flowers "motivate" many species of birds. A critical feature of these well-being linked assessments lies not only in recording what motivation exists but also in documenting how important that holiday motivation is in the context of a tourist's overall life. Additional facets of this Australian focus on the broad outcomes of the tourist experience, in effect the fusion of the goals and the rewarding outcomes of travel, will be considered in a separate section of this review.

3.2. Segmenting tourist markets

One of the more powerful international contributions of University based Australian tourism researchers lies in the extensive attention to segmenting the tourism market. The achievements here exist at several levels. There are technical contributions in studying the segmentation process. Further, many distinctive market segments built on a variety of themes have been identified. Importantly, there are conceptual as well as descriptive achievements in these studies, some of which expand and identify the global forms of the phenomenon being considered. Initially, however, it is important to observe that academic tourist segmentation studies in Australia are now largely overlooked by the major government tourist bodies which consistently use the work of consultants and market research companies to underpin promotional campaigns. The particular problem with the tourism organisations adopting these consultancy derived market segments is that the colourful presentation of these market segmentation clusters with accessible and flamboyant labels masks some dubious segmentation practices and a secrecy in revealing methods. The commercial style is typified by the following claim:

"Helix Personas is a unique and powerful consumer segmentation and data integration tool that combines sophisticated psychographic and behavioural data to classify the Australian population into 56 Personas and 7 Communities using a combination of Roy Morgan Single Source data and third party data sources." (http://www.helixpersonas.com.au/about).

The accuracy, falsifiability and trustworthiness of the assumptions and assertions inherent in such work remain troubling concerns.

Despite these powerful consultancy companies operating in the analysis of Australian tourism markets, the academic researchers have forged some contributions both to analysis and practice. In terms of technical developments Australian tourism researchers in conjunction with North American colleagues alerted both academics and tourism marketers to some of the values of nondemographic segmentation. In particular, approaches built on trip characteristics, activity orientation and psychographic profiles have had some influence with promotional bodies and were published in a number of journals in the 1990s (Kim, Pearce, Morrison, & O'Leary, 1996; Morrison, Pearce, Moscardo, Nadkarni, & O'Leary, 1996; Moscardo et al., 1996a, 1996b; Moscardo, Pearce, & Morrison, 2001).

A major component building the technical contributions to market segmentation studies in tourism in Australia is the production of methods oriented texts and research books underpinned by careful examination of assumptions and segmentation tools (Jennings, 2010; Rossiter, 2011; Veal, 2011). In a number of specific ways Australian based researchers and colleagues have clarified key issues in the presentation of items used in market segmentation, queried issues about sample size, and critically evaluated the statistical procedures adopted to form clusters (Dolnicar, 2014; Dolnicar & Grun, 2008; Dolnicar & Leisch, 2012; Dolnicar, Grun, Leisch, & Schmidt, 2014). In common with other contributions to tourist behaviour studies, much of this work derives from the legacy of the relevant researchers own training in psychology with accompanying high levels of comfort in statistical and methodological issues (cf. Mazanec, 2011). The contributions here should not be underestimated as Generation T scholars, those who have an entirely tourism education at all degree levels, are less likely to produce these methods oriented revisionist ideas to tourist studies.

Australia as a long haul international tourist destination has attracted some distinctive types of tourists and academic analyses of these segments has defined, classified and established some of their behavioural patterns. Collectively these studies expand the conceptualisation of the types and purposes of tourism globally. There have been multiple and formative studies of special markets including backpackers (Loker-Murphy & Pearce, 1995; Murphy, 2001; Pearce, 1990; West, 2005), wildlife tourists (Ballantyne, Packer, & Sutherland, 2011; Higginbottom, 2004; Hughes, 2013; Moscardo & Saltzer, 2004; Woods, 2000), wine appreciation (Brown & Getz, 2005; Brown, Havitz & Getz, 2007; Charters & Ali-Knight, 2002; Getz & Brown, 2006; Laing & Frost, 2013), wellness (Voigt, Brown, & Howat, 2011; Voigt, Howat, & Brown, 2010; Pearce & Panchal, 2011) and volunteer tourism (Coghlan & Fennell, 2009; Wearing, 2001; Wearing & McGehee, 2013). Increasingly and because of Australia's dependence on the Asian market there have been multiple studies of the Chinese market segment, especially with a view to understanding emerging trends (Chen, Bao, & Huang, 2014a; Keating, Huang, Kriz, & Heung, 2015; Jiang et al., 2012; Wu, Pearce, Huang, & Fan, 2014).

Australia developed a national emphasis on sustainable tourism in the early 1990s through the work and publicity generated by the relatively successful Government Working Party on Tourism (Commonwealth of Australia, 1991). In line with this emphasis, there have been many Australian studies assessing how to define and classify environmentally oriented tourists in the context of sustainable behaviours and businesses (Beaumont, 2011; Dolnicar, Yanamandram, & Juvan, 2013; Reynolds & Braithwaite, 2001; Rodger, Moore, & Newsome, 2009). The language has shifted over time with the expressions green, eco, responsible and ethical tourists fluctuating over the last 25 years (Ballantyne & Packer, 2013; Buckley, 2010, 2013). The work largely reinforces international findings suggesting varying levels of involvement and commitment to pro-environment behaviours, both for domestic and international visitors (Lee & Moscardo, 2005). In associated work there are some clear local topics of interest in terms of tourists' responses to the dangers of Australian wildlife including awareness and concern about crocodiles, sharks, dingoes, jellyfish and spiders (Burns & Howard, 2003; Ross, 1989; Moscardo, Taverner, & Woods, 2006). The Australian work contributes substantially to the global concerns with ensuring tourists adopt safe behaviours. Clear guidelines for effective signage to partly manage these issues have been proposed (Moscardo, Ballantyne, & Hughes, 2007).

A curious and quintessentially Australian sense of humour is even found in these wildlife awareness studies. Naive international tourists, particularly unsuspecting backpackers, are often told to be wary of drop bears by joke loving locals. It is suggested that this animal, which supposedly resembles a giant, mutant, aggressive koala, will fall from high trees onto unsuspecting tourists unless they smear their faces liberally with the local distinctive food paste called Vegemite. The supposed habitat and tourist threatening behaviour of the drop bear has been published in a serious journal (Janssen, 2012).

The topic of visiting friends and relatives in tourism has been one themed areas where two groups of Australian researchers working with international colleagues have been especially prominent in defining the topic. Studies done in northern Queensland, firstly with a slightly provocative article (Jackson, 1990) and a subsequent special issue of The Journal of Tourism Studies provided a stimulus to this less commercial form of tourism (Morrison & O'Leary, 1995; Morrison, Woods, Pearce, Moscardo, & Sung, 2000; Pearce & Moscardo, 2005). Simultaneously a number of seminars and resulting publications from a Victorian based cohort of researchers and colleagues also explored and developed ideas about this tourism form (King, 1996; King & Gamage, 1994; Seaton, 1997) with further developments in the following decade (Backer, 2007, 2008). A systematic characterisation of the dimensions of the phenomenon was provided by one of these Australian teams (Moscardo, Pearce, Morrison, Green, & O'Leary, 2000) and was readily adopted in subsequent research (Lehto, Morrison, & O'Leary, 2001; Pennington-Gray, 2003). In recent times a full volume on the theme has been produced (Backer & King, 2015) with further activity underway to review 25 years of Australian and international work on this topic. There are interesting extensions and analogies drawn between VFR travel, migration and international student travel in some contemporary work (Dwyer, Seetaram, Forsyth, & King, 2014).

An analysis of the contributions on the VFR topic is instructive for defining some of the pivotal contributions of Australian researchers to tourism study. Inevitably a particular topic in tourism takes different forms in the Australian context. The issue of long haul travel and a sparsely settled continent reshapes the forms of VFR tourism adding distances and fresh dimensions to the scale of European concerns. Australian tourism researchers have also not been quite as utilitarian and tied to working for industry in their research interests as North American colleagues, thus permitting the exploration of travel forms and behaviour of lesser commercial interest. The construction of models and diagrams illustrating tourism processes as seen from this distinctive southern hemisphere view is perhaps the most significant way in which Australian researchers make a contribution to the market segmentation work (Lehto et al., 2001). Individual empirical pieces and new themes are valuable but the power of an organising system or framework such as that adopted in the Moscardo et al. (2000) paper outlining the full range of forms of the VFR topic, or more broadly any major market, can and has provided enduring value.

3.3. On site experiences

The presentation of tourism environments has been a strong part of tourism study in Australia. A separate paper in this journal by Weiler deals specifically with tour guide roles and performance and is relevant to but not included in this section. Tourists entering new settings have much to consider. There are issues of wayfinding, of dealing with local people, of managing their health and safety, and of finding ways to enjoy themselves. One line of Australian tourist behaviour work which has been taken up with considerable enthusiasm in a number of countries lies in the application of the concept of mindfulness to tourist experience. Mindfulness refers to a cognitive state where individuals actively process new information and make thoughtful judgements about their actions. Conditions affecting mindfulness, and therefore often promoting adaptive behaviour, include high levels of initial interest, surprise, novelty, contrast, strong stories, and clear communication. It is a particularly relevant construct when tourists find themselves in unfamiliar settings. The roots of the ideas about being mindful and mindless lie in the social psychology research of Harvard psychology Professor Ellen Langer (Langer & Newman, 1979). The present author spent time in the Harvard environment at the start of the 1980s and played a role in introducing the ideas to tourism study in Australia (Moscardo & Pearce, 1986; Pearce, 1988). In the following decade the approach was specifically seen as useful in understanding tourists' responses to interpretation messages, especially in museums (Moscardo, 1997, 1999). The work has been wide ranging, forming a part of models to understand wildlife interpretation (Woods & Moscardo, 2003), tourist learning (Pearce & Lu, 2011), tourist experience (Moscardo, 2009) and tourist shopping (Murphy et al., 2010). The approach has continued to resonate amongst researchers both within and outside of Australia, and is readily linked to dual processing theory and fast and slow thinking (Pearce & Packer, 2013). In recent academic writing another use of the term mindfulness has emerged, one derived from a more quasi-clinical direction emphasising meditation and desired states of mental relaxation (Chen, Scott, & Benckendorff, 2014). Though linked by the title, this line of work is separate to the core social and cognitive processes thoroughly researched by Langer and now applied to tourism contexts.

A significant stream of work on understanding tourists' reactions to interpretation messages has been developed by Australian colleagues. In addition to the work on the role of tour guides by Weiler and colleagues already mentioned, there has been a program of work directed at examining the take up of interpretation messages and an assessment of their effectiveness. Some indicative studies include work on promoting good behaviour in relation to Australian wildlife as well as in cultural and historical settings (Ballantyne, Packer, Hughes, & Dierking, 2007; Ballantyne, Packer, & Hughes, 2008, 2009; Frost, 2011; Hughes, 2013; Hughes, Bond, & Ballantyne, 2013; Hughes, Packer, & Ballantyne, 2011; Reeves, Wheeler, Laing, & Frost, 2011). One of the generic principles explored in this work has been to revisit and use the Aristotelian concept of forms of learning-episteme, techne and phronesis- and to suggest that the assessment of learning outcomes from tourism experiences can be linked to these forms of personal awareness and development (Falk, Ballantyne, Packer, & Benckendorff, 2012). This feature of the interpretive work is also allied to a later section on the general Australian interest in the outcomes of tourism experience.

The pivotal role of technology in shaping the full trajectory of tourist experience has been a research theme in tourist behaviour studies for two decades. Some contribution to this discussion have been a part of the Australian portfolio, frequently with international colleagues and across international boundaries (Gretzel, Fesenmaier, Lee, & Tussyadiah, 2011; Sigala, Christou & Gretzel, 2012). The role of social media in reporting on site experiences has been one topic of attention (White & White, 2006; Wu & Pearce, 2014; Yoo & Gretzel, 2012) while the very absence of interconnectivity in dead zones has been seen as conferring both surprising advantages and disadvantages (Pearce & Gretzel, 2012). Both the influences of technology on choice behaviours while travelling and the way experiences are reported to others reflecting issues of identity and personal well-being have been of interest (Lee & Gretzel, 2014). Technology and preferences for that technology in delivering tourists' experiences is also a theme in several studies (Benckendorff, Moscardo, & Murphy, 2005; Kang & Gretzel, 2012a, 2012b).

The patterns of tourist movement through spaces are very much a part of the onsite behaviours studied by researchers with Australian links and affiliations (Parolin, 2001). There is some work here at the micro-scale of moving through centres and buildings including attention to exhibits and attractions. At a broader scale of interest there has been an enduring program of studies done on tracking city movements and attraction use in urban environments (Lau & McKercher, 2006; Lew & McKercher, 2002; McKercher & Lau, 2008). The work had some of its origins in Australia but has been substantially developed in Hong Kong with a broader applicability to many urban environments. At an even wider scale, several researchers have observed the Australian routes of recreational drive tourists and backpackers (Prideaux & Carson, 2012; Loker-Murphy, 1997; Taylor & Prideaux, 2008).

3.4. The outcomes of travel for tourists

The literature in tourist behaviour has traditionally focussed on the impacts of tourists and their satisfaction. Both of these themes address important public and commercial imperatives. The Australian work on these ore themes is not distinctive in any consistent way but there are other studies about outcomes which offer conceptual and thematic novelty. Building on lines of work in the experience economy and positive psychology, several additional outcomes for the tourist experience have been developed by groups of Australian researchers. In noting the work on interpretation attitudes towards sustainable behaviours have already been highlighted (Ballantyne et al., 2007; Ballantyne et al., 2008, 2009; Frost, 2011; Hughes, 2013). Learning about the visited setting and improving personal skills and capacities through travel is a slightly different but significant set of positive travel benefits (Chen, Bao, & Huang, 2014b; Pearce & Foster, 2007; Scarinci & Pearce, 2012).

The themes of well-being and flourishing, topics deriving from the influence of positive psychology, have been reflected in several publications (Ross, 2014; Filep & Pearce, 2014). This broad theme traces positive benefits on travel for relationships (Pearce, 2012; Yagi & Pearce, 2007), wellness (Panchal, 2014; Vogt, Brown & Howat, 2010, 2011), humour (Pearce & Pabel, 2015) and work life integration (Witsel, 2014).

The broad themes of identity and personal development have sometimes been noted in these kinds of studies with the links between natural and cultural experiences and family travel seen as shaping happiness for different travel cohorts (Deery, Filep & Hughes, 2013) but especially female travellers (Small, 2002, 2007; Wilson & Little, 2008). Some of these ideas have been consolidated into an interest in slow tourism where the focus lies in enduring personal benefits gained through intensive and low impact travel behaviours (Tiyce & Wilson, 2012; Hardy & Gretzel, 2011). The significant generic contributions of this Australian emphasis on these multi-faceted non-commercial outcomes of the tourist experience derive from employing a range of positive psychology constructs often informed by qualitative interpretive approaches to the analysis of the benefits of travel for individuals (Filep, 2012, 2014).

4. Conclusion

The specific focus of this review has been to capture the Australian contribution to tourist behaviour studies, a key component of the field of tourism research. The area of interest is also known as consumer behaviour in tourism and the analyses of tourism experience. In any review piece there are inevitably researchers whose work has been overlooked, or who might feel that their central contributions are not represented. It is of course also valid to acknowledge that many contributors have done more than can be included here, and also that they have often written in other fields of tourism study. For example, there is little mention in the preceding sections about indigenous tourism, communities and tourism, and service culture, nor are there studies included about tourism infrastructure and hotel development. Several of the authors whose work has been noted in the preceding review have made some contributions in these somewhat separate tourism research paddocks and pastures.

It can be argued, however, that the Australian work matters in a global sense. As noted previously, several of the contributors whose work has featured have more than several thousand Google citations for their studies. A democratic inclusive approach to working with others, and a desire to see the global in the local, can build on the already useful historical and contemporary contributions of Australian tourist behaviour researchers to international scholarship.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.01.004

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Available online 20 February 2016

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Philip L. Pearce

James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia

E-mail address: philip.pearce@jcu.edu.au.
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