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Australia's logistical and commissariat support in the New Zealand wars, 1863-66.

The year 1863 marks the high-water mark in Australian military involvement across the Tasman. The events of 1863, though less so in 1864 (particularly when looking at reactions to the second military settler recruiting mission), were supported by majority public sentiment in Australia, as well as by both the colonial and imperial authorities. The co-operation New Zealand received from Australia's imperial military, and civil representatives, enabled the scale and success of the campaigns that took place during 1863-64. This willingness, though again sometimes grudging and with an eye to colonial self interest evident during the Taranaki War (1860-61), saw Australian colonial governments once more interact with the imperial authorities and New Zealand government, ensuring a diverse array of military, commissariat and logistical support. Governor George Grey in a speech at the opening of the New Zealand Parliament on 19 October 1863 elaborated on his colony's request for military aid and the reaction of the Australian colonies. "The neighbouring colonies, to which I applied for such military aid ... have rendered every assistance in their power; and my thanks are in a special manner due to the Governor of Tasmania for the great promptitude with which every available soldier was despatched ... to this colony." (2) Such sentiments though only just begin to touch upon the true size and significance of Australia's involvement in New Zealand during 1863-66. It was during these years that the greatest volume of manpower and war materials and supplies were derived from Australia, and all this input allowed the enormous imperial and colonial war machine amassed by Governor Grey to attempt to conquer the North Island regions of the Waikato and Taranaki. This article therefore seeks to draw attention to this diverse array of logistical and commissariat aspects of these wars for which the Australian colonies played such a highly significant role.

The Australian contribution

During 1863-64, the Australian colonies again showed their geographical and practical importance by being able to supply quantities of arms, ammunitions, and a vast array of commissariat and logistical material to satisfy New Zealand's war needs. This was vital in the early stages of the developing conflict when taking into account the distance and time involved in seeking sources of manpower and military paraphernalia from Britain or other far flung points in the empire. While all these military preparations were taking place, the war also created a demand for a range of imports such as oats and "breadstuffs" to the benefit of Australian commercial activities and shipping. (3) In December 1863 the Launceston Examiner provided some explanation from New Zealand for these initial commercial fortunes:
 A great proportion of the shipping has brought down the provisions
 and supplies which the native war has rendered necessary: for whilst
 our population is increased by continual arrivals, our supplies of
 grain and produce from the native districts have almost ceased since
 the commencement of the war, and many of the European settlers have
 been prevented from tilling their lands, as well as by the inroads
 of the natives, as by the necessary demands upon them for military
 service. Instead of exporting ... considerable quantities of grain,
 flour, and potatoes, we are [now] importing them largely ... (4)

The enormous scale of the military operations resulted in an ever-increasing demand for imported foodstuffs into 1864. Tasmanian newspapers in March 1864 pointed out that there was currently a very large demand for grain in Auckland by the New Zealand Commissariat, noting this department's current consumption at 25,000 bushels per month, and with respect to oats, consumption was exceeding one million pounds per month. (5) The Australian colonies were therefore in the fortunate geographic and economic position to benefit from the vast commercial demands of New Zealand's wars. This diverse and conveniently located Australian support also allowed the war effort to proceed at a faster pace--something not possible if New Zealand had solely relied on Britain or other outposts of empire.

During this process of rapid militarisation in 1863 the New Zealand government was to find itself deficient in a whole range of military materials such as uniforms, equipment, tentage, weaponry, accoutrements and ammunitions. Australia became the convenient locale from which to obtain the requisite military materials to supply its expanding war machine. (6) Britain did of course become an important arsenal from which New Zealand received military logistical and manpower assistance, so integral to the large-scale military campaigns of 1863-64 and the associated influx of imperial military force. (7) Yet as occurred during the Taranaki War, Australia was vital in the overall expansion of military capability. This was especially evident in the initial stages of campaigning, when aid and support from England and elsewhere was often many months away and the proximity and promptitude of Australian support became so vital to New Zealand's immediate and short-term military requirements.

Tasmanian support

Brigadier-General Chute and other officers arrived in Hobart from Melbourne on 30 May 1863 on an official tour of inspection accompanied by Colonel Kempt, 12th Regiment, commanding Her Majesty's forces in Tasmania. To assist in the military build up in New Zealand a number of officers of the Ordnance and Commissariat Departments were ordered to depart as soon as possible, as was 100 tons of commissariat stores including a number of canvas tents, foodstuffs and building materials. (8) In Hobart on 9 June the Louisa was loaded with these stores, including Ordnance Officers A.C. McDuff and H. Potter, before sailing for Auckland on 15 June. (9)

On 31 July 1863, the Tasmanian Colonial Secretary received a request for 500 Enfield dries and accoutrements as well as any revolvers that might be available from the New Zealand Colonial Secretary's Office. The Tasmanian Colonial Secretary quickly brought this before Tasmania's military authorities who acted to fulfil New Zealand's request. Tasmanian authorities were able to provide the 500 rifles and accoutrements promptly, but only a quantity of smooth-bore pistols as no revolvers were available. The Reliance received this consignment of weapons, sailing for Auckland on 5 August. (10)

It is important to acknowledge another request for Tasmanian military assistance that came from the Superintendent of Otago in June 1863. External defence fears were felt throughout the Australasian colonies as a result of the civil war raging in America (1861-65) and Britain's ambiguous attitude to the Confederacy and tensions with the Union, apart from concerns about other events fomenting in Europe and the Pacific. The provincial authorities of Otago felt particularly vulnerable so wanted to establish defences for the harbour of Otago as well as the town of Dunedin to ward off attacks by privateers. The Superintendent of Otago approached the Tasmanian governor with the request that they "may be supplied with two or three useful pieces of Ordnance of the largest size and the most approved construction that can be spared, together with the necessary shot and other material". (11) A reply on 16 July pointed out that as Hobart Town and Launceston "are very imperfectly defended" it was regretted in this instance that Tasmania was unable to meet the wishes of Superintendent of Otago. (12)

During February 1864 the Commissariat Department in Hobart supplied additional stores for New Zealand. The schooner Annie was loaded with these commissariat stores at Constitution Dock with the aid of a gang of prisoners and took several days to complete before clearing for the Waikato on 5 February. (13) Following this vessel's return to Hobart the Mercury provided an account of the Annie's arrival at Waikato and the intense activity being carried out at this vital New Zealand port:
 Captain Fisher ... speaks very highly of the officials in charge at
 Waikato, by whose co-operation and assistance he was enabled to
 lighter nearly three hundred tons of cargo in five days.... The
 ships Beautiful Star, Alexandra, Albatross, and Sea Gull, also
 arrived with stores while the Annie was in harbor. Captain Fisher
 attributes his quick dispatch to the effective service rendered by
 Mr. Jones, the commissariat officer in charge, and also by Mr.
 Simpson the officer in charge of the dockyards. The officers of the
 detachment of the 1st Waikato Regiment stationed at the harbor, also
 rendered every assistance, ... Captain Fisher says that while he was
 at Waikato, 100 of the 1st Volunteer Regiment were stationed there
 with three officers and there were about 100 people employed in the
 dockyards. There are extensive wharves in course of construction,
 and several very large store houses are being built, as it is
 expected that fully 10,000 tons of provisions will shortly arrive
 at Waikato, which is to be the principal commissariat depot. (14)

Further evidence of the quantity and variety of materials made available for use by Tasmanian authorities is evident in early April 1864 when the Hobart Town Commissariat Office advertised for tenders for commissariat supplies for "Military Service". This was not only to supply 10,000 bushels of feed oats, five tons of fine flour, and 2000 bushels of bran of the best quality, but also to provide shipping direct to the Commissariat facilities at "Manakau Harbor" before the end of the month. (15) The Hobart Commissariat Office called additional tenders for "Military Service" towards the end of April. One was for the conveyance from Hobart to the Commissariat Depot at Onehunga of 75 tons of flour, 4000 bushels of oats, 3000 bushels of bran, and two tons of biscuits. (16) Another was for the conveyance of approximately 180 tons of military stores from Hobart to Auckland. These stores consisted of 3200 loose shells, shot and shells packed in boxes, and some "18 to 20 tons of filled cannon cartridges, packed in metal boxes, for which a Magazine will be fitted in the vessel by the Royal Engineer Department". (17)

New South Wales support

Following correspondence with Brigadier General Chute on New Zealand's 6 June 1863 request for more troops and Armstrong artillery pieces, the Governor of New South Wales, Sir John Young, replied to Grey on 9 July outlining the colony's current position:

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of 6th June last, and learn with extreme concern that disturbances of a serious nature have again broken out in New Zealand.

2. This concern on my part is enhanced by the knowledge that the scanty garrison in quarters in Sydney cannot afford you reinforcements. I have along with my responsible advisers carefully considered all the bearings of the question and have very reluctantly come to the conclusion that no troops can possibly be spared from this Colony. Already as you are aware half the Infantry and more than half the Artillery have been despatched to New Zealand. (18)

This initial reticence to provide additional troops and arms, especially in light of the large contributions made during 1860, softened in August 1863 alter the arrival of an official New Zealand government party headed by the Native Minister the Hon. Mr Dillon Bell. (19) The arrival of such a formal party tasked to obtain a range of military and logistical supplies and to commence the recruitment of military settlers stirred New South Wales authorities to support as best they could all such endeavours. In correspondence to Grey on 18 August, Young was now able to state:

I have the honor to inform you in answer to your communications that I have in accordance with your request given Mr. Dillon Bell all the aid and countenance in my power.

2. The Ministers have liberally afforded him arms and ammunition from the Colonial Magazines and accorded him every facility for recruiting.

3. A further detachment of fifty men from Her Majesty's 12th Regiment embarks for New Zealand this day, ... (20)

In August the New South Wales government directed the Colonial Storekeeper to send 1000 rifles and 200 breech-loading carbines to New Zealand. (21) These weapons were conveyed on the Claud Hamilton. Before proceeding to sea this ship also took on board 150 barrels of cartridge powder from the powder magazine at Goat Island. (22) On 24 September the Novelty departed Sydney for Auckland with another seventy-two packages of ammunition. (23) Then on 25 September, the Lord Ashley conveying from Sydney to Auckland the New Zealand government officials and recruiters and forty military settler volunteers, carried "40 cases firearms" from the Colonial Storekeeper. (24) Governor Young also saw that two Armstrong artillery pieces were prepared for despatch to New Zealand. On 16 September he asked Commodore Wiseman of HMS Curacoa, whether apart from the 12th Regiment reinforcements from the Sydney garrison, he could also take these guns "with the requisite ammunition which the Colonial Treasurer prepared to place at your disposal". (25) HMS Curacoa departed Sydney on 22 September in company of another Royal Navy vessel HMS Eclipse, which was towing the Sydney constructed gunboat Waikato. (26) Apart from the 12th Regiment reinforcements and artillery pieces aboard this small New Zealand bound convoy, the gunboat was also loaded with a considerable quantity of other military stores. (27) An 1873 account of the war recalled how the two 40-pounder Armstrong guns "lent to the Colony by the Sydney government" were soon in action when they were placed in position to command the landing place at Meremere in late October 1863. (28)

Sydney constructed gunboats

New South Wales was also a location with the requisite maritime construction capabilities to supply some of New Zealand's requirements for purpose built shallow-draft and highly manoeuvrable vessels capable of operating on the vast and difficult waterways of the North Island. These fiver gunboats became the first Australian built and exported vessels of war. The initial vessel was the iron sternwheel paddle steamer initially known as Gunboat No.3, as well as Waikato, which after arrival in New Zealand was formally named Pioneer. This vessel was reported as costing 9000 [pounds sterling] to complete and during July to September 1863 the progress of its construction by the A.S.N. Company works in Sydney, as well as its unique characteristics for defence, attracted much reportage in Australia. (29) On 15 September the Sydney Morning Herald in a detailed account of the completion of this gunboat, reviewed events:
 Some five or six months ago, when the military commanders engaged in
 the Maori war had become aware of the necessity or great advantage
 of penetrating the centre of rebel Maoridom by effecting a passage
 up the rivers ... The New Zealand Government at once looked to New
 South Wales for such a vessel, and overtures were made through Mr.
 E.O. Moriarty, the Engineer for Rivers and Harbours, who
 commissioned with the Australasian Steam Navigation Company on the
 subject, and found them prepared to undertake the construction of a
 gunboat of the required description. Mr. T. Macarthur, the Company's
 chief engineer, was entrusted with the work, and in ... seventeen
 weeks the vessel was afloat ... Leaving out of notice the excellence
 of the workmanship, it must be a source of gratification to New
 South Wales that she has a firm capable of building a vessel like
 this to meet such an urgent emergency, when we consider that it
 would require some sixteen to eighteen months to import one from
 the mother country. (30)

For this vessel's journey, preparations were also undertaken for obtaining crew for the Pioneer. Glen has previously observed:
 The New Zealand Defence Minister ... issued instructions to Captain
 Mayne RN, ... commanding HMS Eclipse, to proceed to Sydney to
 supervise the completion, arming and crewing of the vessel. Mayne
 left before the end of August 1863 to engage a crew, "as many as
 you may deem necessary", and to purchase the small arms required.
 Under his supervision, Captain Breton was appointed to command and
 Lieutenant W.G. O'Callaghan ... was chosen as First Officer. In the
 carrying out of these instructions Mayne selected a crew from the
 Sydney area, many of whom had Royal Navy experience. There seems
 little doubt that New Zealand's river gunboats were not only built
 by Australians but also had at least one crewed by them. (31)

As part of this process advertisements for a chief officer were placed in Sydney during August, and in the following month tenders were called from insurance companies or underwriters "willing to insure the Waikato Gunboat, on her voyage from Sydney to New Zealand". (32) For the voyage across the Tasman the crew consisted of Captain G.R. Breton, Lieutenant W.G.P. O'Callaghan (33), Chief Engineer Mr Jeffrey, and a crew of twenty-five other officers and men. Apart from the various armour and associated defensive superstructure installed on this vessel the crew were supplied with "a breach-loading rifle, and a revolver and Cutlass". (34) Later in November a letter to Sydney from the Chief Engineer detailed events that unfolded for most of the Australian enlisted crew with the vessel's takeover by the Royal Navy shortly after their arrival:
 Since I wrote to you last, a good many changes have taken place with
 the gunboat, and everybody connected with her, some of them, I am
 sorry to say, not very creditable to the parties concerned with it.
 Two or three days after we arrived here the Commodore refused to
 have anything to do with her unless she was handed over to the
 Imperial Government. This the New Zealand Government would not
 consent to--however, alter a great deal of talk and letter
 -writing, the Governor took it upon himself to hand her over
 without the consent of the Ministry ... On the 16th October, she was
 formally handed over to the Imperial authorities, and all hands
 discharged. I was the only one they asked to remain with her, which,
 after seeing the Minister of War and Mr. Dillon Bell, I declined to
 do. They have hacked and cut up the boat in such a manner that you
 would scarcely know her, and would think shame to own that you ever
 had anything to do with her. They took the second and third
 engineers of the [HMS] Eclipse and put them in her. The day before
 she was to leave for the Waikato they got up steam and had a turn
 about the harbour. Next morning they left ... and had only been
 away about two hours when they burnt the boilers and burst the
 donkey engine pump, and had to be towed back by the Eclipse. They
 had all the men they could get from the ships, and the shore,
 working night and day for eight days before they got her repaired
 again. They did their best to conceal the whole affair ...' (35)

On 21 September a considerable variety of munitions was loaded aboard the gunboat. Later that rooming Sir Henry Barkly, Governor General Young accompanied by Commodore Wiseman and Lord John Taylour also inspected the vessel--an event heralded by a thirteen-gun salute from HMS Curacoa as this party boarded the gunboat. The next day the Waikato under tow by HIMS Eclipse, departed Sydney. Despite a stormy and eventful voyage, both vessels arrived safely at Manukau on 3 October. (36)

The Sydney Morning Herald's "Own Correspondent" on 7 November reported the successful performance of the Pioneer in action at Meremere when the vessel came under fire from Maori cannon. (37)
 I am happy to be able to bear testimony to the excellent qualities
 of the Pioneer. She is in many respects as good as possible, and
 does her work really well. She stood a heavy fire for upwards of two
 hours from the natives at Meremere, including being battered with
 the cannon, but showed no signs of injury. She steams well against
 the stream, doing from seven to eight miles an hour up the river. As
 the summer advances, there can be no doubt she will be found too
 large. Her chief fault being her length, which must certainly prove
 unwieldy when as in the height of summer the stream is almost
 confined to a narrow and tortuous channel. The small vessels now
 building in Sydney are expected to obviate this difficulty. One of
 these will probably be placed on the Thames, the other on the
 Waikato, and thus both rivers made a base of operations. (38)

Following the reconnaissance at Meremere on 29 October the Pioneer carried out a further mission as far as Rangiriri on 31 October, and thereafter continued providing transportation for troops, stores and artillery wherever required. In December 1866 it was berthed at Port Waikato when it slipped its moorings and drifted out to sea before being detected. An attempt was made to rescue the vessel but despite some efforts these failed and the Pioneer was wrecked on the Manukau bar. (39)

To add to the fleet being assembled for the water transport services, the New Zealand government decided upon the construction of two further iron gunboats. The tender for these two vessels was awarded to the Sydney firm of P.N. Russell and Co., and to allow for prompt delivery, these vessels were to be supplied as pre-fabricated sections which could be assembled on site in New Zealand. James Stewart, a Civil Engineer from Auckland who designed them, arrived in Sydney in October 1863 to superintend their construction. Stewart's design of these vessels took into account the need to turn easily in waters little more than their own projected lengths. They would also have a single paddle wheel so as to reduce their beam as well as armament and superstructures arranged so as to offer the best possible cover of both the river and its banks. (40) The Sydney Morning Herald noted:
 of a smaller size than the last one built by the A.S.N. Co. These
 boats are to be about eighty feet long by twenty feet wide, to be
 propelled by steam (stem wheel); are to be put together here, taken
 away in frame direct to the Waikato River, and there to be rebuilt.
 These are, in all probability, but the pioneers of several others
 to be constructed for the river Thames and Wairoa. (41)

The P.N. Russell Engineering and Foundry Works in Sydney manufactured the pre-fabricated sections for these two gunboats during late 1863 and early 1864. Peter Nicol Russell established this firm in Sydney in 1842, which by the 1860s had developed into a major engineering and foundry business. It was capable of major iron and brass foundry, engineering, boilermaker and blacksmith works, and possessed various branch works and wharves, manufacturing goods from dredges to railway rolling stock. (42) Earlier in 1845 the firm had been of assistance to the imperial forces being amassed for service in the Bay of Islands by manufacturing a small batch of Coehom mortars.

The first of these pre-fabricated paddle steamers to be constructed was the Koheroa, which after a mere six weeks was ready for shipment. On 15 December 1863 the Beautiful Star departed Sydney with Engineer James Stewart as passenger and carrying the sections of the Koheroa, and a shipment of coal for New Zealand, arriving in the Waikato eight days later. The pre-fabricated sections of the Koheroa were then assembled at the dockyard facilities at Port Waikato where it was expected that in a short time "the little vessel" would be "ploughing the shallow waters of the Waipa, and accompanying the troops on their march with provisions and ammunition". (43) James Stewart also brought with him from Sydney additional tradesmen for the construction work. The Herald's "Own Correspondent" reported the Koheroa "is being rapidly put together by the citizens brought over by" Stewart at Port Waikato. (44)

Completion of the Koheroa did not take place as rapidly as expected though Stewart was "quite sanguine of having the gunboat ready to go up the river by the 22nd January". (45) It was not until early February 1864 before the boat was in a state of readiness to undertake its first trial trip. Pressures to have the vessel ready for service were greatly increased when the gunboat Avon hit a submerged tree and sank on the Waipa River in early February. This situation necessitated the Koheroa be hastily readied in an incomplete manner as a replacement to ease the potential supply crisis faced by General Cameron's advancing troops. (46) During March 1864 the importance of the riverboats was shown when the Koheroa and the refloated Avon were able to penetrate the Horotui River in the immediate neighbourhood of the major Maori defensive positions at Piko Piko and Paterangi. This was even the more remarkable as "the drought ... has rendered the Waipa barely navigable, even for the Koheroa, to any where near Te Awamutu. The cannon and ammunition for the troops in the attacking column have been conveyed in the steamers, as also the provisions, with the exception of potatoes, of which the crop in the district is large." (47) Later in November 1865 the Koheroa foundered near Rahuipokeka (Huntly) but was raised in October 1866 after which the engines were removed and the vessel was hulked at Port Waikato. By 1867 it was reported as being just an iron shell. (48)

The second of the Sydney pre-fabricated gunboats was the Rangiriri. The sections of this vessel were also loaded aboard the Beautiful Star, departing Sydney in February 1864. Upon arrival the Rangiriri was assembled at Port Waikato and was finally able to join the Koheroa in March. In August 1864 the Rangiriri and the Pioneer brought up personnel of the 4th Waikato Regiment to the location where the military settler community of Hamilton was established. The Rangiriri was to remain in New Zealand Government service until 1870. In 1890 the Rangiriri was abandoned alongside the riverbank at Hamilton where in 1982 the remains were raised and placed there as a historic monument. (49)

Victorian support

In 1863 Victoria became a source for additional artillery pieces, when a battery of Armstrong artillery, the property of the Victorian government, was transferred to New Zealand. This occurred following negotiations initiated in Melbourne after the arrival of Colonel G.D. Pitt (via Sydney) with the New Zealand government party. (50) The Argus on 25 August revealed that Governor Grey had already sent a number of requests for military assistance since June:
 Mr. Verdun stated that an application, dated June ... had been
 received ... urging that all the military assistance the colony
 could send should be sent. In reply, the New Zealand Government
 were informed that the Ministry were unwilling to give a decided
 answer, in the unsettled state of affairs between the Imperial
 Government and America, until the arrival of the then incoming
 mail. A second urgent application had been made ... in July, and a
 third bore date the 3rd of the present month. Both of these letters
 had been accidentally detained in Sydney, and had only reached
 Melbourne by the last mail. In reply, Major-General Chute had
 recommended to His Excellency that one-half of the whole artillery
 and infantry force in the colony ... should be sent to Auckland,
 and that one half of the battery of Armstrong guns, the property
 of the colony should be lent to the New Zealand Government. (51)

Victorian government ministers, however, went further and proposed the whole of the imperial garrison should be sent, and that the whole battery of six guns should be loaned to the New Zealand government if so requested. Glen, surmising on the debate which took place for these six Armstrong guns stated:
 The Chief Secretary indicated that the battery of six guns ... in
 the Colonial Military Store in Melbourne were ready for use if
 required. The status of this battery became the source of much
 debate over that week. New Zealand had asked the Victorians for a
 "half battery" of Armstrong 12 pounders to establish their own
 artillery within the Militia ... To order guns from England would
 involve a long and protracted sea journey; to request guns from
 Victoria was obvious.... If these guns went to New Zealand, argued
 the Assembly, there was virtually no coastal defences in
 Victoria.... After much debate, the Assembly decided half a battery
 was neither use nor ornament, and by the same token about as useful
 as throwing stones to the New Zealand Government. In their argument
 the Victorians made a virtue out of a pressing New Zealand
 necessity. (52)

The military authorities issued orders on 27 August for the immediate despatch of the majority of the 40th Regiment and Royal Artillery personnel stationed in Victoria. The battery of Royal Artillery ordered for New Zealand was to also "take with them the six iron Armstrong 12-pounder guns, with equipment, ammunition, &c., ready for immediate service." (53) It was actually not until November after the terms of sale had been finalised before this complete battery of six Armstrong guns with ammunition and stores was despatched aboard the troopship Himalaya. (54) New Zealand parliamentary papers indicate that 3,592 [pounds sterling] 1s. 8d. was paid to the government of Victoria for these guns through New Zealand's Crown Agent in London in 1864. (55)

South Australian support

Following a written request from New Zealand the South Australian government in November 1863 consented to supply 500 long Enfield dries lying in the Adelaide Armoury, after "having gone carefully into the question". (56) In January 1864, 120 rifles were also despatched to New Zealand via Melbourne aboard the Coorong. (57) As late as June 1866 the superintendent of the Adelaide Armoury was able to place on the table of the South Australian Legislative Council a "Receipt and Disposition of Small Arms". This indicated weapons sent comprised 525 "Rifled Muskets, Enfield Pattern, 1853" and one "Rifled Carbines, Westley Richards's Breech Loaders". (58)

South Australian riverboats and the services of Captain Cadell

South Australia also became very important as a place where New Zealand could purchase riverboats for use in the vast waterways that were so heavily impacting on military campaigning in the Waikato and other North Island regions. Some of the riverboats that saw service with New Zealand's River Transport Service arrived indirectly, while others were purchased specifically for war requirements. Apart from useful riverboats, New Zealand was able to enlist the services and inland waterway expertise of Captain Francis Cadell to operate its growing flotilla of rivercraft.

Captain Cadell was one of the principal pioneers of river navigation and transport on the Murray River. Mennell's 1892 biographical entry on Cadell's life outlined that he
 was born [in Britain] in 1822, and educated at Edinburgh
 and in Germany. He entered as a midshipman on board an East
 Indiaman, and took part in the first Chinese war, ... At
 twenty-two he was in command of a vessel, and meanwhile visited
 the ship-building yards of the Tyne and Clyde, gaining a thorough
 knowledge of naval architecture and the construction of steam
 engines. He studied the subject of river navigation after a visit
 to the Amazon; and in 1848, when he arrived in Australia, his
 attention was drawn to the practicability of navigating the Murray
 and its tributaries, ... Encouraged by the Governor of South
 Australia (Sir H.F. Young), he put his project into
 execution.... His subsequent career was chequered and adventurous,
 and his end tragic and mysterious. (59)

In June 1863 Cadell sold his last remaining riverboat Wakool to New Zealand, most probably for financial reasons, though this vessel was not utilised for military purposes and was later wrecked in 1865 in the South Island. (60) He received a telegram on 15 February 1864 from Colonel Pitt who had arrived in Victoria to recommence military settler recruiting. Pitt requested he see the New Zealand government agent J.C. Firth once he arrived, no doubt to seek advice on securing additional riverboats for New Zealand service, but also to obtain Cadell's services in the Waikato. (61) The South Australian Register on 16 March 1864 stated:
 We are glad to hear that our old friend Captain Cadell, who opened
 up the Murray to the trade of the colonies, has proceeded to
 New Zealand, under engagement with Colonel Pitt, to examine and
 report upon the state of the Waikato, with a view to clearing the
 navigation of that river, and rendering rapid the steam service
 for the transport of provisions and warlike stores for Her
 Majesty's troops. We are sure that all who know Captain Cadell
 will wish him success in his arduous, and, in the present state
 of the New Zealand war, most important undertaking. (62)

In New Zealand Cadell's appointment as superintendent of the River Transport Service was confirmed as commencing from 15 February 1864, and he served in this capacity until 31 January 1866. (63)

The River Transport Service and the Commissariat Transport Corps utilised a flotilla of various craft. This fleet quickly proved itself crucial for its ability to ferry troops and supplies as well as for communications throughout the difficult waterways traversed during the Waikato campaign. The motley collection of vessels involved included armoured barges, purpose built gunboats, armed steamers or schooners, and other small craft and boats. This "fleet" was operated by a variety of personnel from Royal Navy ships, the British Army, volunteers from the Waikato military settler regiments serving under the guise of the Imperial Commissariat Transport Corps, as well as civilians. The vessels and their crews ensured that imperial and colonial troops could be rapidly moved, and while in the field were able to be fed, clothed and equipped, as well as providing a water route into the heart of Maori-held territory in the Waikato and elsewhere. (64)

During the initial stages of his superintendence in June-July 1864, Cadell was an instrumental figure in the selection of sites for the various military settlements of the men and families of the Waikato regiments. The Colonial Defence Minister writing to Colonel Haultain commanding the 2nd Waikato Regiment, outlined:
 The object ... in selecting the sites at the head of the river
 navigation being to encourage the speedy growth of settlements
 at points where, from their natural protection, it is certain
 towns must eventually spring up, where travellers to the interior
 of the country leave the steamers and where the produce of the
 Upper Waikato districts would be shipped.... Captain Cadell ...
 has been instructed ... to give his assistance and advice as
 to the points where the rivers ceases to be navigable for
 steamers. (65)

Following the termination of Cadell's services as superintendent of the River Transport Services, his expected return to Australia was duly reported:

The Argus says that 'Capt Francis Cadell, so well known in this colony in connection with the navigation of the Murray and Darling Rivers, has for some two or three years past been superintendent of the steam transport service in Waikato, lately the seat of war in New Zealand. He is about to return to this colony, and we observe that before leaving Auckland he received a very handsome testimonial from the officers and men of the service. It consisted of an address, a gold chronometer watch (bearing a suitable inscription), gold albert chain, diamond ring, locket, with likeness of Her Majesty Queen Victoria set in diamonds. The locket contains the likeness of Captain Cadell, by a local artist.' (66)

The array of gifts and associated testimonial items indicates the prominence of Captain Cadell in fulfilling his duties. His contributions to the day-to-day logistics which were more easily borne through an efficient river transport service, for both imperial and colonial forces throughout this period, has not yet received the acknowledgment it deserves, despite his vital role throughout these campaigns. (67)

Certain South Australian riverboats were initially purchased for employment in trade and communication services for South Island interests, such as the 120-ton steamer Sturt. In June 1863 the Sturt received alterations and was prepared for sailing for use by the Nelson and Marlborough Steam Navigation Company. The vessel was despatched from Adelaide on 16 June and arrived at Nelson twelve days later. (68) In March 1864 New Zealand decided to purchase the steamers Sturt and Prince Alfred for government service on the Waikato and Waipa Rivers.

The Sturt was built for the Murray River ... and for several years was ... employed on that river. She is of exceedingly slight drought, and when her false keel is removed will carry 70 tons with only a draught of three feet six inches. What renders her peculiarly adapted for the rapid current of the Waikato is her great power in proportion to her tonnage, ... we learn the Government intend to run her from the Waikato Heads to Rangiriri ... (69)

The South Australian Register in reporting the purchase of the Sturt and Prince Alfred in April pointed out: "It is understood that orders for further purchases of small steamers have been sent to the Australian Colonies". (70) The Sturt continued in service with the New Zealand Government until 1870 when it was wrecked on the Kaiapoi Bar. (71)

On 23 February 1864 Mr J.C. Firth, a New Zealand government representative, arrived in South Australia (via Melbourne) looking to purchase steamers. The 90-ton iron paddle steamer Gundagai which had been involved in the Murray River trade was subsequently chosen for this task and was purchased for 4250 [pounds sterling]. The Gundagai arrived in Adelaide from Goolwa on 13 March where it was overhauled and repaired. The vessel was able to depart on 18 May, travelling first to Launceston, before finally arriving in the Waikato on 9 June. (72)

The Gundagai proved to be one of the most useful boats in the New Zealand government's River Transport Service on the Waikato. In January 1865 its valued services ended on the Waikato River "on which she has done better than any other employed" and she was despatched to penetrate the Wanganui River "and so accompany the troops on the march". (73) Lieutenant-General Cameron in a report to Governor Grey about military affairs on the West Coast, acknowledged the role played by the Gundagai as well as the services of Captain Cadell:
 On the night of the 15th, Brigadier-General Waddy marched from
 the Waitotara, ... [and] crossed the mouth of the Whenuakura
 ... on the morning of the 16th, and arrived on the left bank
 of the Patea, where he is now encamped.

 On the same night Colonel Weare broke up his camp at Nukumaru,
 and took up General Waddy's former camp on the Waitotara.

 Both the Waitotara and Patea can be entered by steamers of very
 light draught, and the two camps are supplied by sea from
 Whanganui, by the Colonial steamers "Gundagai" and "Sandfly."

 I am greatly indebted to the officers in charge of these two
 vessels, viz.: Mr. Caddell and Mr. Marks, for affording me the
 means of reconnoitering the coast, and for the zeal and good
 will with which they perform the important duties of supplying
 the troops, and keeping up the communications with Whanganui. (74)

The Gundagai continued in military and commissariat service on the West Coast during 1865-66 until wrecked while crossing the Patea bar on 25 June 1866. (75)

Another individual who can be documented as having served as part of New Zealand's maritime services, was George Gregory, who unsuccessfully attempted to obtain a late-issue New Zealand War Medal in 1901-02. Individuals such as this are often overlooked as contributing to New Zealand's manpower requirements, as they are not so easily identified as say a military settler or an imperial soldier from Australia's garrison. Gregory was born in Herfordshire, England in 1836 and came to Australia aged fourteen. During his first five years in these colonies he followed a sea-faring life serving aboard a vessel trading between Australian and New Zealand. Temporarily relinquishing the nautical life he went to Namoi, New South Wales and purchased land and settled at Wee Waa. He is said to have later journeyed through Queensland arriving back in Sydney during the outbreak of war in New Zealand from where he journeyed to Auckland (possibly in 1864). In New Zealand he served as a deckhand and fireman aboard the government steamer Sturt commanded by Captain Fairchild. During this service he became involved at sea and ashore at Patea and Wanganui on the West Coast, as well as in the aftermath of the Poverty Bay Massacre on the East Coast. Later he returned to New South Wales and took up land at Narrabri in 1870 where he raised a large family. He died in 1913. (76)

Naval coal and chandlery tenders, and shipping for troops, families & military casualties

As with supplying various army needs during the 1860s, the Australian colonies were also a place where commissariat requirements for the Royal Navy were also met. For example the Commissariat in Sydney in December 1864 advertised for tenders to "supply sundry articles of Ship Chandler's Store" for HMS Miranda. (77) In early 1865 contracts were issued by the Commissariat in Sydney "for Supplies for Army and Navy Services at Sydney", from mid 1865 to mid 1866. (78) Apart from stores the Royal Navy and other shipping firms utilised Australian coal for its steam vessels. Despite unfavourable results of experiments carried out by Commodore Seymour in 1862 on Australian coal on board HMS Pelorus, "Perfect Combustion" in a letter to the Sydney Morning Herald in August 1863 defended the Australian product. (79) The Herald the next day provided further commentary on Australian coal, maintaining its worth and value for money:
 Australian ... coal is the cheapest for use on this station,
 and the opportunities for experiment on board the Pelorus,
 are not of a kind to give a fair trial. The utility of the
 colonial coal is sufficiently evidenced, not only by its
 uniform use in all colonial furnaces, both ashore and afloat,
 but by the preference given to it by the P. and O. Company ... It
 is already largely exported to California, to China, and to India,
 where it bears a high character in competition with coal brought
 from elsewhere. (80)

The supply of such diverse Royal Navy needs enabled vessels to operate efficiently on the Australia Station as well as to maintain a constant presence in New Zealand waters throughout the 1860s.

Another aspect of Australian involvement was as a place from which shipping for a variety of military purposes could be procured. Apart from the despatch of the various contingents of Imperial troops in 1860 and 1863, shipping was also required for miscellaneous military needs. Tenders were called and charters agreed to return wounded or invalided troops and their families from New Zealand to Australia and then on to England. Shipping was also required to return regiments to England as they were being gradually withdrawn from the New Zealand theatre of operations during 1864-66. One early example occurred in April 1860 when the Tasmanian Steam Navigation Company was reported to be in negotiations with the Victorian government for the conveyance of troops and ammunitions from Melbourne to New Zealand aboard the City of Hobart, offered by the firm's directors at 3500 [pounds sterling]. The company was successful in obtaining the charter and on arrival in Melbourne from Tasmania this vessel embarked a strong detachment of the 40th Regiment bound for Taranaki. (81) In August 1863 the Commissariat in Melbourne was again to call for tenders to transport 173 officers and men, ten wives, fifteen children, three horses and all associated "regulated quantifies of baggage" of the 40th Regiment from Melbourne to Auckland. (82)

Australian ports and facilities were also utilised for military shipping coming to and from England or other destinations--either for repairs, re-supply and fuel materials, or even as a temporary place for troops to disembark before continuing on to New Zealand. Such events occurred with the arrival of the troopship Himalaya in Melbourne in November 1863. This vessel was transporting the 50th Regiment from Colombo en route for New Zealand, required re-coaling in Melbourne taking a couple of days before being able to continue. During their very brief stay in Melbourne the officers of this regiment were reported as receiving a considerable amount of hospitality, but the necessity to get under way as soon as possible prevented acceptance. (83) In late December 1863 the transport Australian from Rangoon also ported in Melbourne carrying the headquarters elements of the 68th Regiment. This vessel similarly required coaling before continuing on to Auckland, but these few days in port allowed a number of officers and men time to disembark and visit the city and the cricket ground. (84)

In December 1863, Adelaide witnessed the arrival of the troopship Armenian from Rangoon with the other elements (four companies) of the 68th Regiment. This vessel suffered damage in a severe gale necessitating repairs and a refit before proceeding. The South Australian Register reported the vessel's captain presented himself to the South Australian government from which instructions were issued "for the prompt supply of his wants, so that no time might be lost in getting his vessel to sea again". The 68th troops were allowed to disembark and to pitch their tents on Torrens Island while the repairs were under way. The only reservations of Major Kirby commanding this detachment to the public responses to their temporary presence was "that the colonists may kill his men with kindness". While in Adelaide these troops were shown an array of hospitality, which included a cricket match organised between the 68th and a team of eleven cricketers representing South Australia at the Thebarton Racecourse, including organised catering, entertainment and additional coach services for the day. The Armenian was finally able to get under way for Auckland on 4 January 1864. (85)

Shipping arrangements were also made in Australia for the conveyance of sick or wounded soldiers from New Zealand. On 9 September 1864 two Royal Navy officers, Captain David Spain and Lieutenant Jones, arrived in Sydney to arrange for the charter of a vessel for taking sick and wounded troops to England. (86) The Melbourne firm of Messrs. Bright Brothers became the contractors for this shipping task. (87) On 2 November the Hero arrived in Melbourne from Auckland with a contingent of several officers and 125 wounded or invalided troops. These men were then scheduled to proceed to England in the Black Ball line ship Royal Dane, which was chartered and fitted up for this purpose. (88)

In August 1864 it was reported the "Sydney siege train battery", the detachment of Royal Artillery that had been despatched to New Zealand in 1860 had been ordered to prepare to return to Sydney. "The number of men belonging to the battery is forty-two, with one officer. Two of them have been killed in action since the battery arrived in Auckland." HMS Esk brought these troops back to Sydney on 8 August. (89) Later in December the Sydney Commissariat issued a tender notice for the conveyance from Sydney to England "of about 5 officers, 67 non-commissioned officers and gunners, 32 women, and 67 children, and baggage of the Royal Artillery", most of whom had returned from New Zealand service. (90) Tenders were also advertised in Australia calling for shipping to be able to provide transport for troops of the 68th and 43rd Regiments and their families from Auckland to England in December 1865. In January 1866 the Sydney Commissariat was reported as taking up the steamer Great Victoria to convey troops from Auckland, and in February the vessel Maori was chartered in Adelaide to convey some of these troops from New Zealand. (91) In March 1866 the Admiralty Transport Office in Auckland issued an additional tender for the conveyance of the 40th Regiment, a Royal Artillery Battery, and about one hundred military invalids and wounded men (including families) to England. (92) Australian shipping or contractor firms were in an admirable position throughout the 1860s to fulfil the imperial shipping requirements for the commissariat, logistical and troop transports associated with the New Zealand campaigns, and in turn was a stimulus to Australia's shipping industry.

The New Zealand Commissariat Service

The sheer volume of military stores flooding into New Zealand during 1863-64 necessitated a vast commissariat network to deal effectively with the requirements of the expanding imperial and colonial war machine. Depicting some of this complex infrastructure, the Mercury on 26 March 1864 reported on the "Magnitude of the Auckland Military Stores":
 We believe that there are few persons here who are aware
 of the magnitude of the Military Store Department in Auckland;
 more especially since the present war has been going on. The large
 reinforcements of troops that have been received have of course
 necessitated a commensurate supply of munitions of war, and the
 Military Store becoming inconveniently crowded, it was found
 necessary to erect new buildings both for present, and future
 requirements. Britomart Barracks, or more properly Fort Britomart,
 is the grand depot for these supplies from which they are
 distributed over the country, as the exigencies of the war may
 demand. It may well be imagined that the duty of issuing these
 stores is a very onerous and important one; and as the strict
 military routine and discipline by which this is effected will
 perhaps interest our readers ... (93)

In assessing this logistical component of this commissariat organisation, it is important to remember the contribution of many of the men who enlisted for service as military settlers, both in New Zealand and Australia. Many of these were to provide a vital, yet generally unrecognised and unsung service to the overall war effort as volunteer personnel in the Imperial Commissariat.

Examples of Australian enlisted military settlers who saw service in the Imperial Commissariat are Jacob Cheshire and Henriques DeLeon. (94) Cheshire enlisted in the 2nd Waikato Regiment in Sydney on 11 September 1863 and was allocated regimental No. 757, and gave his trade as "Shoemaker". In New Zealand he also served in the 3rd Waikato Regiment and from this unit volunteered for service with the Imperial Commissariat Transport Corps. After military service, Jacob had a varied career in New Zealand and then later Queensland where he and his family finally moved to Inglewood in 1884 where he became Postmaster, and later dying in this community on 1 August 1898. (95) DeLeon (also as Henri/Henry DeLeon, & Henry Strode Henri) enrolled in the 2nd Waikato Regiment in Sydney on 21 August 1863. (96) In New Zealand he served with the 2nd Waikato Regiment until January 1864 when he transferred into the 3rd Waikato Regiment, before again transferring into the 1st Waikato Regiment in February 1865. Whilst serving in the 1st Waikato Regiment DeLeon volunteered for service with the Imperial Commissariat, attaining the rank of Sergeant and serving as an "Issuer". After his military service he embarked on a career in education (specialising in languages) firstly in Otago, briefly in Melbourne, and later in Hobart. DeLeon achieved the position of Professor of Languages, and died in South Brisbane, Queensland on 8 August 1925. (97)

In order to try and see early action or to escape the mundane routine of redoubt life and the garrison duty most military settlers found they faced upon arrival in New Zealand, some Australian recruited military settlers applied to join the Colonial Defence Force (CDF) Cavalry. (98) Similarly, small numbers transferred to the Forest Rangers, while the largest number volunteered for service with the Imperial Commissariat Transport Corps (CTC). (99) Volunteering for service in the CTC was a common option for men of the four Waikato regiments. This was especially the case with the 3rd Waikato Regiment which had at least 616 officers, noncommissioned officers and men from its total compliment volunteering their services for duty with the Imperial Commissariat. From assessment of New Zealand government papers it seems that a total of 1942 colonials (excluding British Army or Royal Navy personnel) served in some role as part of the CTC, and of these approximately 1397 came from the four Waikato Regiments. (100) The logistical aspect of the wars was of crucial importance to military operations, for without the exertions of this corps, the combat troops and the various garrisons and redoubts could not have been effectively armed, clothed and fed under some of the most trying physical conditions. Men such as Cheshire and DeLeon served in a role usually not glamorous, often monotonous or arduous and not seeing combat, but nonetheless were extremely important to the overall success of the various North Island campaigns. (101)

Military Horse Trade, 1863-64

In relation to the CDF and the CTC especially, the Australian colonies were also the place where draught and cavalry horses were procured. This particular military horse trade may not have been as large and long-lived as that which took place with India, but nonetheless was a significant market. (102) The arrival of the New Zealand government party to Sydney in August 1863 also heralded the beginnings of the horse trade in this period. Among this party were several gentlemen who had come to purchase horses for the "military defence corps". (103)

The New Zealand government selected Edward Mayne to be their remount agent in Sydney. (104) He commenced this work in August by attending the "Burr & Co's Horse Bazaar". The initial advertisement in the Sydney Morning Herald on 20 August sought "Troop Horses", noting Mayne's job to select for purchase horses suited for "cavalry work" with "Geldings preferred; must be quiet to ride, sound, not under fifteen hands high, or over seven years old". (105) Further advertisements over the ensuing days continued to seek troop horses but at the same time also sought horses "adapted for cavalry purposes". (106) Another advertisement appeared at this time seeking one hundred horses for the New Zealand government. Requirements here were that they "must be well bred, active and compact, sound, and quiet to ride, 15 hands to 15 hands 2 inches high, and from 5 to 7 years old." Persons with such horses were invited to apply daily to 260 Pitt Street, Sydney. (107) One of the first horse exports occurred on 15 September when the Claud Hamilton departed Sydney for Auckland with eighty horses in its cargo. (108) Such horses were made available for the CDF Cavalry or the CTC. (109) To assist in the purchase of suitable horses for the requirements of the imperial government in New Zealand, Mr Anderson, a Royal Artillery veterinary surgeon, also arrived in Sydney from Auckland during October. (110) In early 1864 the Commissariat Department in Melbourne, Sydney and Hobart Town were notified of the requirements for "Sound Horses" for both draught and lighter types for riding or pack animals. (111) During February-March 1864 advertisements in the Sydney Morning Herald again sought horses, this time specifically for the CDF. (112) The trade and supply of various types of horses from Australia was obviously of enormous value to the scale of military operations being undertaken in New Zealand.

Meat and Cattle Trade, 1863-66

The Australian colonies were also a major source of beef and mutton, as well as live cattle and sheep for New Zealand's military and public requirements, particularly evident in the period 1863-66. The availability of Australian beef ensured adequate supplies to feed the needs of large numbers of imperial and colonial troops serving in the field. In early July 1863 the South Australian Register directed attention to
 [t]he scarcity and the consequent high price of butchers' meat
 in New Zealand, has led, ... to a relaxation in the rules
 affecting the importation of sheep and cattle, so far as concerns
 Great Britain and Ireland and the colonies of South Australia
 and Tasmania. Our Auckland contemporary is indignant at the
 relaxation not having been extended to New South Wales,
 Queensland, and Victoria, 'from which alone," he says, "supplies
 are likely to come." (113)

In Tasmania the Mercury drew attention to this cattle trade as being "of no small importance" to the colony. This particular trade commenced in 1862 with the discovery of the Otago goldfields when various quantities of horses and sheep were sent from Hobart, and horses, sheep, homed cattle and pigs left Launceston. The Mercury stated that "[s]ince then, this trade has increased, and it promises to be a flourishing one. Steam, direct to New Zealand, is about to be laid on, and this will, in all probability assist it, indirectly, if not directly." (114) By September 1863 the Sydney Morning Herald reported that a mob of cattle from Warrah Station passed through Singleton for shipment at Newcastle. This station also supplied a "mob of 3000 fat sheep", and it was noted that "[s]uch arrangements have been made that continuous drafts of stock can be sent from this well-known station". (115) By December 1863 the shipping of cattle was improved by technological innovation where instead of the usual horse-power being used to hoist individual cattle over a vessel's side, the steamer Xanthe commenced using its steam-derrick for the same purpose. (116)

In December 1863 the Mercury also directed attention to the difficulties faced in competing in the shipment of cattle to New Zealand. The lack of the proper wharf facilities with appropriate accommodation for stock, depth of water for vessels and associated loading infrastructure "militates against operations of that nature here". It was revealed how Gippsland pastoralists were assisted by the Victorian government by coming "to the aid of the ... stockholders by erecting yards and other appliances at the port whence cattle are shipped, and at present a large number are taken from that port of the colony". (117) This governmental support was crucial to certain Gippsland pastoralists being able to secure the imperial meat contracts for New Zealand forces during 1864.

In August 1864 the New Zealand Commissary-General intended to start accepting fresh meat tenders from any of the Australian colonies and not limiting them to New Zealand as had occurred previously. (118) In October it was reported that Mr J. Johnson of Gippsland was successful in obtaining the contract to supply "fresh meat to the whole of Her Majesty's forces in the province of Auckland". The Sydney Morning Herald referring to news contained in the Southern Cross, observed:
 We need hardly say that Mr. Johnson has been largely engaged
 in the importation of cattle to this province, and that some
 of the finest stock brought here have been imported by him. He
 has a large cattle station in Gipps Land, Victoria, and owns the
 Kate Waters, Eclipse, and Lombard, which are all vessels
 exceedingly well adapted for carrying stock. The Kate Waters has
 made several successful attempts here, having lost very few
 cattle indeed.' (119)

During late 1864 the Auckland Commissary-General advertised further tenders for fresh meat for the imperial forces in Auckland, this time for April 1865-March 1866. Johnson is believed to have secured this also. (120)

Press sources suggest that a considerable trade in cattle and other livestock to New Zealand also occurred during 1864 out of the New South Wales port of Newcastle. (121) This included working bullocks, a resource greatly in demand by the CTC in the Waikato and Taranaki. In March 1864 the vessel Dudbrook left Newcastle for Auckland with a freight of cattle consisting mainly of 175 working bullocks. These had been selected by a Mr John Chadwick of Auckland as "well suited for the market for which they were destined". This shipment included all "the necessary gear to equip perfect teams". (122) By late 1865 it became evident that the difficulties in getting cattle brought down country in reasonable time and in sufficient numbers to meet requirements, necessitated those involved seeking alternative sources for their cattle. This saw a proportion of the trade move to more northern ports in Queensland, and even effected Johnson in his ability to fulfil his meat contract. Information originally taken from the Newcastle Telegraph, was to state:
 we learn that several other vessels which have been engaged for some
 time past as regular traders between here [Newcastle] and New
 Zealand are about to leave us for Rockhampton. Among others we hear
 that the Kate Waters, the Lombard, and Eclipse, all of which are
 under charter to Messrs. Johnson and Co., who have a contract with
 the New Zealand Government, are to be taken off this line, and
 henceforth to proceed to Rockhampton to take in cargo. (123)


The evidence detailed throughout this article has been compiled so as to clearly show that Australia was of especial significance during 1863-66 in supplying both vast and various commissariat and logistic needs contributing to the scale of the New Zealand war effort. This period truly marks the high-water mark in Australian military involvement across the Tasman. As in previous years (ie. 1845-47 & 1860-61), Australian commissariat stores and arsenals contributed quantities of rifles and carbines, ammunitions, accoutrements, artillery and associated ordnance material. This was now extended with a considerable military horse trade; manufactured river gunboats (as well as a place to purchase existing riverboats); naval coal and chandlery supplies and services; shipping for a variety of military or commissariat purposes; successful tenderers for meat and cattle contracts; as well as all manner of foodstuffs, military clothing and other equipment. It was Australia's geographical proximity which enabled New Zealand's imperial and colonial authorities to successfully harness not only the imperial and colonial manpower potential within these colonies, but also this complex array of war materials and foodstuffs, all of which together, confirms Australia's considerable role in the New Zealand wars.

Jeff Hopkins-Weise (1)

(1) Previous articles on this period by Jeff Hopkins-Weise include "New Zealand's Colonial Defence Force (Cavalry) and its Australian Context, 1863-66", Sabretache September 2002, pp. 23-39 and "New Zealand's Armed Constabulary and its Australian Context, 1867-72," Sabretache, December 2002, pp. 19-38.

(2) New Zealand: Parliamentary Debates: 1861 to 1863 (Wellington: G. Didsbury, Government Printer, 1886), pp. 733-734, 738, & 754; & also refer to, G.W. Rusden, History of New Zealand: Volume II (Melbourne: Melville, Mullen & Slade, 1895), p.245.

(3) For an example of this, refer to "Commercial" news, Launceston Examiner, 1 September 1863, p.4.

(4) Launceston Examiner, 19 December 1863, p.4.

(5) Launceston Examiner, 19 March 1864, p.4.

(6) "A.-No.6: Further Papers Relating to the Military Defence of New Zealand: Memorandum on Measures of Defence in Northern Island", Journal of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1863 (Auckland), p.1 of A.-No.6; & also refer to, F. Glen, For Glory and a Farm: The Story of Australia's Involvement in the New Zealand Wars of 1860-66 (Whakatane, NZ: Whakatane & District Historical Society, 1985), p.38.

(7) Examples of press accounts of the military build up derived from England found in, Sydney Morning Herald [hereafter abbreviated as SMH], 28 January 1864, p.8; & 4 March 1864, p.5.

(8) Mercury, 1 June; 2 June; & 4 June 1863.

(9) Mercury, 10 June; 15 June; & 16 June 1863; & South Australian Register [hereafter abbreviated as SAR], 25 June 1863.

(10) CSD 4/85/411. Colonial Secretary: Gore Browne Period. Correspondence File: 411. Archives Office of Tasmania [hereafter abbreviated as AOT]; & The Mercury, 5 & 6 August 1863.

(11) GO 19/1. (Despatches received from the Governors of Other Colonies & States: 17 Nov.1862-30 Dec.1899): Letter from Province of Otago New Zealand, Superintendents Office, Dunedin, 29 June 1863, to Col. Thomas Gore Browne, C.B., Governor of Tasmania. AOT.

(12) Ibid.

(13) Mercury, 2, 4, & 6 February 1864.

(14) Mercury, 21 March 1864.

(15) Launceston Examiner, 9 April 1864, p.5.

(16) Mercury, 26 April 1864.

(17) Mercury, 30 April 1864.

(18) NG/26: Copies of letters to officials & Private Persons 25 Jan.1855-25 March 1890: Despatch dated Sydney, 9 July 1863, pp.104-105; & also refer to Despatch dated Sydney, 30 June 1863, p.103. Archives Office of New South Wales [hereafter abbreviated as AONSW].

(19) SMH, 14 August 1863, p.6.

(20) NG/26: Despatch dated Sydney, 18 August 1863, p.110. AONSW.

(21) SMH, 17 August 1863, p.4.

(22) Among the cargo manifest of this vessel were "1 case revolvers, 56 cases arms, 30 cases accoutrements, 102 cases rifles, [and] 21 cases carbines" from the Colonial Storekeeper and "3 cases ammunition, 200 barrels powder, [and] 12 cases", from the Commissariat. SMH, 20 August 1863, pp. 4 & 5.

(23) SMH, 25 September 1863, p.4.

(24) SMH, 26 September 1863, p.6.

(25) NG/26: Despatch dated Sydney, 16 September 1863, p.114. AONSW. Young also confirmed arrangements for these guns with Commodore Wiseman prior to his departure for Auckland. Refer to, NG/26: Despatch dated Sydney, 21 September 1863, p.116. AONSW.

(26) SMH, 22 September, pp.4 & 5; 23 September, p.4; & 26 September 1863, p.9.

(27) The Waikato's cargo consisted of various munitions including "60 cases shot and shell, 600 cartridges for the 24-pounders, 1000 tubes, 10,000 Terry's rifle cartridges, 12,000 caps, 18,000 revolver cartridges, and about 100 loose shot." SMH, 22 September 1863, p.4; Argus, 26 September 1863, p.7; & Courier, 22 & 23 September 1863.

(28) J.E. Alexander, Bush Fighting: Illustrated by Remarkable Actions and Incidents of: The Maori War in New Zealand (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle, 1873), p.92; & SMH, 21 November 1863, p.13.

(29) Refer to: Argus, 24 July 1863, p.6; Mercury, 17 July; 28 July; & 21 September 1863; Launceston Examiner, 21 July 1863, p.4; & SMH, 28 August, p.5; & 11 September 1863, p.4.

(30) The Herald also provided details of the construction, dimensions & propulsion of this gunboat. SMH, 15 September, p.4; & 21 September 1863, p.3; & also found in, Argus, 22 September 1863, p.6; & Mercury, 28 September 1863.

(31) Glen, op.cit., pp.27-28.

(32) SMH, 24 August, p.8; 25 August, p.8; 18 September, p.1; 19 September, p.1; & 21 September 1863, p.1.

(33) William George Pring O'Callaghan, the son of an admiral, followed his father by entering the Royal Navy in 1855. Here he was to see service in the Baltic during the Crimean War & later in China where he was invalided in 1859. In 1861 he found himself in New Zealand where he decided to settle & left the Navy. In August 1863 the New Zealand government appointed him as unattached Lieutenant in the New Zealand Militia & sent him to Sydney to assist in bringing over the Pioneer. Later he was appointed Lieutenant in the Taranaki Militia (March 1864) & served in the Taranaki Military Settlers & Wanganui Rangers. New Zealand Gazette [hereafter abbreviated as NZG]: No.43, 27 August 1863, p.360; No.58, 7 November 1863, p.488; & No.9, 12 March 1864, pp.117-118; & T.W. Gudgeon, The defenders of New Zealand: being a short biography of colonists who distinguished themselves in upholding Her Majesty's supremacy in these islands (Auckland, NZ: H. Brett, 1887), pp.430-432.

(34) SMH, 14 October 1863, p.4; & also refer to, H. Chaloner, "The Historic River Steamer 'Pioneer'", Journal of the Auckland Historical Society, Vol.2, No. 1, (Oct. 1963), p. 14.

(35) SMH, 16 November 1863, p.4; & also found in, Mercury, 30 November 1863; & Launceston Examiner, 3 December 1863, p.4.

(36) SMH, 22 September, pp.4 & 5; 23 September, p.4; 26 September, p.9; & 14 October 1863, p.4; Argus, 26 September 1863, p.7; Mercury, 22 October 1863; & Chaloner, op.cit., p.14.

(37) For accounts of the use of the Pioneer at Meremere & other service thereafter, refer to: NZG, No.58, 7 November 1863, pp.486-487; J.E. Gorst, "Our New Zealand Conquests", Macmillan's Magazine, Vol.12, (May 1865-Oct.1865), p.169; & Alexander, op.cit., pp.91-92.

(38) SMH, 21 November 1863, p.13.

(39) John Featon, The Waikato War: 1863-4 [1879] (Reprint. Christchurch, NZ: Capper Press, 1971), p.55; Chaloner, op.cit., p. 15; & R.D. Campbell, Captain Cadell and the Waikato Flotilla (Wellington, NZ: Maritime Publications, 1985), p.26.

(40) SMH, 6 October 1863, p.4; J. Cowan, The New Zealand Wars: A History of the Maori Campaigns and the Pioneering Period: Vol.I: (1845-1864) (Wellington, NZ: W.A.G. Skinner, Government Printer, 1922), p.303; Glen, op.cit., p.28; & G. Howard, Portrait of the Royal New Zealand Navy: A Fiftieth Anniversary Celebration (Wellington, NZ: Grantham House, 1991), p.7.

(41) SMH, 6 October 1863, p.5; & Mercury, 21 October 1863.

(42) N. Selfe, "Annual Address to the Engineering Section", Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Vol.34, (1900), pp.xxiii-xxiv, & xxvii-xxviii; & "Sir Peter Nicol Russell: A Great Engineer. The Story of His Life and Work", The Australasian Engineer, Vol.41, No.303, (7 Aug.1941), p.10.

(43) SMH, 15 December, p.4; & 16 December 1863, p.5; & 8 January 1864, p.5; & Argus, 2 January, p.6; & 13 January 1864, p.5.

(44) SMH, 22 January 1864, p.8.

(45) SMH, 18 January 1864, p.4; & Argus, 8 February 1864, p.4.

(46) SMH, 12 February, p.5; & 17 February 1864, p.4; Featon, op.cit., pp.75-76; J. O'C. Ross, The White Ensign in early New Zealand (Wellington, NZ: A.H. & A.W. Reed, 1967), p.89; & J. Belich, The New Zealand Wars: and the Victorian interpretation of racial conflict (Auckland, NZ: Penguin Books, 1988), p.161.

(47) SMH, 11 April 1864, p.5.

(48) Campbell, op.cit., p.26.

(49) SMH, 13 February, p.7; 15 February, p.4; & 10 March 1864, p.5; S.A. Bryant, "Birth of Hamilton in 1864: Pioneers reminiscences and life in early days: by Sarah Ann Bryant, written in 1939", Auckland-Waikato Historical Journal, No.30, (April 1977), pp.9-10; E.A. Butt, "Romantic History of the Waikato", Journal of the Auckland Historical Society, No.4, (April 1964), p.5; Ross, op.cit., p.89; & Campbell, op.cit., p.26.

(50) Argus, 22 August 1863, pp.4 & 5.

(51) Argus, 26 August 1863, p.5; also refer to pp.4 & 6.

(52) Glen, op.cit., p.16.

(53) Argus, 28 August 1863, p.4.

(54) Argus, 9 November 1863, p.4; 9 November 1863, p.4; & 7 December 1863, p.5.

(55) "B.-No.2a: Papers Respecting The One Million Loan", Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1864 (Auckland).

(56) SAR, 30 November 1863.

(57) SAR, 13 January 1864.

(58) Proceedings of the Parliament of South Australia: 1866-7: Volume 1 (Adelaide: W.C. Cox, Government Printer, 1867), pp.2, 3, & 5; & Proceedings of the Parliament of South Australia: 1866-7: Volume II (Adelaide: W.C. Cox, Government Printer, 1867), "No. 34. Receipt and Disposition of Small Arms".

(59) P. Mennell, The Dictionary of Australasian Biography: Comprising notices of eminent colonists: ... [1855-1892] (London: Hutchinson & Co, 1892), pp.75-76. For other information on Cadell, refer to: Argus, 31 October 1862, p.7; 30 August 1879, p.9; & 15 March 1880, p.7; J.W. Bull, Early experiences of life in South Australia, and an extended colonial history (Adelaide: E.S. Wigg & Son, 1884), p.318; & I. Mudie, Riverboats (Adelaide: Rigby Limited, 1961), pp.36-45, 46-54, 55-61, & 66.

(60) SAR, 26 June; & 12 August 1863; Campbell, op.cit., pp.9 & 25; & Mudie, op.cit., pp.54 & 56.

(61) As a result Cadell decided to go to New Zealand & departed Melbourne on 27 February. Argus, 15 January 1864, p.4; & Campbell, op.cit., p.10.

(62) SAR, 16 March 1864.

(63) Campbell, op.cit., pp.10 & 16.

(64) Alexander, op.cit., pp.56-57; Cowan, op.cit., pp. 300-303; Ross, op.cit., pp.85-90; C.W. Vennell, "Early Waikato River Trade", Auckland-Waikato Historical Journal, No.39, (Sept. 1981), p. 11; D. Johnson, New Zealand's maritime heritage (Auckland, NZ: William Collins Publishers, in association with David Bateman Ltd, 1987), pp.96-98; & Howard, op.cit., pp.6-8 & 135.

(65) "E.-No. 2: Papers Relative to Native Policy, including the following subjects:- ... Military Settlements", Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: 1864 (Auckland), p.64 of E.-No. 2; & also refer to correspondence on pp. 64-66.

(66) Supplement to the Adelaide Observer, 28 April 1866, p.4; & also refer to, Campbell, op.cit., p. 17.

(67) The New Zealand War Medal was later approved for issue to Cadell for his services during the campaigns of 1864-66. "G.-No.1: Papers Relative to the Issue of the New Zealand War Medal: No.2: Roll A", Appendix to the Journal of House of Representatives of New Zealand: Vol.II: 1871 (Wellington: George Didsbury, Government Printer), p.4 of G.-No.1: & also in, NZG, No.31, 31 May 1871, p.242.

(68) SAR, 12 June; 16 June; 17 June; & 30 July 1863.

(69) SMH, 29 March 1864, p.5; & also refer to 30 March 1864, p.5.

(70) SAP, 6 April 1864; & also refer to, Mercury, 5 April 1864.

(71) Campbell, op.cit., pp.11, 14-16, 26, & 27.

(72) SAR, 23 February; 15 March; 16 March; 17 March; 5 May; 18 May; 19 May; & 16 June 1864; Mercury, 2 April 1864; & Launceston Examiner, 26 May 1864, p.4.

(73) SMH, 12 January 1865, p.5; & Argus, 12 January 1865, p.5. For press coverage of this vessel's vital role on the Wanganui River & surrounding West Coast region in early 1865, refer to: SMH, 28 February, p.3; & 9 March 1865, p.8; & Sydney Mail, 11 March 1865, p.11.

(74) NZG, No.13, 25 April 1865, p.124.

(75) Campbell, op.cit., pp.10-11, 16, 25, & 26; & Mudie, op.cit., pp.48, 50, & 66.

(76) Because of the bias associated with colonial entitlements (as opposed to imperial issuance) & the stipulation to prove either conspicuous service or having come under fire, Gregory, like so many others failed to obtain a medal. Correspondence by him acknowledges real disappointment over this, especially in the knowledge of his participation during the years of renewed conflict for which he failed to obtain this small gesture of appreciation from the New Zealand government. Genealogical history on George Gregory, New Zealand war veteran (serving on government steamer Sturt 1866-68), & history of the Gregory family of Narrabri, New South Wales, courtesy of Stan Hannaford (Great Grandson of Nanango, Qld) to this researcher during 1997-99; & AD 1 01/4595 (War Medal application file): Gregory, George: National Archives of New Zealand.

(77) SMH, 8 December 1864, p.8.

(78) SMH, 31 January, p.2; & 2 February 1865, p.6.

(79) SMH, 20 August 1863, p.5.

(80) SMH, 21 August 1863, p.4.

(81) Hobart Town Daily Mercury/Mercury, 11 April; 18 April; & 23 April 1860; & Launceston Examiner, 12 April, p.2; 14 April, p.2; & 5 May 1860, p.2.

(82) Argus, 28 August, p.8; & 29 August 1863, p.8.

(83) After disembarking the 50th the Himalaya returned to Sydney in early December where re-coaling & stores were taken on board before departing for further duties. Argus, 3 November, p.4; 6 November, p.5; 7 November, pp.4-5; & 9 November 1863, p.4; & SMH, 5 December 1863, p.6.

(84) Argus, 28 December, p.4; & 30 December 1863, p.4. Later in December 1864 the Roxburgh Castle arrived in Melbourne from London with troops & families of the 7th Battery, 2nd Brigade, Royal Artillery. These troops & their families disembarked & were temporarily quartered at the Prince's Bridge Barracks before continuing on to New Zealand. Argus, 10 December, pp.2 & 3; & 12 December 1864, p.5.

(85) After disembarking these troops at Auckland this vessel returned to Sydney in February where it was re-coaled & a consignment of horses for the Indian market was loaded. SMH, 19 December 1863, p.6; & 19 February 1864, p.4; & SAR, 21 December; 22 December; 23 December; 24 December; & 26 December 1863; & 6 January 1864.

(86) Captain David Spain is referred to as the Resident Transport Officer, Admiralty Transport Office at Auckland in 1865, & presumably occupied this post during 1864. SMH, 25 December 1865, p.8.

(87) SMH, 10 September 1864, pp.4 & 7; Launceston Examiner, 8 October 1864, p.5.

(88) Argus, 3 November, p.5 (& also refer to p.4); & 7 November 1864, p.4; & Launceston Examiner, 8 November 1864, p.3.

(89) SMH, 1 August, p.5; 8 August, p.3; & 9 August 1864, p.4. The Herald also republished a detailed account of the New Zealand war service of this "Sydney Detachment of the Royal Artillery" (republished from the New Zealand Herald), refer to, SMH, 11 August 1864, p.4.

(90) SMH, 19 December 1864, p.2.

(91) Captain David Spain, Resident Transport Officer, issued these tenders at the Admiralty Transport Office in Auckland. SMH, 25 December 1865, p.8; & Argus, 8 January, p.5; 17 January, p.5; & 9 February 1866, p.5.

(92) SMH, 12 March, p.6; & 16 March 1866, p.8.

(93) Mercury, 26 March 1864.

(94) For more detailed information on Jacob Cheshire & Henriques DeLeon, refer to, J.E. Hopkins [now Hopkins-Weise], Further Selected New Zealand War Medal Rolls of applications granted up to 1900: Volume 2 (Brisbane, Qld: J.E. Hopkins, 1998), pp.5-11.

(95) L.L. Barton, Australians in the Waikato War: 1863-1864 (North Sydney, NSW: Library of Australian History, 1979), p.71; & Interview & information gathered by this researcher from Dorothea Cheshire, grand-daughter of the New Zealand war veteran & medal recipient, Jacob Cheshire, 3rd Waikato Regiment, Victoria Barracks Museum (Brisbane, Queensland), 10 December 1995 & June-July 1998.

(96) Robin Barker, 'The Henri Letter: Part One'. (29 November 1993); & 'The Henri Letters: Part Two'. (17 August 1995). This genealogical history on Henry Strode Henri & the history of the Henri Family, courtesy of Ben Henri, of Ascot, Brisbane, Queensland, to this researcher in October 1995. References to "Henrique De Leon" & "Sgt. Henry De Leon" also found in, Barton, op.cit., pp.68 & 92.

(97) Barker, op.cit.; & "G.-No.1: Papers Relative To The Issue Of The New Zealand War Medal: Enclosure 4 in No.3: List No.9", Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: Vol.II: 1871, pp.18-19 of G.-No.1; & also in, NZG, No.31, 31 May 1871, pp.254-255.

(98) For an assessment of the Australian context to the CDF, refer to, J.E. Hopkins-Weise, "A History of the Colonial Defence Force (Cavalry): and the Australian Context", The Volunteers: The Journal of the New Zealand Military Historical Society, Vol.26, No. 1, (July 2000), pp.5-25. (99) Glen, op.cit., p.39; & Barton, op.cit., p.25.

(100) "G.-No.1: Papers Relative To The Issue Of The New Zealand War Medal: Enclosure 4 in No.3: List of Officers and Men of the Local Forces, and Civilians, in New Zealand, who were employed in the Imperial Transport Corps, and paid from Imperial funds, entitled to the New Zealand Medal", Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand: Vol.II: 1871, pp.11-20 of G.-No.1; & also in, NZG, No.31, 31 May 1871, pp.247-256.

(101) This force was sometimes referred to as the "Commissariat Transport Corps", the "Colonial Transport Corps", or simply as "C.T.C.", as well as earning the nickname of the "Mokes". N. Morris, ed., The Journal of William Morgan: Pioneer Settler and Maori War Correspondent (Auckland, NZ: Libraries Department, Auckland City Council, 1963), for references to "Mokes", see pp.129, 135, & 138.

(102) Yarwood in his expansive study of Australia's horse trade with India only makes a very brief reference to a horse trade with New Zealand, which he viewed as part of Australia's domestic market. Apart from inferring that thousands of horses were exported from Australia to New Zealand, A.T. Yarwood, Walers: Australian horses abroad (Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 1989), pp.16 & 207 (Chapter 2, Note No.3).

(103) SMH, 21 August 1863, p.9; also refer to, 15 August 1863, p.6.

(104) SMH, 15 August 1863, p.6.

(105) SMH, 20 August 1863, p.1.

(106) SMH, 24 August 1863, p.1. Here Mayne directed attention he would inspect such horses when attending the Martyn's Horse Bazaar at 246 Pitt Street, Sydney, on Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays until further notice. SMH, 24 August 1863, p. 1; & also see continuation of advertisements in Sydney: SMH, 25 August, p.1; 26 August, p.1; & 27 August 1863, p.1. References to "Cavalry Horses for New Zealand" also found in, SAR, 9 September 1863.

(107) SMH, 24 August, p.8; & 25 August 1863, p.8.

(108) SMH, 16 September 1863, p.5; & also refer to, 6 October 1863, p.4.

(109) Morris, op.cit., p.108.

(110) SMH, 6 October 1863, pp. 4 & 5; & also see, Glen, op.cit., p.24.

(111) Argus, 15 January 1864, p.7, & 30 January 1864, p.7; SMH, 1 February 1864, p.2; & Mercury, 22 February 1864.

(112) SMH, 13 February 1864, p.12. These advertisements for CDF horses continued in SMH, on 15 February, p.8; 18 February, p.2; 19 February, p.6; 22 February, p.2; 4 March, p.6; 7 March, p.6; & 14 March 1864, p.6.

(113) SAR, 2 July 1863.

(114) Mercury, 22 July 1863, p.7.

(115) SMH, 17 September 1863, p.4; & also refer to, Argus, 18 September 1863, p.5.

(116) SMH, 10 December 1863, p.4.

(117) Mercury, 10 December 1863.

(118) Launceston Examiner, 16 August 1864, p.2.

(119) SMH, 4 October 1864, p.4.

(120) SMH, 3 November, p.6; 8 November, p.2; & 8 December 1864, p.8; & also refer to, William Fox, The War in New Zealand (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1866), p. 13.

(121) SMH: 11 January, p.4; 18 January, p.4; 13 February, p.7; 18 February, p.5; 8 March, p.5; 6 July, p.3; & 10 October 1864, p.4.

(122) SMH, 9 March 1864, p.5; & also referred to in, The Mercury, 24 March 1864.

(123) SMH, 3 October 1865, p.4.
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Date:Dec 1, 2006
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