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Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee. (Middle Region).

AN EXAMINATION OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF MENTAL ILLNESS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS. Ursula Bailey and Peter Millet, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. The difference between genders in the conceptualizations of mental illness was investigated. Previous studies have concluded that conceptualizations of mental illness occur on three levels, identification of the mental illness (including severity and abnormality), the cause of the mental illness, and the suggested treatment for the mental illness. The participants were 93 college students obtained using a subject pool at Tennessee State University. The sample included African-American and Caucasian-American students from a sign up sheet with space for 50 males and 50 females to participate. A consent form, a short demographic questionnaire, and the Mental Illness Vignette Instrument II (MIVI II) were self administered in survey form. The MIVI II is an instrument consisting of 9 vignettes; with 8 of the 9 vignettes having a DSM IV diagnosed mental illness. Although there was no significant difference in abnormality and severity in men and women, men viewed behavior less abnormal and severe than women. This may have an effect on men being less likely to seek treatment. The results suggested that while men are less likely than women to seek treatment for mental illness, when they do go, they find it just as helpful. In this study and a previous study of a more general sample, moral weakness was found to be the leading perceived cause of mental illness in men and women. However, although spiritual reasons were the least likely perceived cause, religious treatment was the highest suggested treatment for men and women.

G1 STRESS, ROLE CONFLICT, AND SOCIAL SUPPORT AMONG MULTIPLE ROLE COLLEGE STUDENTS. Jacinta Tibbs and Linda Knieps, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Nearly 60% of college students today are non-traditional students. These students are more often characterized as occupying several roles (including parent, employee, and student). Thus, role conflict is more likely to occur. Role conflict occurs when two or more roles are partially incompatible; for example, when parenting obligations interfere with class attendance. Several studies indicate the presence of role conflict in women with dual roles. While most universities are designed for students that are only obligated to one role, these studies show that women who combine a student role with a family role have indicated an increase in the level of stress and role conflict in their lives. Stress and role conflict may decrease with an increased level of social support. African Americans often have closer family ties and friends often take on the r ole of 'fictive [kin.sup.1]. Thus, non-traditional African-American students may have additional social support to buffer the effects of stress and role conflict. The goal of the present study is to investigate the literature regarding role conflict, stress, and social support among college students who are also parenting, with particular attention to the literature regarding African American students. This literature review will identify appropriate measures and hypotheses for research to be conducted with multiple-role students at Tennessee State University.

THE INTERNAL WORKING MODEL OF ADULTS INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS. Jewell Hartwell and Dorothy Tucker, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Abstract not available.

BRIEF TRIPHENYLTIN EXPOSURE CAUSES IRREVERSIBLE INHIBITION OF THE CYTOTOXIC FUNCTION OF HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS. Sharnise Wilson and Margaret Whalen, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Phenyltin (PT) contamination has been reported in water, sediment, and fish. Triphenyltin (TPT) has been implicated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects in exposed animals, including increased tumor formation. Human exposure to TPT might come from occupational exposure as well as consumption of contaminated food. Natural Killer (NK) cells are a primary immune defense against tumor and virally infected cells. Previously, we reported that TPT exposure significantly inhibited the tumor killing capacity of human NK cells. In this study we examine whether the inhibition of NK-cell cytotoxicity induced by a 1 h exposure to TPT is reversible, when the cells are allowed to recover in TPT-free media for up to 6 days. Exposure to 750 nM TPT for I h decreased NK-cytotoxic function by approximately 57%. However, if the cel ls were allowed to incubate in TBT-free media for 24 h NK cytotoxicity was inhibited by 84%. There was no significant recovery of NK-cytotoxic function when the lymphocytes were allowed to incubate in TPT-free media for up to 6 days. The results indicate that short-term TPT exposure causes persistent negative effects on NK-cell ability to kill cancer cells.

EFFECT OF TRIBUTYLTIN EXPOSURE ON THE EXPRESSION OF GRANZYME AND PERFORIN AND THE PHOSPHORYLATION STATE OF C-AMP RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN IN HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELLS. Tarrah Williams, Stephanie A. Green, and Margaret Whalen, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Tributyltin (TBT) is found in dairy products, meat, and fish, and appears to increase the risk of cancer and viral infections in exposed individuals. We have demonstrated that the ability of human natural killer (NK) cells (our primary immune defense against tumor cells) to kill tumor cells is greatly diminished after a 1 h exposure to 300 nM TBT We also have shown that a 1 h exposure results in dramatic decreases in NK-cell cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. This decrease in cAMP levels could alter expression of proteins regulated by the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The NK-cell tumorlytic molecules granzyme and perform both are regulated by CREB. The current study examined granzyme and perform levels following a 1 h exposure to 300 nM TBT. Results show that a 1 h exposure of NK cells to 300 nM TET followed by 24 h in TBT-free medium causes decreased expression of granzyme and perform. Granzyme and perform levels were measured using specific antibodies. Antibody binding was visualized using a chemiluminescent detection system. This study also investigated the effects of TBT exposure on CREB phosphorylation state utilizing specific antibodies to CREB and phosphorylated CREB. CREB and phosphorylated CREB levels were determined by densitometric analysis of film exposed to the chemiluminescent blot.

THE EFFECT OF IRON ([FE.sup.+2]) ON LIPID PEROXIDATION IN ARACHIDONIC ACID. Oman Bandele and William Boad4 Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Iron ([Fe.sup.2+]) is a heavy metal and an environmental contaminant that can cause gene mutations and cancer. Iron induces lipid peroxidation through the Fenton chemistry. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how high doses of [Fe.sup.2+] as iron chloride can cause peroxidation in lipids, especially those of the essential group. Controls, samples, and blanks were prepared in triplicate. The control included Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.2% SDS and 0.05 M KCl, pH 7.4, arachidonic acid, and hydrogen peroxide. The samples contained all of the control ingredients in addition to 5 mM [Fe.sup.2+]. Assaying for the thiobarbituric reactive substances using the molar extinction coefficient of thiobarbituric acid of 1.56 [M.sup.-1] X [cm.sup.-1] assessed the extent of lipid peroxidation. The effect of incubating arachidonic acid for 24 h with [Fe.sup.2 +] on lipid peroxidation resulted in a dose-dependent increase of lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that environmental exposure to [Fe.sup.2+] can cause oxidation in the essential fatty acids that could lead to serious health problems.

TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF ION COORDINATION ON THE SITE-SPECIFIC DYNAMICS OF A LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLY (ETHYLENE OXIDE). John Sears and John Shibata, The University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee. Ion-conducting polymers, polymer-salt systems that exhibit increased conductivity even in the solid state, have been the focus of numerous studies. Of particular interest have been the properties and transport mechanisms of systems containing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as either the host polymer or, in the case of low MW PEO, as a cross-linking agent and a non-volatile plasticizer in various host polymers exhibiting improved mechanical properties. Dynamic bond percolation theory, the proposed transport mechanism, involves an associative/dissociative process of transient "crosslinks" between the cation and multiple sites along the polymer backbone. Tetra(ethylene glycol)dimethyl ether (TEGDME) has been studied in [D.sub.2]O and [CH.sub.3]OD with added NaI as a model for the high MW systems. The system ha s been studied at different polymer concentrations and different ether oxygen to sodium ratios (EO:Na). C-NMR (13) relaxation measurements of the spin-spin relaxation times (T2), spin-lattice relaxation times (T1), and the nuclear Overhausser effect (nOe) have been carried out to investigate the nature of the ether oxygen-sodium bond and its effect on the segmental motion of the host polymer. Various models have been employed to rationalize the experimental NMR data with varying degrees of success. The validity of the model, when combined with the presumptions formed to create it, can reveal information pertaining to the local motions in the polymer. Some of the experimental data will be presented along with explanations of the interpretation process and the information revealed.

BINDING OF ECHINOMYCIN TO DNA. Kennita lobe and FuMing Chen, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Echinomycim (ECHN) is a cyclic octadepsipeptide antibiotic that contains a thioncetal cross bridge and two quinoxaline rings attached to the two D-Ser residues. It has been shown to bind tightly to duplex DNA as a bisintercalator with a preference to the CpG sequence. This report describes the absorption titration and melting studies on ECHN binding to oligonucleotides containing three CpG sites. Specific sequences studied were d(TCGTCGTCGA)/d(TCGACGACGA) and d(ACGACGACGT)/d(ACGTCGTCGT). The results indicate that ECHN binds strongly to both duplexes, with binding stoichiometries somewhat higher than 1 drug to 1 strand (or 2 drugs to 1 duplex). The strong binding is further supported by the considerable melting temperature increases upon drug binding. The melting profiles of the drug+DNA complexes exhibit some biphasic character. Attempts were made to interpret these results in terms of the coexistenc e of complexes with two and three drugs bound to a duplex DNA in the solution.

EFFECT OF AGITATION ON THE PRODUCTION OF [delta]-ENDOTOXIN BY BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISOLATES. La Tasha D. Taylor, Sharon Spark, Shartondra Jackson, Anthony O. Ejiofor, and Terrance L. Johnson, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. The insecticidal crystal [delta]-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are useful in the control of agricultural insect pests and vectors of human diseases. Three isolates of this bacterium, BT10, BT24 and BT25, identified as subspecies kurstaki, aizawai, and kenyae were grown to stationary phase at three agitation speeds of 100, 200, and 300 rpm at 30[degrees]C for 36 h in a semi synthetic medium containing (w/v) glucose, 10.0 g; yeast extract, 5.0 g; [Na.sub.2][HPO.sub.4], 5.57 g; [KH.sub.2][PO.sub.4], 2.4 g; [MgSO.sub.4].[7H.sub.2]O, 50.0 mg; [MnCl.sub.2].[4H.sub.2]O, 4.0 mg; [FeSO.sub.4].[7H.sub.2]O, 2.8 mg; [CaCl.sub.2].[2H.sub.2]O, 1.5 mg; and agar, 15.0 g. The spore/crystal mixtures were harvested by centrifugation at 7000 g, 4[degrees]C and 10 min and washed six times in ice-cold deionized water. Spores and crystals were separated on a 45, 67, and 87% discontinuous sucrose gradient by ultracentrifugation at 80.000 g. The separation was confirmed by examination of smears by polarized light microscopy. The crystals at 2 mg/ml were solubilized by treatment with 50 mM [Na.sub.2][CO.sub.3].HC1 (pH 10.5), incubation at 37[degrees]C for 60 min and centrifugation at 10,000 g, 4[degrees]C for 10 min. Protein concentration in the crystals was determined by the method of Lowry. The banding patterns of the solubilized protein crystals were determined by SDS-PAGE according to the method of Laemmli and Favre. Bipyramidal crystals were obtained from all three isolates. Changes in protein concentrations showed an increasing pattern in BT10 but not in the others. The banding patterns showed significant differences in the isolates.

THE ANALYSIS OF C-FOS EXPRESSION USING IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY OF DOPAMINE D3 RECEPTOR OF METHAMPHETAMINE-INDUCED MICE. Mark Owusu and M. Ann Blackshear, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. PD 128907, a putative selective dopamine [D.sub.3] agonist, has been used to study the function of brain dopamine [D.sub.3] receptors. Recent reports have shown that PD128907 causes both an increase and a decrease in locomotor activity, presumably mediated by dopamine [D.sub.3] receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Also, studies in our laboratory suggest that [D.sub.3] receptors may play a role in the chronic locomotor effects of methamphetamine (MAP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dose-related changes in the locomotor effects of PD 128907, and if so whether these changes modify MAP sensitization. Additionally, since rapid and transient expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, occurs following administration of MAP. Analysis of c-fos expression will be used to further access th e action of PD128907 at the [D.sub.3] receptors using immunohistochemistry. Swiss, male mice (26-30 g) were divided into groups of five depending on the treatments administered including Saline, MAP, Saline/MAP, 0.25 PD/MAP, 0.5 PD/MAP. All measurements were done in mg/kg. All PD128907 treatments were done 10 min prior to MAP injection. Locomotor activity was measured immediately after MAP injection on days 1, 7, and day 18 after a ten-day withdrawal period. All mice received a challenged dose of one-quarter of the original dose of MAP. Differences in c-fos expression occurred for the different treatments. Most importantly, c-fos expression was high in animals with the Sal/MAP and MAP treatments, while animals receiving 0.25 PD/MAP and 0.5 PD/MAP had very low c-fos expression. This indicates that the PD128907 caused a decrease in the effect of the MAP at the D3 receptors at the nucleus accumbens of the mouse brain. (Supported by NIH Grant # RR-11808 and MARC Grant 5 T34 GMO7663)

GENETIC SCREENING FOR REGULATORS OF P150GLUEDDYNACTIN AND DYNEIN FUNCTION IN DROSOPHILA. Tiffany R. Oliver, Tonja D. Dandy, A. Monique Johnson, Anne Ilvarsonn, and John T. Robinson, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Microtubules and associated motor complexes are required for a number of motility functions within eukaryotic cells. Disruptions in microtubule based transport affect numerous aspects of cell behavior including mitosis and cell division, differentiation, viability, and morphogenesis of tissues. Cytoplasmic dynein, a 1.2 mD minus-end directed microtubule mechanochemical complex facilitates a variety of intracellular transport processes. Moreover, dynactin (dynein activator), another multisubunit complex, co-fractionates with cytoplasmic dynein and further is required for cytoplasmic dynein-based motility functions in vivo and in vitro. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Glued gene encodes the homologue of the largest vertebrate dynactin subunit known as p150Glued. A dominant mutation i n the Glued gene, Glued1 (Gl1) exists which encodes a truncated p150Glued polypeptide that produces an aberrant rough eye phenotype in heterozygous adults (G11/+). To identify novel regulators of dynein-dynactin based motility, genetic and molecular approaches are being used to screen for mutations throughout the Drosophila genome that modify (suppress or enhance) the Gl1 eye phenotype. From these screens, we are identifying expected intrinsic and novel extrinsic regulators of dynein-dynactin function. Results from this work are aimed at determining the range of function of cytoplasmic dynein based motility during Drosophila and metazoan development. (Supported by NIGMS Grant # S06GM08092 to JTR and MARC to TRO)

EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF TWO SPECIES OF HYPERICUM ON CELL LINE BT549. Alicia Cleveland, Timothy Udoji, T. Gary R. Sauve, S. Bhatti, D. Long, and E. Lewis Myles, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. St. John's Wort is a herbal plant with a complex and diverse chemical composition. Hypericin is the most active constituent in the herb and is nonfunctional unless combined with other constituents of the plant. Hypericin is a unique photosensitizing plant pigment that is reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Human diseases such as AIDS, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer occur due to failure of apoptosis. Thus, knowledge about the role of anti-neoplastic drugs will become an important tool in cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to show the effect of the herbal extracts, Hypericum perforatum cv anthos (HPA) and Hypericum calycinum (HC) on cultured BT549 cancer cells. The one significant thing about this plant is its property to act like an anti-cancer agent. Through aseptic techniques, the influence of HPA and HC on the BT549 cell line was determined via extract concentration and cell density analyses. The amount of HPA and HC added to each plate varied inversely with the number of recovered cells. The data indicate that hypericin may induce apoptosis in BT549 cancer cells.

REGENERATION OF HYPERICUM TOPAS AND EXAMINATION OF ITS ANTICARCINOGENIC CAPABILITY Rosalind S. Johnson, T. Gary, R. Sauve, and E. Lewis Myles, Tennessee State University, Nashville, Tennessee. Traditional use of Hypericum (St. John's Wort) is as a herbal remedy to treat mild depression. Our lab first published its anti-cancer activity in August 2000. Our lab is investigating H. topas for its regeneration capability and its potential as an anti-carcinogen. Hypericum topas was germinated under sterile conditions and maintained under greenhouse conditions. All plants were grown in pots consisting of peat, perlite, and pine bark. The regeneration of plants initiated from seeds. The seed plants were initiated with seeds. The seeds were surface sterilized and allowed to germinate on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. After germination, the hypocotyl sections were removed. These sections were placed on MS media containing 2 mgfl of 2,4 Dichlorophenyloxy-acetic acid. Once the hypocotyls section formed callus it w as transferred to MS media supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of benzyladenine (BA). Cultures were maintained in complete darkness at 26[degrees]C. After three weeks, the cultures were placed under constant light, which allowed the shoots and leaves to turn green. Extraction of secondary compounds was prepared using the Soxhlet and an evaporator. Secondary compounds were extracted from the regenerated shoots with the same protocol as non-regenerated plants. Tissue samples were first frozen with liquid nitrogen and dehydrated by lyophilization. Tissue samples were extracted with acetone and distilled for 16 hours with a Soxhlet. After extraction, the sample was evaporated to dryness and then re-dissolved into dimethyl sulfoximine (DMSO). This crude extract was applied to actively growing cancer cells. Both non-regenerated plants and regenerated plants reduce the growth of cancer cell line BT549. The non-regenerated plants reduce cell growth more than the regenerated plants.

GEOGRAPHY EDUCATION IN TENNESSEE'S COPPER BASIN. J. Douglas Heffington and Lisa H. Mayo, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee. Fieldwork and field observations are at the core of geographic education, but the sad truth is that many K-12 educators are never afforded opportunities to get out of the classroom and into the field. The need for such experiences is tremendous, and the benefits of the knowledge gleaned there have direct relationships to the classes, students, communities, and regions of the teachers involved. We were able to involve K-12 educators, teachers of science and social studies, in a mentoring exercise with pre-service teachers, conducting fieldwork and observations in the Copper Basin of extreme southeast Tennessee. A National Council for the Social Studies grant for the Enhancement of Geographic Literacy made such an excursion possible. The short, one-day field experience exposed these educators to geographic fieldwork, especially the concepts and realities of physica l and cultural landscapes and human-environment relationships.

DETECTION OF BORRELIA LONESTARI IN AMBLYOMMA AMERICANUM TICKS OF SUMNER COUNTY, TENNESSEE. Eric McLaughlin, Robert Grammer, Jennifer Thomas, and Steve Murphree, Belmont University, Nashville, Tennessee. In recent years, several patients in the American Southeast have exhibited the clinical symptoms of Lyme disease associated with a tick bite but have tested negative for Lyme's causative bacterium. This condition was described as Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness, or STARI. Since 1996, STARI has been linked to a new bacterium, Borrelia lonestari, which is a close cousin of the traditional Lyme bacterium. Being such a newly discovered bacterium and a suspected pathogen, any information on the prevalence of B. lonestari is helpful to our understanding of how to deal with it and the disease it seems to cause. Only a handful of studies across the nation have investigated a tick population to check for the bacterium. These few studies are the very beginning of a map of B. lonestari's prevalence. The purpose of this study was to check a specific geographical location for B. lonestari to see if we should add another point to it's epidemiological map at Sumner County, Tennessee.
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Publication:Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6TN
Date:Jul 1, 2002
Words:3398
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