Attitudes towards safe consumption sites among police and people with lived experience in Tijuana, Mexico: initial report from the field.
Patterns of drug consumption in Mexico are influenced by its proximity to the Unites States (U.S.) (Goodman-Meza et al., 2019), which may result in a higher prevalence of people who inject drugs (PWID), especially heroin (Bucardo et al., 2005; Villatoro et al., 2012). For example, Tijuana has high levels of intravenous drug use than the rest of Mexico and a high concentration of vulnerable populations such as sex workers and deportees from the U.S. PWID living along the northern border have higher rates of hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Guerena-Burgueno, Benenson, & Sepulveda-Amor, 1991; Robertson et al., 2014). As the opioid epidemic rages in the U.S., some have suggested that overdoing may become an increasingly serious problem along the northern border. This phenomenon necessitates novel public health interventions (Beletsky et al., 2018) to protect PWID, particularly women (Pinkham, Myers, & Stoicescu, 2012). Such programs should be evidence-based, incorporating core principles of harm reduction, such as those established by the United Nations of Drags and Crime and the World Health Organization, to minimize the negative consequences of substance use (Des Jarlais, 1995).
In Mexico, the Centra Nacional para la Prevencion y Control del VIH (CENSIDA) has worked to implement and finance harm reduction programs and establish guidelines in coordination with local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (Centra Nacional para la Prevencion y el Control del VIH/SIDA, 2008). Interventions such as needle exchange and Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) (Institute Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz & CENSIDA, 2008) have been consolidated as necessary tools to reduce drug-related harms in Mexico, but approaches like Safe Consumption Sites (SCS) haven't been considered yet. Successful implementation in other countries (Kerr, Wood, Montaner, & Tyndall, 2009) has demonstrated that SCS modify the public space by reducing street injection and syringe litter (MSIC Evaluation Committee, 2003) while protecting PWID from police abuse and increasing access to public health services in a cost-effective way (Bayoumi & Zaric, 2008; Irwin, Jozaghi, Bluthenthal, & Kral, 2017). For this reason, some have argued that interventions in SCS are a public health imperative for places like Tijuana (Beletsky et al., 2018).
The policy context for SCS in Tijuana is favorable because in 2009 Mexico depenalization the possession of a minimum amount of drugs for immediate and personal consumption (Arredondo et al., 2017). However, to succeed in Tijuana, a SCS intervention will need support from PWID and police officers alike. As part of an ad-hoc collaboration between UCSD and the Mexico's Institute Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz (INPRFM), this report leverages data from two parallel field studies on police (Strathdee et al., 2015) and PWID (Fleiz-Bautista et al., 2019) in Tijuana for the purpose of measuring attitudes regarding a potential SCS intervention in the city.
In January 2015, the entire police force received training as part of Proyecto Escudo, a collaboration between the University of California San Diego (UCSD) and the Ministry of Public Safety of the City of Tijuana. The training covered occupational safety, current drug laws, and harm reduction strategies (excluding SCS). The design and conceptual framework of Proyecto Escudo have been described in detail elsewhere (Strathdee et al., 2015). A total of 771 officers who provided written consent were randomly selected for follow-up during a two-year period and completed surveys on knowledge, attitudes, and policing behaviors.
The INPRFM conducted a cross sectional study of heroin consumption patterns in northern Mexico. The current report uses only data collected in the city of Tijuana, Baja California (Fleiz-Bautista et al., 2019). Using rapid assessment, the investigators identified factors in the risk environment that increase harm of drug use among PWID (Rhodes, 2009). The "Heroin Use in the Mexican Northern Border Study: Context and Dimension" (Fleiz-Bautista et al., 2019) included quantitative interviews with 200 PWID in rehabilitation centers in Tijuana with a history of heroin consumption (People with Lived Experience--PLE). Inclusion criteria covered people who were 18 years and older, regular residents of the city, who seek treatment for heroin use disorder. A convenience sample of rehabilitation centers was selected using data from the Mexican Comision Nacional Contra las Adicciones (CONADIC) and who agreed to collaborate with the study.
Survey design and data collection
The Escudo questionnaire was adapted from instruments used in previous PLE programs (Beletsky, Macalino, & Burris, 2005) and is described in detail elsewhere (Arredondo et al., 2017; Cepeda et al., 2017). The 24-month follow-up survey included attitudinal measures toward SCS among active police officers in Tijuana. Data was collected by trained interviewers between December 2016 and June 2018.
The INPRFM questionnaire covered patterns of substance use, risk behaviors, police, and treatment experiences among other topics and was conducted in Spanish. The survey also included similar questions to measure attitudes toward SCS. The surveys were administered by trained harm reduction staff from the NGO Prevencasa A.C., in Tijuana, between October 2017 and March 2018. All interviewers used the same graphic guide and text to introduce the topic of SCS among their respective populations. More details about the survey design and data collection can be found elsewhere (Fleiz-Bautista et al., 2019).
Measures and data analysis
The Escudo survey included the following items on SCS: 1. I would support a safe consumption clinic for drug users;
2. A safe consumption clinic could be successful in Tijuana;
3. My police colleagues would support a safe consumption clinic; 4. A safe consumption clinic could improve my occupational safety; 5. If there was a safe consumption clinic. I would refer drug users there. The study by the INPRFM included the following questions: 1. I would support a safe consumption clinic for drug users; 2. A safe consumption clinic could be successful in my city; 3. My peers would support a safe consumption clinic; 4. A safe consumption clinic could improve my health; 5. If there was a safe consumption clinic, I would use it.
The items were measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree". All variables were dichotomized (strongly agree, agree vs other options). We present descriptive statistics and chi square test for these items.
The Escudo study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of UCSD School of Medicine, USA, and Xochicalco University, Mexico. Similarly, the Heroin Study by the INPRFM was approved by their Institutional Review Board in 2017.
The Escudo sample included 707 officers that were mostly men (85.2%) and married (79.4%), with a mean age of 38.2 years. Women had a mean age of 35 years. Nearly 20% of the officers had less than the minimum level of high school education. The sample of 200 PWID was mostly single (55.1%) and men (89.17%), with a mean age of 32.9 years women's mean age was 40.2. More than 70% did not have a high school degree (Table 1).
Both groups had high personal support for SCS (~82%) with the level of perceived success above 80%. As for SCS peer support, officers and PLE reported 58.9% and 79%, respectively. Around 76% of both groups agreed that a SCS would help to improve their health. Finally, 86.2% of the officers would refer people to a SCS while 62.5% of PLE would use the service (Table 2).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Several studies have documented the positive effects of SCS around the world, including decreased HIV incidence, increased treatment uptake, and reduced overdose fatalities (Kerr et al., 2009; MSIC Evaluation Committee, 2003). In our study we found strong and positive attitudes from police and PWID to works SCS. These preliminary results point out the possibility to implement SCS in Tijuana successfully. Likewise, these results could explained because the actors directly involved into the drug we on street, open the opportunity of new ways to prevent harm and improve community health. Interestingly, police officers indicated that their peers would be around 23% less supportive of a SCS, while PWID believed that peers would show the same level of support.
Besides positivelying modifying the urban environment, SCS could potentiate a positive effect on community health (Salmon et al., 2009). In the safe environment provided by a SCS, PWID would have access to clean injection materials and disposal resources, reducing syringe litter in their neighborhood. Moreover, police officers stated they would refer PWID to these sites, minimizing their own risk of accidental needle-stick injuries. Improving community health must inform the narrative surrounding SCS to gather broad community support.
A SCS without support from police officers could be detrimental as officers play a role in referring clients to the site or could discourage attendance through active policing and harassment. Although most officers indicate that they would refer people to the SCS, however, approximately half of PLE report they would use the SCS. These differences between groups might reflect the lack of trust in government institutions and actors. Thus, it would be necessary to generate a targeted information campaign directed towards PWID of the benefits of SCS in the city.
The report is subject to some limitations: first, since the selection of the participants was not random, it's difficult to generalize the findings from both police officers and PLE into other places in the country. Additionally, more detailed statistical analysis is required to understand specific associations between exposure to harm reduction training and changes in attitudes among police officers (Arredondo et al., 2019). Lastly, it was impossible to know if officers and PLE had previous knowledge of SCS and their benefits, influencing their attitudes before the data collection periods.
The implementation of a SCS presents an innovative way to protect PWID from police harassment and victimization, reduce HIV and HCV risk, and connect PWID to essential health and social services. This intervention could help guide PWID into path changing decisions while ending the cycle of substance use, imprisonment and homelessness. The current Mexican law does not prohibit or regulate the topic of SCS in the country. The positive attitudes registered among police officers and PWID in the city of Tijuana open the door for the implementation of a SCS in a middle-income setting that could become a leading example to other locations throughout Mexico and Latin America.
Support for the Escudo research was provided by the Fogarty International Center of the National Institutes of Health under award Number D43TW008633 and R25TW009343, and by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01DA039073, R37DA019829 and T32DA023356). Additional support for the INPRFM was granted by the USA State Department.
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.
We gratefully acknowledge the collaboration from the Ministry of Public Safety and the special programs division for the Escudo project. The INPRFM would also like to thank the NGOs and people with lived experience that contributed to the Heroin Use in the Mexican Northern Border Study.
Arredondo, J., Strathdee, S. A., Cepeda, J., Abramovitz, D., Artamonova, I., Clairgue, E., ... Beletsky, L. (2017). Measuring improvement in knowledge of drug policy reforms following a police education program in Tijuana, Mexico. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(1), 72. doi:10.1186/s1 2954-017-0198-2
Arredondo, J., Beletsky, L., Baker, P., Abramovitz, D., Artamonova, I., Clairgue, E., ... Cepeda, J. (2019). Interactive versus video-based training of police to communicate syringe legality to people who inject drugs: The SHIELD Study, Mexico, 2015-2016. American Journal of Public Health, 109(6), 921-926. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305030
Bayoumi, A. M. & Zaric, G. S. (2008). The cost-effectiveness of Vancouver's supervised injection facility. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 179(11), 1143-1151. doi:10.1503/cmaj.080808
Beletsky, L., Macalino, G. E., & Burris, S. (2005). Attitudes of police officers towards syringe access, occupational needle-sticks, and drug use: A qualitative study of one city police department in the United States. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16(4), 267-274. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2005.01.009
Beletsky, L., Baker, P., Arredondo, J., Emuka, A., Goodman-Meza, D., Medina-Mora, M. E., ... Magis-Rodriguez, C. (2018). The global health and equity imperative for safe consumption facilities. The Lancet, 392(10147), 553-554. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31469-7
Bucardo, J., Brouwer, K. C., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Ramos, R., Fraga, M., Perez, S. G., ... Strathdee, S. A. (2005). Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 79(3), 281-293. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.02.003
Centro Nacional para la Prevencion y Control del VIH/SIDA. (2008). Manual para la prevencion del VIH/SIDA en usuarios de drogas inyectadas. ISBN 970-721-139-3
Cepeda, J. A., Strathdee, S. A., Arredondo, J., Mittal, M. L., Rocha, T., Morales, M., ... Beletsky, L. (2017). Assessing police officers' attitudes and legal knowledge on behaviors that impact HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. International Journal of Drug Policy, 50, 56-63. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.009
Des Jarlais, D. C. (1995). Harm reduction--a framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85(1): 10-12. doi:10.2105/ajph.85.1.10
Fleiz-Bautista, C., Dominguez-Garcia, M., Villatoro-Velazquez, J. A., Vazquez-Quiroz, E, Zafra-Mora, E., Sanchez-Ramos, R., ... Medina-Mora, M. E. (2019). Cuqueando la Chiva: Contextos del consumo de heroina en la frontera norte de Mexico. Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico: INPRFM. ISBN: 978-607-98474-0-1
Goodman-Meza, D., Medina-Mora, M. E., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Landovitz, R. J., Shoptaw, S., & Werb, D. (2019). Where is the opioid use epidemic in Mexico? A cautionary tale for policymakers south of the US--Mexico border. American Journal of Public Health, 109(1),73-$2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304767
Guerena-Burgueno, F., Benenson, A. S., & Sepulveda-Amor, J. (1991). HIV-1 prevalence in selected Tijuana sub-populations. American Journal of Public Health, 81(5), 623-625. doi:10.2105/AJPH.81.5.623
Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muhiz & Centro Nacional para la Prevencion y Control del VIH/SIDA [CENSIDA]. (2008). Guia para el uso de metadona en usuarios adultos con V1H dependientes de la heroina intravenosa. Secretaria de Salud. ISBN: 978-607-460-533-4
Irwin, A., Jozaghi, E., Bluthenthal, R. N., & Kral, A. H. (2017). A cost-benefit analysis of a potential supervised injection facility in San Francisco, California, USA. Journal of Drug Issues, 47(2), 164-184. doi:10.1177/0022042616679829
Kerr, T., Wood, E., Montaner, J., & Tyndall, M. (2009). Findings from the evaluation of Vancouver's pilot medically supervised safer injection facility--Insite (UHRI Report). Vancouver, BC: BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Addiction and Urban Health Research Initiative. p 2-3.
MSIC Evaluation Committee. (2003). Final report of the evaluation of the Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. MSIC Evaluation Committee. Revised from: https://www.drugsandalcohol.ie/5706/1/MSIC_fmal_evaluation_report.pdf
Pinkham, S., Myers, B., & Stoicescu, C. (2012). Developing effective harm reduction services for women who inject drugs. In: The global state of harm reduction. London: Report, Harm Reduction International. p 125-136. ISBN 978-09566116-6-6
Rhodes, T. (2009). Risk environments and drug harms: a social science for harm reduction approach. International Journal on Drug Policy, 20(3), 193-201. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2008.10.003
Robertson, A. M., Garfein, R. S., Wagner, K. D., Mehta, S. R., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Cuevas-Mota, J., ... Strathdee, S. A. (2014). Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda. Harm Reduction Journal, 11(1), 4. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-11-4
Salmon, A. M., Dwyer, R., Jauncey, M., van Beek, I., Topp, L., & Maher, L. (2009). Injecting-related injury and disease among clients of a supervised injecting facility. Drug and alcohol dependence, 101(1-2), 132-136. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.12.002
Strathdee, S. A., Arredondo, J., Rocha, T, Abramovitz, D., Rolon, M. L., Patino Mandujano, E.,... Beletsky, L. (2015). A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes. BMJ Open, 5(8), e008958. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008958
Villatoro, J., Medina-Mora, M. E., Fleiz Bautista, C., Moreno Lopez, M., Oliva Robles, N, Bustos Gamino, M., ... Amador Buenabad, N. (2012). El consumo de drogas en Mexico: Resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 2011. Salud Mental, 35(6), 447-457.
Jaime Arredondo-Sanchez Lira, (1,2) Clara Fleiz-Bautista, (3) Pieter Baker, (4,5) Jorge A. Villatoro-Velazquez, (3) Mario Dominguez-Garcia, (3) Leo Beletsky (4,6)
(1) Programa de Politico de Drogas. Centro de Investigation y Docencia Economica. Aguascalientes, Mexico.
(2) British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, Vancouver, Canada.
(3) Investigaciones Epidemiologicas y Psicosociales. Instituto Nacional de Psiguiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.
(4) Division of Infectious Diseases and Global Public Health. University of California, San Diego, San Diego, USA.
(5) San Diego State University, Sar Diego, USA.
(6) School of Law & Bouve College of Health Sciences. Northeastern University. Boston, USA.
Correspondence: Clara Fleiz-Bautista
Investigaciones Epidemiologicas y Psicosociales. Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz. Calzada Mexico Xochimilco 101 Col. San Lorenzo Huipulco C.P. 14370, Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico.
Phone: (55) 41 28 - 5045
Received: 14 March 2019
Accepted: 12 August 1019
Table 1 Sociodemographic variables for police officer Escudo INPRFM (N = 707)% (N = 200) % Gender Male 85.20 89.7 Female 14.80 10.3 Age 18-29 15.1 21.7 30-39 41.1 29.2 40-49 34.3 28.7 50+ 9.3 20.5 Married/Common Law 79.3 30.9 Education Lower than High School 19.2 71.0 High School completed 59.9 24.3 Higher more than High School 20.9 4.7 Statistical differences Gender Male [chi square] (1) = 2.12 Female Age 18-29 [chi square] (3) = 27.98 (**) 30-39 40-49 50+ Married/Common Law [chi square] (1) = 151.73 (**) Education Lower than High School [chi square] (2) =198.00 (**) High School completed Higher more than High School Note: (**)p < .001. Table 2 Attitudes toward SCS in police officers and PLE in Tijuana Escudo INPRFM (N = 707) (N = 200) % % Personal support for SCS 82.1 81.5 SCS level of success 80.5 83.0 Peer support for SCS 58.9 79.0 SCS health improvement 76.7 76.5 Referral/use of service 86.2 62.5 Statistical differences Personal support for SCS [chi square] (1) = .01 SCS level of success [chi square] (1) = .49 Peer support for SCS [chi square] (1) = 26.41 (**) SCS health improvement [chi square] (1) = .01 Referral/use of service [chi square] (1) = 54.92 (**) Note: (**)p < .001.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||ORIGINAL ARTICLE|
|Author:||Lira, Jaime Arredondo-Sanchez; Fleiz-Bautista, Clara; Baker, Pieter; Villatoro-Velazquez, Jorge A.;|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2019|
|Previous Article:||Psychosocial reintegration process in patients who receive maintenance treatment with methadone: A qualitative analysis.|
|Next Article:||Development of an evidence-based model of rapid testing, counseling and referral patients with HIV, HVC and other STDs in Mexican addiction treatment...|