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Attitudes to work and work environment management in lifetime practice: a questionnaire -based study for physiotherapists working in the private sector in Greece.

INTRODUCTION

In Greece there are few vacant working posts for physiotherapists (PTs) in Public and Private Hospitals and Clinics. Thus most Greek Physiotherapists, after receiving their degree and obtaining a work permit, go on to work privately. In the initial stages of work experience, they tend to practise physiotherapy by visiting the patient's home and later usually proceed to opening their own Physiotherapy Center (PTC). The PTC is initially rented but often subsequently purchased. This is due to the fact that a Greek child is raised in a culture which stresses the importance of seeking private housing. It is evident that the particular culture of manners and customs of Greek society and its firm social structures play an important role in shaping the personality of young Greeks. In other words the Greek PT as all PTs throughout the world is greatly influenced by the different social ethics and norms, economic and political views that shape his country.

In recent publishing, few studies have been carried out that examine the profile of the Greek PT. In fact no studies exist regarding Greek independent professional physiotherapists, especially in relation to their PTCs. In contrast, there have been studies that report on working conditions related to musculoskeletal disorders or to working attitudes, beliefs, and the status of education of PTs that work outside Greek territory. However, this profile does not exactly reflect the same for various international PTs. National, cultural and socio-political differences affect the Greek PT's profile and thus render it unique.

Studies performed on Swedish PTs, show that factors such as occupational area, professional post and gender explain the distribution of working hours (1-2), whereas other studies seek to point out that the professional role and the autonomy of the PTs in their occupational area, have a profound effect on the quality of work, as well as on motivation and job satisfaction. (3) Physiotherapists have adopted many characteristics of an independent profession, but the expressed frustration reveals that some members lack power on a personal and professional level. (4) A unique set of indicators describes physical therapy career success. Gender differences in its description and factors that influence its achievement are related primarily to family issues. Career success for women depends to a greater degree on their ability to manage family responsibilities in conjunction with employment opportunities. (5) Several factors such as professional interests, patient care, supervision and work conditions plus the results of a global ranking of the profession indicate a consistently high level of overall satisfaction on the part of the PTs and as for characteristics and career patterns, the female PTs appear to move in and out of professional practice while the male members pursue careers. (6) Women physicians who work their preferred number of hours achieve the best balance of work and family outcomes. (7) The specialization of PTs, improves the quality of health care, while promoting the growth of physiotherapy theory and practice through a critical evaluation of current and potential treatment methodology. (8) The use of evidence in the PTs daily practice is of high importance for the offered services, however the physiotherapists' attitudes towards evidence-based practice varies. (9,10,11,12)

Aim of this study is to investigate the attitudes to work and the work environment pattern, in a sample of Greek PTs.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Subjects

The participants of this study were 60 experienced professional PTs (mean age: 42.8 [+ or -] 8.13 years) including 30 men (mean age: 42.6 [+ or -] 7.57 years) and 30 women (mean age:43 [+ or -] 8.84 years). The participants had their own PTCs in the city of Thessaloniki ( Northern Greece), were registered in the Prefecture of Thessaloniki, Greece and made up a fairly representative random sample (38.96%), which included all PTs with private PCTs in the City of Thessaloniki.

The eligibility criteria were:

* The PTs were required to have at least 8 years of experience as professionals to allow for a legitimate time interval for adoptive changes on an economic and social level.

* The participants were selected randomly from the members of the Pan-Hellenic Physiotherapy Organization.

Questionnaire

For the compilation of data, a self-report questionnaire was developed to study the working conditions of the PTs in their daily interaction with patients. During the completion of this questionnaire, two researchers were present in the Physiotherapy Centers. The questionnaire included 51 questions that were divided into 10 subcategories.

* The 1st section included personal characteristics.

* The 2nd section had inquires concerning postgraduate education and knowledge of specialized techniques in physical therapy.

* The 3rd section indicated the level of practical experience of physiotherapists as well as their weekly and daily schedule.

* The 4th section included questions about ownership of PTC and their staff.

* The 5th category included queries about the PT's vocational attire.

* The 6th section included questions relevant to their insurance status.

* The 7th section regarded the measurement of the lighting in the rooms of the Centers. For the evaluation of lighting measurement, the device used was the Lux meter (SEKONIC Flash Master L-358, Corporation, Japan) and the unit of measurement was the electron volt (eV).

* The 8th section included questions about physiotherapy techniques and PTC equipment.

* The 9th section included athletic characteristics, physical activity and fitness level.

* The 10th section included the injuries incurred during the PTs daily practice and pain was evaluated on "The Wong-Baker

Faces Pain Rating Scale" (13) as following:

Face 0 is very happy because he doesn't hurt at all.

Face 1 hurts just a little bit.

Face 2 hurts a little more.

Face 3 hurts even more.

Face 4 hurts a whole lot more.

Face 5 hurts as much as you can imagine, although you do not have to be crying to feel this bad.

Statistical Analysis

All data were analyzed using SPSS 11.0 for Windows. Appropriate descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation for all measurable variables (scale 4: analogue scales) such as age, height, weight, BMI, illumination, pain intensity, fitness level etc; frequencies and percentages for the remaining variables, were used. The association of our data was calculated with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The differences were assessed using the Student's t test (independent-samples t test, 2-tailed for age, height, weight, BMI, illumination, pain intensity, fitness level etc). The one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to examine whether the data of each of the variables, entering the Student's t-test analysis, was normally distributed. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

RESULTS

1st section: personal characteristics

As far as the PT's graduating year is concerned, the 28% were graduates during the years 1974-1983, the 42% during the years 1985-1993, and the 30% during the years 19952003. The age distribution of the people that were questioned was categorized as following: 28% that was born during the years 1950-1959, 45% the years 1961-1967, and 27% the years 1971-1979.

The PTs characteristics are shown in table 1. The height (cm) distribution was: 20%: 1.55-1.65, 50%: 1.65-1.75, 30%: 1.75-1.85. The weight (Kg) distribution was 30%: 54-65, 40%: 65-82g, 30%: 82-101. The 45% of Pts were smokers ( Male smokers 50%, female smokers 40%). The 87.5% were right-handed while 12.5% are left-handed. Men are 95% right-handed and whereas women are 80% right-handed.

Regarding the participants' place of birth, the 60% were born in Thessaloniki, 31% were born in other Greek cities while the remaining 9% were born abroad. All PTs stated that lived in Thessaloniki permanently. The birthplace and the father's occupation are shown in table 2,3.

2nd section: postgraduate education and knowledge of special techniques in physical therapy

Fifteen percent of the participants had a master's degree (males: 15%, females: 15%). One male had both doctorate and masters degrees.

The 75% of the PTs were specialized in advanced physiotherapy techniques (males: 85%, females: 65%). These specialized techniques are demonstrated in table 4.

3rd section: the PTC, job experience and the weekly schedule

The 60% of participants owned a private Center (males: 50%, females 70%) whereas the 40% rent the establishment (males: 50%, females: 30%). The 87.5% (male: 85%, females: 90%) believed that a PTC is able to satisfy their professional needs. The Physiotherapy Center was commonly situated near the PTs' home (total: 75%, males: 65%, females: 85%). However, the participants that would like to change their PTC in order to move to a bigger location stand at a total: 7.5% (males: 10%, females: 5%). Those wanting to move into a privately owed establishment stand at a total of 2.5% (males: 5%, females: 0%), but the majority, a total of 90% admitted that they did not want to change their professional location (males: 85%, females: 95%). As far as commuting time was concerned, findings proved that 73% of the sample considered that it was the possible minimum, while 25% stated that the required time was sufficient. Furthermore, 25% had been in the profession for 3 to 11 years, 53% for 11 to 21 years, while 22% for 21 to 31 years. To the question about weekly working time, 78% answered it stood at 5 days per week, 15% at 6 days per week, and 7% at all days of the week. With regard to the daily distribution of working hours, 55% of the PT interviewed worked part time, while 45% worked full time.

4th section: ownership of PTCs and staff

The PTs answered that they needed one (25%) or two (30%) or no additional (45%) employees. In relation to gender status, the subjects indicated that they required one (males: 25%, females: 25%), two (males: 40%, females: 20%) and no additional (males: 35%, females: 55%) employees. The PTs responded that they employed one (50%) or two (5%) or no (45%) employees. In relation to gender status, the PTs indicated that they already had one (males: 55%, females: 45%), two (males: 0%, females: 10%) or no (males: 45%, females: 45%) employees. The PTs stated (35%) that they received Stage Programme subsidies to supplement the incomes of their staff. The percentage stood at an even level for both males and females (35%). The PTs declared that 17.5% of the staff they employed was of an undergraduate level (males: 25%, females: 10).

5th section: professional clothing

In the PTC, footwear comprised classic shoes (17.5%), athletic shoes (20%), medical clogs (47.5%), sandals (7.5%) or something else (7.5%). In relation to gender status, the shoes were classic shoes (males: 30%, females: 5%), athletic shoes (males: 20%, females: 20%), medical clogs (males: 35%, females: 60%), sandals (males: 5%, females: 10%) or something else (males: 10%, females: 5%). The upper part attire consisted of lab coats (52.5%), athletic jacket (15%), classic daily wear (10%), t-shirts (17.5%), something else (5%). In relation to gender status, the upper part was lab coats (males: 45%, females: 60%), athletic jackets (males: 10%, females: 20%), classic daily wear (males: 10%, females: 10%), t-shirts (males: 25%, females: 10%), something else (males: 10%, females: 0%). The lower part included the following: medical pants 12.5%, training pants 30%, classic daily clothes 55%, something else 2.5%. In relation to gender status, the lower clothes included medical pants (males: 15%, females: 10%), training pants (males: 20%, females: 40%), classic daily clothes (males: 65%, females: 45%), something else (males: 0%, females: 5%).

In the patients' home, PTs were used to wearing the following shoes: classic shoes (17%), athletic shoes (37%), medical clogs (22%) sandals (12%) or something else (12%), while the males were used to wearing classic shoes (25%), athletic shoes (50%), something else (25%), and the females classic shoes (12.5%), athletic shoes (32.5%), medical clogs (37.5%), sandals (17.5%). The upper clothing consisted of lab coats 14.5%, athletic jackets 29.5%, classic every day clothes 39.5%, and t-shirts 16.5%. In relation to gender status, the upper clothing included lab coats (males: 0%, females: 20%), athletic jackets (males: 30%, females: 35%), classic daily wears (males: 40%, females: 45%), t-shirts (males: 30%, females: 0%). The lower clothing was medical pants 15%, training pants 35% and classic daily clothes 50%. In relation to gender status, the lower clothing was medical pants (males: 0%, females: 15%), training pants (males: 37.5%, females: 40%), classic daily clothes (males: 62.5%, females: 45%).

6th section: insurance status

PTs who held extra insurance stand at 52.5% (males: 50%, females: 55%). This is categorized as following: Medical health care (%): total=25, male=15, female=36; Loss of income (%): total=12.5, male 15, female=11, home insurance (%): total=2.5, male=0, female=6; equipment insurance for (%): total=2.5, male=5, female=0; al of the above: total=12.5, male=20, female=6.

7th section: Physical Therapy Center's illumination

In PC rooms, the artificial light was measured in mean (SD) values and eV units as indicated in table 5. Paired samples and statistical methods did not indicate any significant differences between rooms (pair1: office-kinesiotherapy = 0.672, pair2: office-electrotherapy = 0.576, pair3: kinesiotherapy-electrotherapy= 0.218). Paired Samples Correlations did not indicate significant correlation (R<0.800): pair1: office-kinesiotherapy = 0.095, pair2: office-electrotherapy = 0.176, pair3: kinesiotherapy-electrotherapy= 0.406).

8th section: physiotherapy, techniques and equipment of PTC

PTs worked in upright standing posture at 55% or in mixed posture (standing-sitting) at 45%. Males worked standing at 45% or mixed at 55% and females work standing at 65% or mixed at 35%. They worked for several hours in upright position (table. 6). PTs performed massage in daily practice at total of 70% (males: 65%, females: 75%). They use vibration devices (massagers) at total of 25% (males: 15%, females: 30%). 72.5% use laser devices either with a distance probe (52.5%) or a point probe (20%). For the ergonomic examination of the tables, we asked PTs to put their fingers or their palms on the table's surface at the upright position. Only 50% of male and female PTs were able to touch the surface of the tables with the edge of their finger. The same results were derived when PTs were asked to place their palm on the table's surface.

9th section: athletic characteristics, physical activity and fitness level

At total of 12.5% PTs (males: 20%, females: 5%) took part in individual sports, where as, 32.5% (males: 50%, females: 15%) participated in team sports. The remaining 55% (males: 30%, females: 80%) engaged in no athletic activity. They evaluated their fitness level in 5 level scale (1=bad, 2=moderate, 3=good, 4=very good, 5=most excellent) in mean (SD) as: total: 3.2 [+ or -] 1.02, male: 3.25 [+ or -] 0.97, female: 3.15 [+ or -] 1.09; mean difference between two subgroups: 0.10, significance level (2-tailed) P value: 0.760. On the whole PTs believed that they needed to improve their fitness level (total: 52.5%, male: 45%, female: 60%).

10th section: Areas of pain locations and pain assessment

The neck and the lumbar are the areas most susceptible to strain and PTs detect pain mainly in the joint areas (table. 7). The various disorders induced in the PTs work are illustrated in table 8.

The participants graded their pain with Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale as following: score 0: no; score 1: total: 22.5%, male: 40%, female: 5%; score 2: total: 20%, male: 25%, female: 15%; score 3: total: 32.5%, male: 25%, female: 40%; score 4: total: 20%, male: 10%, female: 30%; score 5: total: 5%, male: 0%, female: 10%: Mean pain intensity level was for the total: mean (SD): 2.65[+ or -]1.19, male: 2.05[+ or -]1.05, female: 3.25[+ or -]1.02; Mean Difference between two subgroups: -1.20; Significance level (2-tailed) P value: 0.001. PTs treat their own medical conditions by practicing physiotherapy on themselves (total: 35%, males: 30%, females: 40%) or on a fellow PT (total: 30%, males: 25%, females: 35%) or they simply do not engage in any physiotherapy what so ever (total: 35%, males: 45%, females: 25%).

DISCUSSION

1st section: personal characteristics

On average male PTs are slightly overweight (AIE>25), while females are within normal limits (AIE<25). The reason for this difference could be due to the dietary habits of the two sexes, and also to their daily exercise in which, according to this study, women mostly participate. A 45% of participants PTs were regular smokers though males smoke less than females. This happens to be a profound problem and should be dealt with through greater public awareness and campaigning. This is especially imperative for female PT due to her potential maternity role. After all, the PTs should be a reflection of overall good health and vitality. Certain vital questions regarding usage of the equipment arise owing to a substantial 12.5% of left handed PTs, who claim provisions, are made only for right handed users in mind. Most Pts chose to open their private business in the place where they were born or where they finished their studies, and they preferred large cities like Thessaloniki (the second biggest city in Greece) rather than smaller towns to open their practises even though it is in these smaller towns where the competition is less intense. This choice of location is primarily due to the national trend, namely urbanism, observed in half of the Greek population to gather in the bigger cities such as Thessaloniki and Athens.

2nd section: postgraduate education and knowledge of special techniques in physical therapy

The possession of a master's or Ph.D. degree in Greece can not be considered an extra qualification for the PT, who is the owner of a PTC, but 15% shows a tendency for further study and professional development (15%). Many Pts seek post graduates studies and are interested in adopting specialized physical therapy techniques in order to improve their health care services and increase their incomes. Men demonstrated a greater percentage of their knowledge in special techniques, and this is perhaps due to the fact that a woman's time is more limited because of her maternal role within the Greek family unit. The Greek mother is brought up in a society that does not easily allow her to leave the rearing of her children to babysitters or day care centers.

3rd section: the Physical Center and the weekly-daily schedule

Following the Greek norm of having their own house, most Pts have their own PTC as well (70%). Such ownership is an integral priority for the Greek PT and hence he often resorts to either taking out a loan or seeking financial aid from his parents who, in Greek society, regard it their utmost duty to invariably support their children well into adulthood. Most women and men Pts believe that their PTC covers their professional needs. In addition, they have made it a point to reduce commuting time to a minimum. This especially important for the women PTs who want to devote a maximum time possible to their family.

4th section: ownership of Physical Therapy Center and theirs employments

PTs that require additional staff do so either to meet the needs of an increased number of patients or to minimize their working hours. Once again this is especially true of the women PT. Yet another interesting finding in Greek PTCs is the participation of male Physiotherapy undergraduate students as volunteers who seek "hands" on practical experience from an early stage.

5th section: PT's professional wear

Greek Pts choose their shoes depending on their ergonomy (athletic and anatomic medical clogs) for their work whether at their practice or at the patient's home. Women mainly choose medical clogs. A recent noted change, however, is that many PTs now prefer their everyday clothing to formal lab attire when visiting patients' homes. The results in clothing change dramatically though, while it seems that while the PTC the Pts wear usually lab coat, they wear their daily clothes at the patient's home. At this point it should be mentioned that a Greek PT might opt for a good appearance and prestige in his clothing at the expense of the practicality and this should obviously be changed.

6th section: insurance status

It seems that mandatory insurance policy in Greece does not fully cover a PTs needs and this is especially true in the sector of health. As a consequence a considerable amount of PTs resort to private insurance to cover their medical needs and any possible supplementary income. The female PT has a greater need to be better insured owing to the fact that she feels more vulnerable when out of a work than her male counterpart.

7th section: Physical Therapy Center's illumination

The artificial lighting in the rooms of the PTC is adequate, though women demand for more light. Men tend to have brighter lighting in the receptionist's room, while women tend to use a brighter one in the electrotherapy room. This might be due to gender differences.

8th section: physiotherapy techniques and equipment of PTC

Women tend to engage in massage more frequently and thus use massagers (vibration equipment) to protect themselves from work-induced injuries. What is more inadequate ergonomy of equipment suggests that crucial improvements need to be made in this sector. PTs need to be better informed in ergonomical education.

9th section: athletic characteristics, physical activity and fitness level

Interestingly enough, women want to improve their fitness level more than men, not only for appearance purposes but for overall good health.

10th section: Areas of pain and pain assessment

Strenuous working conditions caused mainly by the long hours a PT is required to spend standing up are the reasons for neck and back pain. Women showed that they suffered neck pain more than men. These results are in agreement with the ones derived by West DJ and Gardner D. (14) In this study, the relationship between musculoskeletal injury and years of work of the PTs was investigated. Fifty-five percent of respondents had experienced a work-related injury and 40% had experienced injury in the previous year. The most injured body areas were the lower back, hands and neck. Over half (56%) of the initial incidents of injury occurred within five years of graduation (in our findings the duration was 8 years). The primary job risk factors leading to physical injuries were demanding positions of posture, manual therapy, specialized techniques, repetition, working while injured and excessive workloads. Injured respondents chose to work while injured and not to take time off on workers' compensation or have surgery. Following injury, 38% of respondents changed work settings. Most injured physiotherapists modified their techniques to continue working.

In our research no problems were observed in the thumb as were described in an Australian study which reports that prevalence of thumb problems among physiotherapists appears to be high and can be of sufficient severity to impact on careers. (15) Concerning injuries derived from PTs' work conditions, the report of Lopopolo RB claims that the lifetime prevalence of thumb problems was 65%. (16) Factors that were significantly associated with thumb problems included: working in orthopaedic outpatients; using manual therapy, trigger point therapy and massage; having thumb joint hypermobility; or an inability to stabilise the joints of the thumb whilst performing physiotherapy techniques. Of those respondents who reported thumb problems, 19% had changed their area of practice and 4% had left the profession as a result of their thumb problems.

CONCLUSIONS

The main findings of this study showed that many Greek independent professional Pts have found a well-balanced pattern of life which combines independent professional career based on small privately-held physical therapy centers. They usually smoke, prefer to live in large cities, have an ever-increasing interest in learning and applications of specialized physical therapy techniques, and want to eventually own their private PTC. Greek PTs are dissatisfied with the weak public health care system, so they resort to private health insurance. Occupational health problems are examined in a basis of individual interest and not conforming to guidelines of occupational health surveillance programs.

APPENDIX

Electron Volt--Unit of energy. By definition, it is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained by a single unbound electron when it accelerates through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. Thus it is 1 volt (1 joule divided by 1 coulomb) multiplied by the electron charge (1.60217653 (14)x10 (19) coulomb). One electron volt is equal to 1.60217653(14)x10 (19) joules.

Conflict of interest: None declared

REFERENCES

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(3.) Bergman B. Professional role and autonomy in physiotherapy. A study of Swedish physiotherapists. Scand J Rehabil Med 1990;22(2):79-84.

(4.) Miles-Tapping C, Rennie GA, Duffy M, Rookie L, Holstein S. Canadian physiotherapists' professional identity: an exploratory survey. Psysiother Can 1992;44(4):31-5.

(5.) Rozier CK, Raymond MJ, Goldstein MS, Hamilton BL. Gender and physical therapy career success factors. Phys Ther 1998;78(7):690-704.

(6.) Gelmon SB, Williams JI. Perspectives on the physiotherapy profession: a survey of Canadian Physiotherapy Association members. Physiother Can. 1983;35(1):21-9.

(7.) Carr PL, Gareis KC, Barnett RC. Characteristics and outcomes for women physicians who work reduced hours. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2003;12(4):399-405.

(8.) Magee DJ. Physiotherapy specialization in Canada: an update. Physiother Can. 1986;38(2):102-5.

(9.) Jette DU, Bacon K, Batty C, Carlson M, Ferland A, Hemingway R, et al. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of physical therapists. Phys Ther 2003;83(9):786-805.

(10.) De Smedt A, Buyl R, Nyssen M. Evidence-based practice in primary health care Stud Health Technol Inform 2006;124:651-6.

(11.) Iles R, Davidson M. Evidence based practice: a survey of physiotherapists' current practice. Physiother Res Int 2006;11(2):93-103.

(12.) Stevenson K, Lewis M, Hay E. Do physiotherapists' attitudes towards evidence-based practice change as a result of an evidence-based educational programme? J Eval Clin Pract 2004;10(2):207-17.

(13.) Wong, DL, Hockenberry-Eaton M, Wilson D, Winkelstein ML, Schwartz P. Wong's Essentials of Pediatric Nursing. Sixth edn. St. Louis,USA: Mosby, 2001.

(14.) West DJ, Gardner D. Occupational injuries of physiotherapists in North and Central Queensland. Aust J Physiother 2001;47(3):179-86.

(15.) McMahon M, Stiller K, Trott P. The prevalence of thumb problems in Australian physiotherapists is high: an observational study. Aust J Physiother 2006; 52(4):287-92.

(16.) Lopopolo RB. The relationship of role-related variables to job satisfaction and commitment to the organization in a restructured hospital environment. Phys Ther 2002;82(10):984-99.

Elias Kallistratos [1], Alexandra Kallistratou [1], John Toliopoulos [2]

[1] Physiotherapy Department, Alexander Technological Institution of Thessaloniki, Greece

[2] Konstantinion Research Center of Molecular Medicine and Biotechnology, Thessaloniki, Greece

Corresponding author: Elias Kallistratos, Ass. Professor, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Medical Care Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki P.O BOX 141 GR-57400 Sindos, Thessaloniki, Greece

TEL: +30 2310 791548, FAX: +30 2310 791548

E-mai: elipulse@yahoo.gr.
Table 1. Personal characteristics of participants--PTs

 Subjects Male
 Mean value Mean value
 (SD) (SD)
 N=40 N=20

Year of birth 1964.2 [+ or -] 8.13 1964.4 [+ or -] 7.57
Age (year) 42.8 [+ or -] 8.13 42.6 [+ or -] 7.57
Height (cm) 172.1 [+ or -] 8.31 177.7 [+ or -] 6.21
Weight (Kg) 75.2 [+ or -] 13.26 83.8 [+ or -] 9.10
BMI 25.30 [+ or -] 3.53 26.55 [+ or -] 2.84
Year of
graduation 1988.4 [+ or -] 8.04 1989.6 [+ or -] 7.42

 Female Mean Significance
 Mean value Difference level
 (SD) between two (2-tailed)
 N=20 subgroups P value

Year of birth 1964.1 [+ or -] 8.84 0.35 0.894
Age (year) 43.0 [+ or -] 8.84 -0.35 0.894
Height (cm) 166.6 [+ or -] 6.14 11.15 0.001
Weight (Kg) 66.7 [+ or -] 11.18 17.05 0.001
BMI 24.05 [+ or -] 2.84 2.50 0.023
Year of
graduation 1987 [+ or -] 8.65 2.40 0.352

Table 2. Birthplace of participants (percentage %)

Birthplace Subjects Males Females

Thessaloniki (Greece) 60.0 60 60
Germany 5.0 10
Heraclion, Crete (Greece) 2.5 5
Volos, Greece 2.5 5
Alexandroupolis, Greece 2.5 5
Halkidiki, Greece 2.5 5
Serres, Greece 7.5 5 10
Kilkis,Greece 7.5 15
Kozani, Greece 2.5 5
Cyprus 2.5 5
Florina, Greece 2.5 5
Chech Republic 2.5 5

Table 3. Profession of the participant's father/family
(percentage)

Father business Total % Males Females

Farmer 12.5 10 15
Public officer 22.5 25 20
Mechanician 10.0 10 10
Veterinarian 2.5 5
Nany officer 2.5 5
Private employee 12.5 5 20
Public employee 20.0 15 25
Construction worker 12.5 15 10
Teacher 5.0 10

Table 4. Special techniques reported by the participants
when asked if they are specialized in advanced
techniques in physical therapy (percentage)

Special techniques Total % Males Females

PNF 12.5 10 15

MAITLAND 12.5 20 5

McKENZIE 35.0 50 20

NONE 25.0 15 35

ACUPUNCTURE +
OSTEOPATHIC TECHNIQUES +
McKENZIE 5,0 0 10

PNF + MULIGAN 2,5 0 5

PNF + McKENZIE +
ACUPUNCTURE 7,5 5 10

Table 5. Intensity of artificial lighting (eV)
in Physical Therapy Centers

Room Total Male
 (N = 40) (N = 20)
 ean (SD) ean (SD)

Office 6.03 [+ or -] 0.88 5.91 [+ or -] 0.93

Kinesio
therapy 5.95 [+ or -] 0.83 5.74 [+ or -] 0.87

Electro-
therapy 6.12 [+ or -] 0.77 5.89 [+ or -] 0.83

Room Female Mean Significance
 (N = 20) Difference level
 ean (SD) between two (2-tailed)
 subgroups P value

Office 6.14 [+ or -] 0.84 -0.230 0.417

Kinesio
therapy 6.15 [+ or -] 0.75 -0.415 0.113

Electro-
therapy 6.35 [+ or -] 0.65 -0.460 0.058

Table 6. Daily hours in upright position

Number of Hours Total (%) Male (%) Female (%)

1 2.5 0 5
2 7.5 5 10
3 15.0 5 25
4 7.5 5 10
5 7.5 5 10
6 5.0 10 0
7 2.5 0 5
8 7.5 5 10
9 10.0 15 5
10 25.0 35 15
12 10.0 15 5

Table 7. Pain areas--occupational health screening
section and answers

Body region Total Males Females

Head (headache) 3 5
Neck 13 5 21
Elbow 2.5 5
Hand 3 6
Lumbar 10.0 10 10
Knee 2.5 6
Everything 38 45 31
Shoulder, hand, lumbar 15.0 20 10.5
Neck, thoracic and lumbar
area 5.0 10
Elbow, hand, lumbar 3 6
Headache, neck, lumbar 5,0 10.5

Table 8. History (%) of one or more muscle skeletal
disorders--Occupational health section

Disorder Total Males Females

Scoliosis 2.5 5

Shoulder arthritis 2.5 5

Elbow Epicondylitis 5.0 10

Finger tendonitis 5.0 10

Discopathy, disk herniation 12,5 15 10

Chondromalacia-
chondropathy 5.0 10

None 35.0 35 35

Discopathy (disk herniation)
+ carpal tunnel syndrome
+ elbow epicondylitis 5.0 10

Discopathy (disk herniation)
+ scoliosis 5.0 5

Scoliosis +elbow
epicondylitis 2.5 5

Discopathy (disk herniation)
+ shoulder periarthritis 5.0 5 5

Carpal tunnel syndrome +
chondropathy 2,5 5

Scoliosis + chondropathy 2.5 5

Elbow epicondylitis +
finger tendonitis 2.5 5

Discopathy (disk herniation)
+ finger tendonitis 2.5 5

Discopathy (disk herniation)
+ lordosis 2.5 5
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Title Annotation:original article
Author:Kallistratos, Elias; Kallistratou, Alexandra; Toliopoulos, John
Publication:International Journal of Health Science
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUGR
Date:Apr 1, 2009
Words:5237
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