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Attitude towards Entrepreneurship: An Exploration of Technology Education Students.

Byline: Tariq Hussain, Aroona Hashmi and Misbah Gilani

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is a symbol of business strength and growth which requires knowledge, skill and competency. The study aimed to explore the attitude of technology education students towards entrepreneurship. This study was descriptive in nature; quantitative approach was adopted and survey method was used to conduct the study. Census sampling technique was used to select the sample which comprised 135 students from the Department of Technology Education at Institute of Education and Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) scale was adapted for data collection which was developed by Lee Wei Ni, Lim Bao Ping, Lim Li Ying, Ng HueiSern and Wong JiaLihin (2012). The original version consists of 32 items, however after piloting the EI scale comprised of 26 items based on five-point Likert type scale. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques.

The findings reveal that the students of technology education demonstrate positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. It is concluded that there is no significant difference in students' attitude towards entrepreneurship in terms of gender and session. However, there is significant difference between the attitude of the morning and self-supporting students towards entrepreneurship. It is suggested that seminars and workshops should be conducted by educational institutions to develop the entrepreneurial skills among students for their career advancement.

Keywords: Attitude, Entrepreneurship, Technology education.

Introduction

In past few decades, entrepreneurship has been emerging as a popular research topic due to its positive effects on a country's economic progress in terms of growth and poverty reduction (Lunati, Schlochtern, and Sargsyan, 2010 and Kuratko, 2005). The deficiency of job opportunities is one of the chief problems faced by the students in every country (Madhavrao, 2009). Every year there is a bulk of passed out students waiting for the job but only a few of them would secure job. This may lead to unemployment and effects the national economy. The enhancement in entrepreneurial activities may help the students to innovate jobs on their own and this may help to reduce unemployment (Azhar, Javaid, Rehman, and Hyder, 2010). Education is a key to nation-wide progress. The society has revolutionized and use of technology has become a need of the time in nearly all walks of life.

According to Esenjor (1992), rational development of a nation depends on the creative skills of the people to effectively use their talent and productive labour force to convert natural resources into useful products which are practically applicable. Entrepreneurship is the process in which a person looks for opportunities to execute their business plans. It is the talent of a person to turn ideas into a small business (Barringer and Ireland, 2010). Entrepreneurship is anenergetic process of vision, change, and creation. This process needs an input of energetic ideas and devotion to bring about creative solutions (Nafukho and Muyia, 2010; Dickson, Solomon and Weaver, 2008). Entrepreneurship education is very helpful for motivating students and making rapid change for the country. It is a programme that teaches creative, progressive, constructive and administrative skills needed in small business.

Technology education is also considered as important aspect of economic growth. It is the study of technology in which students learn about the information, techniques and strategies related to technology. The purpose is to provide students with technological knowledge in which laboratory activities are also involved (Eke, Lgwesi, and Orji, 2011). Hence, technology and entrepreneurship education form the base for nation-wide progress. Entrepreneurship and self-employment can be a source of new jobs for technology education students in developed countries and may enhance student livings in developing countries. It is need of the hour to promote entrepreneurship culture among technology education students to achieve three goals: students are more passionate to become an entrepreneur; they should have cognitive and psychomotor skills to develop a better business plan and positive behavior towards entrepreneurship.

Attitude towards entrepreneurship is the choice of students to become self- employed rather than employed by an organization. Therefore, high inclination towards entrepreneurship indicates that most of the respondents want to become their own boss than organizational employee (De Noble, Jung, and Ehlrich, 1999; Kolvereid, 1996, Kolvereid and Isaken, 2006). Many studies point out the value of entrepreneurship education to produce successful entrepreneurs (Gelard and Saleh, 2011; Lee, Chang, and Lim, 2005; Ooi, Selvarajah, and Meyer, 2011). A large number of researchers have evaluated the significance of entrepreneurial skills needed to successfully start up and hold on small business (Bird, 2002; Onstenk, 2003).

Many authors have specified different perspectives about the skills that needed to become a successful entrepreneur (Hougaard, 2005; Venesaar, Kolbre, and Piliste, 2006) and the fact that the educational system should deliver suitable knowledge to increase an individuals' intention to become an entrepreneur (Kadir, Salim, and Kamarudin, 2011; Lee, Lim, Ng, and Wong, 2012).Thus, it is important to settle the entrepreneurial characteristics that might impact students of technology education to be successful entrepreneurs (Ibrahim and Lucky, 2014; and Sama-Ae, 2009). A number of different researchers carried out several studies which aimed to explore youth attitude towards entrepreneurship (Mohamed, Rezai, Shamsudin, and Mahmud, 2012; Mothabeng, 2012; Keat, Selvarajah, and Meyer, 2011; Volkmann and Tokarski, 2009; Vohra and Arora, 2007). However, only a few researchers conducted the research to explore technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship.

Thus, this study in a way that explored the attitude of technology education students towards entrepreneurship.

Objective of the Study

The objective of the study was to explore the attitude of technology education students towards entrepreneurship.

Research Questions

1. What is the level of technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship?

2. What is the difference between the level of male and female technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship?

3. Is there any significant difference in technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship in terms of session?

4. Is there any significant difference in morning and self-supporting technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship?

Research Methodology

The research design was descriptive in nature; quantitative approach was adopted and survey method was used to conduct the study. In this study, 135 students from technology education programs (Morning and Self-Supporting) were taken as a sample through census sampling technique that were100% of the population. Entrepreneurial Intention (EI) scale was developed by Lee Wei Ni, Lim Bao Ping, Lim Li Ying, Ng HueiSern and Wong JiaLih in 2012.The original version consisted of 32 items that were created on five-point Likert type scale; after piloting it was reduced to 26 items. The possible responses to each statement were assigned weightage as follows: Strongly Agree 5, Agree 4, Neutral 3, Disagree 2, and Strongly Disagree 1. The validity of the instrument was ensured from research supervisor and Ph.D. scholars. The reliability coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.854Cronbach's Alpha which was acceptable.

Researchers personally visited the classes and collected data with the permission of class teachers. Students were requested to at ease and give accurate information. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Mean scores and SD of the respondents on (EI) scale were calculated by applying descriptive statistics while t-test was applied to calculate the difference in attitude of students in terms of gender, session and program by applying inferential statistical technique.

Results of the Study

RQ1. What is the level of technology education students' attitude towards entrepreneurship?

Table 1 Descriptive statistics

###Min###Max###M###SD

Attitude towards the behaviour###2.33###5.00###3.85###.565

Perceived behavioural control###1.80###5.00###3.72###.598

Personality traits###1.80###5.00###3.70###.597

Entrepreneurial intention###1.80###5.00###3.69###.654

Table shows that high proportion of students has a positive attitude in all sub- scales of attitude towards entrepreneurship. However, the mean score of attitude towards the behavior sub-scale is greater (M=3.85, SD=0.565) than all other sub-scales mean scores respectively (M=3.72, SD=0.598; M=3.70, SD=0.597 andM=3.69, SD=0.654).

RQ2. What is the difference between the attitude of male and female technology education students towards entrepreneurship?

Table 2 Comparison of entrepreneurship attitude sub-scales on the basis of the gender of respondents.

Variables###Male (48)###Female (87)###t###df###P

###M###SD###M###SD

Attitude towards the Behavior###3.95###.615###3.79###.531###1.592###133###.114

Perceived Behavioral Control###3.77###.612###3.65###.587###1.072###133###.283

Personality Traits###3.78###.611###3.66###.589###1.073###133###.285

Entrepreneurial Intention###3.73###.730###3.68###.610###0.605###133###.546

Table depicts that the mean score of male respondents was greater in all sub-scales (M=3.95, SD=.615; M=3.77, SD=.612; M=3.78, SD=.611 and M=3.73, SD=.730) than the mean score of female respondents (M=3.79, SD=.531; M=3.65, SD=.587; M=3.66, SD=.589 and M= 3.68, SD=.610). However, there is no significant difference found between male and female attitude in all four sub-scales of attitude towards entrepreneurship (t=1.592, df =133, P=.114; t=1.072, df=133, P=.283; t=1.073, df=133, P=.285 and t=0.605, df=133, P=.546). In other words, male and female students showed approximately same level of attitude in all sub-scales.

RQ3. Is there any significant difference inthe attitude of technology education students towards entrepreneurship in terms of session?

Table 3 Comparison of entrepreneurship attitude sub-scales on the basis of the session of respondents.

Variables###2015-2017 (64)###2016-2018 (71)###t###df###P

###M###SD###M###SD

Attitude towards the Behavior###3.78###.622###3.91###.505###-1.336###133###.184

Perceived Behavioral Control###3.65###.653###3.77###.538###-1.343###133###.182

Personality Traits###3.63###.654###3.79###.535###-1.345###133###.181

Entrepreneurial Intention###3.67###.652###3.70###.659###-0.314###133###.754

Table indicates that the mean score of session 2016-2018 was greater in all four sub-scales (M=3.91, SD=.505; M=3.77, SD=.538; M=3.79, SD=.535 and M=3.70, SD=.659) than the mean score of session 2015-2017 (M=3.78, SD=.622; M=3.65, SD=.653; M=3.63, SD=.654 and M=3.67, SD=.652). However, there is no significant difference found between both sessions(2015-2017, 2016-2018)in all four sub-scales of attitude towards entrepreneurship (t=-1.336,df=133, P=.184; t=-1.343, df=133, P=.182; t=-1.345, df=133, P=.181 and t=-0.314, df=133, P=.754). In other words, students enrolled in 2015-2017 and 2016-2018 showed almost same level of attitude in all sub scales.

RQ4. Is there any significant difference in the attirtude of morning and self-supporting technology education students towards entrepreneurship?

Table 4 Comparison of entrepreneurship attitude sub-scales on the basis of the program of respondents.

Variables###Morning (79)###Self-Supporting###t###df###P

###(56)

###M###SD###M###SD

Attitude towards the Behaviour###3.79###.592###3.93###.518###-1.510###133###.134

Perceived Behavioural Control###3.58###.529###3.86###.652###-2.491###133###.014

Personality Traits###3.59###.526###3.85###.662###-2.493###133###.016

Entrepreneurial Intention###3.55###.682###3.88###.610###-2.883###133###.005

Table demonstrate that the mean score of self-supporting program students was greater in all four sub-scales (M=3.93, SD=.518; M=3.86, SD=.652; M=3.85, SD=.662 and M=3.88, SD=.610) than the mean score of morning program students (M=3.79, SD=.592; M=3.58, SD=.529; M=3.59, SD=.526and M=3.55, SD=.628).The results of t-test indicate that there is insignificant difference in attitude towards the behavior sub-scale (t=-1.510, df=133, p=.134). However, there is significant difference in rest of three sub-scales (t=-2.491, df=133, p=.014; t=-2.493, df=133, p=.016and t=-2.883, df=133, p=.005). Self- supporting program students are more inclined towards entrepreneurship than morning program students.

Discussion

Results of the study demonstrate that the overall attitude of students towards entrepreneurship is positive as substantiated by the mean score of 3.73. This study supports the result of Tsegaye (2015) which shows that students are extensively interested in starting their own small business as an alternative than in waiting for a job offer. There is insignificantdifference between male and female students' attitude towards entrepreneurship which supports the previous research of Mothebeng (2012) in which researcher was concluded that there was no significant difference exists between male and female students' attitude towards entrepreneurship. Thus, the results of the current study support the previous research findings.

Conclusion

The aim of the study was to explore the attitude of technology education students towards entrepreneurship. The results concluded that the students of technology education showed positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. However, the results of t-test indicate that there is insignificant difference in students' attitude towards entrepreneurship in terms of gender and session in all four sub-scales whereas there is a significant difference in the attitude of morning and self-supporting students towards entrepreneurship in three out of four sub-scales.

Recommendations

Teachers should organize workshops to increase awareness and consciousness among students about entrepreneurship. Educational institutes should conduct seminars to develop the entrepreneurial skills among students for their career advancement. Teachers should focus on the implementation of rules set by higher authorities in order to foster interest in students towards entrepreneurship.

References

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Author:Hussain, Tariq; Hashmi, Aroona; Gilani, Misbah
Publication:Bulletin of Education and Research
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Apr 30, 2018
Words:3091
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