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Attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children in selected Anganwadi Centers of Doiwala, Dehradun.

INTRODUCTION

The children of today will be adults of tomorrow. The wealth of a nation is not so much in its of economical and natural resources, but it lies more decidedly in the kind and quality of the wealth of its children. It is they who will be the creators and shapers of a nation's tomorrow. A child has to be pruned of its baser instincts and trained in a proper manner to make them beneficial to society.

For pre-school children, play is like the bridge between preschool children's experiences and understanding, thereby providing the means for insight, learning, problem-solving, coping, and mastery. [1]

Play therapy allows pre-school children to explore their feelings, increase positive interactions with others, and develop appropriate social skills using their natural form of communication. Play therapy helps to create change so that the pre-school child function is in a healthy way. [2]

Benefits of play therapy include helping the pre-school child separate reality from fantasy, rectifying misconceptions, and addressing personal. [3]

Through play therapy, pre-school children learn to gain control and mastery of their world, develop problem-solving skills and empathy, release tension, assimilate and accommodate past events, prevent or resolve psychosocial difficulties, and achieve optimal growth and development. [4]

Play therapy improves pre-school children's self-concepts, external behavioral functioning, and language development. Through play therapy, stress in parent-child relationship is reduced. Pre-school children's can identify their own emotions, strengths, and gain confidence with the help of play therapy. Those pre-school children who received play therapy develop higher self-confidence, improved relationships with others, and develop a better understanding of self. [5]

Parents, who have a positive attitude about play therapy, can help in the pre-school child's therapeutic goals, recognize the benefits of play therapy, and are able to give play therapy at home to build on the gains the pre-school child is making in the play sessions. It is important to encourage positive parenting skills and the effort exerted by parents to facilitate change and to encourage the parents to have a positive attitude regarding play therapy. How play therapy will be beneficial for the pre-school child and how parents can be involved in the process of play therapy? These all things the parents should understand. Parents should know how to utilize play therapy techniques in interacting with their preschooler child. [2]

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Descriptive research design with quantitative research approach was used to assess the attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children. The study population comprised of 60 mothers of pre-school children in selected Anganwadi Centers of Doiwala, Dehradun. A total of 60 mothers of pre-school children were conveniently taken from the selected Anganwadi Centers of Doiwala, Dehradun. Pre-school children mothers who were not present at the time of data collection were excluded from the study. Self-developed attitude scale was used to assess the attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children. After explaining the purpose of the study, written consent was obtained from the participant. The proposed study was conducted after the approval of the Ethical Research Committee of Swami Rama Himalayan University. Written permission was taken from the proposed setting concerned authority.

RESULTS

Table 1 illustrates that 45% of participants were having formal education. 55% of participants were having no formal education. 53.3% of participants were homemaker, and 46.6% of participants were employed. 66.7% of participants husband were self-employed. 33.3% of participant's husband were doing private job. 36.7% participants were having nuclear family. 63.33% of participants were having joint family. 28.3% of participants were having <5000 monthly income of family, and 71.66% of the participants were having more than 5000 monthly income of family. 51.66% of participants were having 1-2 number of children in the family. 48.33% of participants were having 3-4 number of children in the family. 38.3% of the participants were having children of 24-36 months. 21.7% of participants were having children of 36-48 months. 40.0% of participants were having children of 48-60 months.

Table 2 reveals that the mean percentage of negative attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children is 54.32%. The mean percentage of positive attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children is 51.87%. Hence, it is interpreted that majority of mothers were having negative attitude on play therapy for pre-school children.

Table 3a shows that there is a significant association between negative attitude score of participants and educational status of mother, occupation of participant's husband, type of family, and number of children in the family. Hence, it can be interpreted statistically that 81.48% of mothers who were having formal education were having negative attitude toward play therapy for pre-school children. 80% of participant's husband who were doing private job, 72.72% of the mothers who were having nuclear family, and 64.51% of mothers who were having 1-2 number of children in the family are also having a negative attitude regarding play therapy for preschool children.

Table 3b shows that there is a significant association between positive attitude score of participants on play therapy for preschool children and educational status of mother.

DISCUSSION

The findings of the study reveal that 54.32% of the mothers were having a negative attitude on play therapy for pre-school children. It might be because the half of the mothers were not educated and do not believe that play therapy is necessary for the child. Most of the mothers believe that the play therapy is the least important activity for the development of the child. They mostly think that play therapy cannot modify the child's behavior. They believe that it is not a must for children. They do not believe that play therapy helps in the growth and development of the child.

The findings of the study reveal that there is a significant association between negative attitude score of participants and educational status of mother, occupation of participant's husband, type of family, and number of children in the family. It might be because the mothers who were having formal education were having negative attitude toward play therapy for pre-school children, as they were never been exposed to this topic ever. The participant's husband who were doing private job, the mothers who were living in nuclear family, and those mothers who have 1-2 number of children in the family are having negative attitude toward play therapy as they think it is not necessary for the child. As they think that play therapy is the least important activity for the development of the child. They think that play therapy cannot modify the child's behavior and outdoor play activities are not must for children, and it does not help in the growth and development of the child.

The finding of the study reveals that the mothers who were having no formal education and the mothers who have done intermediate were having positive attitude toward play therapy for pre-school children. It might be because the mothers who have done intermediate know about play therapy as they were educated. Moreover, the mothers who were having no formal education were having positive attitude toward play therapy for pre-school children. It might be because they think play therapy is important for the children.

There are several limitations in the study. First, the study was conducted with a small sample size, which restricts the generalization. Second, this study was limited to the mothers who were having children between the age group of 3-5 years. Third, researcher has to rely on verbal responses of subjects. Fourth, convenient sample selection technique. The strength of the study was the study was conducted in community setting.

CONCLUSION

The study concludes that 54.32% of mothers have negative attitude on play therapy for pre-school children and 51.87% of mothers have positive attitude on play therapy for preschool children. There is a need to develop positive attitude of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children.

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Website: http://www.ijmsph.com

DOI: 10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0720728072017

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REFERENCES

[1.] Bratton SC, Ray D, Rhine T, Jones L. The efficacy of play therapy with children: A meta-analytic review of treatment outcomes. 2005; 36(4):376-90.

[2.] Bornsheuer JN, Watts RE. Play Therapy and Parent Consultation: A Review of Best Practices; 2012. p. 1-10. Available from: https://www.counseling.org/resources/library/ vistas/vistas12/Article_8.pdf. [Last cited on 2015 May 19].

[3.] Webb JR. Play therapy with hospitalized children. Int J Play Ther. 1995; 1(4):51-9. Available from: http://www.kythe.org/ site/wp-content/themes/kythe/resources/play-therapy-withhospitalized-children.pdf. [Last cited on 2016 Apr 20].

[4.] Swan KL. Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Problem Behaviors of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Single Subject Design. 2011. p. 1-114. Available from: http://www.digital. library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68051/m2/1/high_res_d/ dissertation.pdf. [Last cited on 2016 Feb 23].

[5.] Blanco PJ. The Impact of School-based Child Centered Play Therapy on Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, and Teacherchild Relationship Stress; 2009. p. 1-111. Available from: https://www.digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9933/ m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf. [Last cited on 2016 Mar 12].

Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Ina Flora Singh (1), Grace M Singh (2), Mahalingam Venkateshan (3), Sanchita Pugazhendi (4), Kamli Prakash (3)

(1) Department of Psychiatry, Ganga Sheel School of Nursing, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, (2) Department of Psychiatry, Himalayan College of Nursing, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, (3) Department of Surgery, Himalayan College of Nursing, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, (4) Department of Community, Himalayan College of Nursing, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Correspondence to: Ina Flora Singh, E-mail: inaflora88@gmail.com

Received: July 04, 2017; Accepted: July 28, 2017
Table 1: Frequency and percentage distribution of personal
profile characteristics of mothers

Variables                          Frequency (f) (%)

Educational status of mother
  Formal education                      27 (45)
  No formal education                  33 (55.0)
Occupation of mother
  Homemaker                            32 (53.3)
  Employed                            28 (46.66)
Occupation of father
  Self employed                        40 (66.7)
  Private job                          20 (33.3)
Type of family
  Nuclear                              22 (36.7)
  Joint family                        38 (63.33)
Monthly income of family
  <5000                                17 (28.3)
  More than 5000                      43 (71.66)
Number of children in the family
  1-2                                 31 (51.66)
  3-4                                 29 (48.33)
Age of children
  24-36 months                         23 (38.3)
  36-48 months                         13 (21.7)
  48-60 months                         24 (40.0)

Table 2: Mean [+ or -] SD and mean percentage of attitude scores of
mothers on play therapy for pre-school children

Aspect              Statement   Maximum    Mean [+ or -] SD     Mean%
                                 score

Negative attitude       8         40      21.73 [+ or -] 4.36   54.32
Positive attitude       8         40      20.75 [+ or -] 7.83   51.87

Aspect                  Conference interval

                    Lower limit   Upper limit

Negative attitude      20.64         22.82
Positive attitude      18.78         22.72

SD: Standard deviation

Table 3a: Association between negative attitude score and selected
personal profile of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children

Demographic data                          Below       At and above
                                       median (<22)   median (>22)

Educational status of mother (%)
  Formal education                      5 (18.51)      22 (81.48)
  No formal education                   26 (78.78)     7 (21.21)
Occupation of mother (%)
  Homemaker                             20 (62.5)      12 (37.5)
  Employed                              11 (39.28)     17 (60.71)
Occupation of father (%)
  Self employed                         27 (67.5)      13 (32.5)
  Private job                             4 (20)        16 (80)
Type of family (%)
  Nuclear                               16 (72.72)     6 (27.27)
  Joint family                          15 (39.47)     23 (60.52)
Monthly income of family (%)
  More than 5000                        18 (41.86)     25 (58.13)
  <5000                                 13 (76.47)     4 (23.52)
Number of children in the family (%)
  1-2                                   20 (64.51)     11 (35.48)
  3-4                                   11 (37.93)     18 (62.06)
Age of children (%)
  24-36 months                          13 (56.52)     10 (43.47)
  36-48 months                           7(53.84)      6 (46.15)
  48-60 months                           12 (50)        12 (50)

Demographic data                       Chi-square   Df   P-value

Educational status of mother (%)
  Formal education                       21.60      1    0.0001
  No formal education
Occupation of mother (%)
  Homemaker                               3.22      1     0.07
  Employed
Occupation of father (%)
  Self employed                          12.04      1    0.0005
  Private job
Type of family (%)
  Nuclear                                 6.17      1     0.013
  Joint family
Monthly income of family (%)
  More than 5000                          0.02      1     0.88
  <5000
Number of children in the family (%)
  1-2                                     4.24      1     0.03
  3-4
Age of children (%)
  24-36 months                            0.40      2     0.81
  36-48 months
  48-60 months

Table 3b: Association between positive attitude score and selected
personal profile of mothers on play therapy for pre-school children

Demographic data                       Below median   At and above
                                          (<24)       median (>24)

Educational status of mother (%)
  Primary school                        13 (86.66)     2 (13.33)
  High school                            1(11.11)      8 (88.88)
  Intermediate                            0 (0)          3(100)
  No formal education                    33(100)         0 (0)
Occupation of mother (%)
  Homemaker                             30 (93.75)      2 (6.25)
  Employed                              17 (60.71)     11 (39.28)
Occupation of father (%)
  Self employed                         33 (82.5)       7 (17.5)
  Private job                            14 (70)         6 (30)
Type of family (%)
  Nuclear                               20 (90.90)      2 (9.09)
  Joint family                          27 (71.05)     11 (28.94)
Monthly income of family (%)
  More than 5000                        31 (72.09)     12 (27.90)
  <5000                                 16 (94.11)      1 (5.88)
Number of children in the family (%)
  1-2                                   27 (87.09)      4(12.90)
  3-4                                   20 (68.96)     9 (31.03)
Age of children (%)
  24-36 months                          16 (69.56)     7 (30.43)
  36-48 months                          9 (69.23)      4 (30.76)
  48-60 months                          14 (73.68)     10 (52.63)

Demographic data                       Chi-square   Df   P-value

Educational status of mother (%)
  Primary school                         93.59      1    0.0001
  High school
  Intermediate
  No formal education
Occupation of mother (%)
  Homemaker                              0.0035     1     0.95
  Employed
Occupation of father (%)
  Self employed                           1.22      1     0.26
  Private job
Type of family (%)
  Nuclear                                0.105      1     0.74
  Joint family
Monthly income of family (%)
  More than 5000                          0.08      1     0.77
  <5000
Number of children in the family (%)
  1-2                                     0.12      1     0.72
  3-4
Age of children (%)
  24-36 months                            0.78      2     0.67
  36-48 months
  48-60 months
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Singh, Ina Flora; Singh, Grace M.; Venkateshan, Mahalingam; Pugazhendi, Sanchita; Prakash, Kamli
Publication:International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Sep 1, 2017
Words:2348
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