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Assessment use by counselors in the United States: implications for policy and practice.

The appropriate administration and interpretation of assessment instruments in all realms of counseling has been highlighted in no less than 13 documents and standards (Association for Assessment and Research in Counseling, 2013). In fact, assessment is one of eight common core curricular areas mandated by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP; 2009); is one of the main content areas assessed by the National Counselor Exam (National Board for Certified Counselors [NBCC], 2012b); and is highlighted in all counseling-related codes of ethics, including those of the American Counseling Association (ACA; 2005) and NBCC (2012a).

In their Standards for Qualifications of Test Users, ACA (2003) identified that competence in testing is acquired through education, training, and experience and that master's-level counselors with course work in assessment are qualified to use objective measures. They further argued that, with additional specialized training, counselors can administer projective tests, intelligence tests, and clinical diagnostic tests. Such tests are sometimes called Level C or advanced (American Psychological Association [APA], 1954; Turner, DeMers, Fox, & Reed, 2001). This argument is consistent with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (American Educational Research Association, APA, & National Council on Measurement in Education, 1999), which stipulates that qualifications for assessment use should stem from experience, training, and credentials and should be in compliance with the code of ethics of the individual's professional organization. Accordingly, test publishers typically require verification of a potential test user's level of education, training, and credentials. Such practices have largely been recognized by ACA as acceptable (Naugle, 2009) and relatively consistent with guidelines set by APA (Turner et al., 2001).

Despite the aforementioned standards that suggest that counselors should be able to give and interpret a wide range of assessment instruments, there are significant roadblocks to assessment use by counselors (Naugle, 2009; Watson & Sheperis, 2010.) Psychologists generally have considered only their training as suitable for the administration of some types of tests (Society for Personality Assessment, 2006; Turner et al., 2001), and some state licensure boards have attempted to define competency as synonymous with psychology licensure (Association of Test Publishers, 2007; Watson & Sheperis, 2010). Multiple states, including Alaska, Nebraska, Tennessee, and Califomia, do not allow counselors to administer intelligence tests, whereas additional states (e.g., Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Tennessee, and Texas) do not allow counselors to use projective tests (California Association for Licensed Professional Clinical Counselors, n.d.; Licensed Professional Counselor Act, 1999; Naugle, 2009). In fact, a survey of U.S. states and Canadian provinces found that 67% of states and provinces had restrictions on the administration of psychological testing by nonpsychologists (Dattilio, Tresco, & Siegel, 2007).

Unfortunately, the establishment of competency and the right to use tests has also been hampered by counselors and counselor educators themselves. For instance, a random sample of 641 counselors and counselor educators rated CACREP's common core curricular area of assessment as one of the least beneficial of all eight CACREP core standards (McGlothlin & Davis, 2004). In addition, counseling students have expressed dismay and fear about assessment courses (Davis, Chang, & McGlothlin, 2005; Wood & D'Agostino, 2010), whereas counselor educators have expressed a lack of desire to teach such courses (Davis et al., 2005). Similarly, researchers suggest that practicing counselors do not view assessment as a main focus of counseling and feel inadequate and poorly trained in this area (Ekstrom, Elmore, Schafer, Trotter, & Webster, 2004; Fischer & Chambers, 2003; Mellin, Hunt, & Nichols, 2011; Villalba, Latus, & Hamilton, 2005). Despite these expressions of ambivalence toward assessment, many counselors reported involvement with assessment (Hood, 2001). Surveys of school counselors found assessment usage, including interpretation and synthesis with other sources of data in counseling, occurring as often as three times a week (Blacher, Murray-Ward, & Uellendahl, 2005) and by as many as 91% of respondents (Ekstrom et al., 2004).

In this era of data-driven reform, high assessment use by counselors is not surprising. School counselors are increasingly being called to analyze standardized test scores to find areas of need and respond with appropriate interventions to address these concerns (American School Counselor Association, 2012). School counselors are also often involved in child study teams where the need to understand and interpret educational and psychological tests is critical. In addition, clinical mental health counselors are increasingly being asked to provide evidence of positive treatment outcomes (Marotta & Watts, 2007). Evidence provided by sound psychometrically based instruments can demonstrate to funding agencies, insurance companies, and others the effectiveness of client treatment (Studer, Oberman, & Womack, 2006).

Of course, the use of assessment by counselors to increase student and client self-awareness and for case conceptualization is equally important (Neukrug & Fawcett, 2010; Rudy & Levinson, 2008). There is some evidence that clinical hypotheses from client interviews may be subject to confirmation bias, given that counselors seek additional information to confirm their working hypothesis but do not actively seek alternative explanations (Owen, 2008; Strohmer & Shivy, 1994). Objective measures can be one mechanism of countering such bias.

Although research to understand the types of assessment instruments used by psychologists in a variety of specialty areas has been conducted (Archer, Buffington-Vollum, Stredny, & Handel, 2006; Demaray, Schaefer, & Delong, 2003; Hogan, 2005; McCloskey & Athanasiou, 2000; Shapiro & Heick, 2004; Watkins, Campbell, Nieberding, & Hallmark, 1995), there is little parallel research for counselors. Evidence suggests that school counselors frequently use assessments (Blacher et al., 2005; Ekstrom et al., 2004); however, studies have not identified the specific tools they use. Furthermore, although Juhnke, Vace, Curtis, Coll, and Paredes (2003) investigated assessment instruments used by addictions counselors and Hogan and Rengert (2008) looked at instruments counselors use in research, no broad-based investigation of counselor use of assessment instruments has occurred. Thus, to inform counselors and counselor educators about counselor assessment use, this study sought to determine (a) which tests are used most frequently by counselors overall and within counseling specialty areas, (b) which test categories (e.g., personality, projective, career) are the most heavily used, and (c) how usage of the test categories and of tests overall differs by type of counselor (school, clinical mental health, and all other counselors combined).

Method

Survey Development

To build the survey, we developed a list of 174 commercial standardized tests by systematically examining assessment instruments identified in four textbooks frequently used by counselor educators (i.e., Drummond & Jones, 2010; Erford, 2007; Hood & Johnson, 2007; Neukrug & Fawcett, 2010) and three articles that surveyed psychologists' and addictions counselors' use of assessment instruments (i.e., Hogan, 2005; Hogan & Rengert, 2008; Juhnke et al., 2003). To reduce the length of the survey and increase response rate (Edwards et al., 2002), we organized the survey into seven test categories: personality, projective, career, intelligence/cognitive, educational/achievement, clinical/behavioral, and environmental/ interpersonal. Excluded were tests of specific aptitudes (e.g., Mechanical Aptitude Test, Meier Art Test) because the list of these was extensive and would have rendered the survey too long.

Within each category, assessment instruments were sorted according to the number of sources in which they appeared. Instruments that were mentioned in four or more sources were retained, and the remaining instruments were retained if any author indicated that they were of high importance or if at least two authors indicated that they were of moderate importance. This resulted in a final list of 98 assessment instruments, including 14 in personality, 10 in projective, 12 in career, 20 in intelligence/cognitive, 15 in educational/achievement, 22 in clinical/behavioral, and five in environmental/interpersonal (see Table 1). For each assessment instrument, respondents were asked to rate frequency of use on a scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (frequently), with use being defined as "in any capacity, ranging from administering the test to simply reviewing the results." A demographic section preceded the list of assessments and included questions about respondents' professional background (including education, population served, type of counseling practice, and number of years practicing) and personal characteristics (including gender, age, and race/ethnicity).

Participants and Procedure

The survey was sent via e-mail to a sample of 5,000 national certified counselors randomly selected by NBCC. The study and its purpose were briefly described in the e-mail, and respondents were asked to click a link to SurveyMonkey in order to read the informed consent form, submit the informed consent, and complete the survey. All procedures were approved by the appropriate institutional review board. Of the initial sample, 268 responses were returned as nondeliverable and an additional 19 were returned by participants who indicated that they were no longer practicing, for a final sample of 4,713. Following Edwards et al.'s (2002) findings on increasing survey response rates, we sent three follow-up e-mails to the sample over a 6-week interval. A total of 926 usable responses were returned, for a response rate of 19.6%.

Demographics of respondents are presented in Table 2. Of the respondents, 68.1% were clinical mental health counselors; 17.0% were school counselors; and 14.9% were college counselors, rehabilitation counselors, career counselors, family/marriage counselors, counselor educators, or other (nonspecified) counselors. Because of lower numbers of respondents, the last six categories were combined into a single counselor category called "other," leaving three categories of counselors (school, clinical mental health, and other) for all subsequent analyses. As is consistent with the field, women were heavily represented at 79.4%, and 82.6% of the respondents had a master's degree as their highest degree obtained. Respondents' age ranged from 24 to 80 years, with an average of 47.4 years (SD = 13.07); number of years practicing ranged from <1 to 50 (M= 13.43, SD = 9.80); and percentage of work time devoted to using assessments ranged from 0% to 100% (M= 13.98, SD = 18.47).

Analysis

Missing data. Prior to conducting our analyses, we addressed missing data. First, 30 cases where respondents failed to answer any of the questions about assessment use were deleted. In the remaining 926 cases, missing data ranged by variable from a low of 0.8% (in the personality test category) to a high of4.1% (in the environmental/interpersonal test category). Although experts do not agree on what is an acceptable amount of missing data, cutoffs range from 5% (e.g., Schafer, 1999) to 20% (e.g., Sterner, 2011), putting the percentages in this study well within conservative estimates for acceptability.

There is no method for managing missing data that is consistently adopted in the counseling literature (Sterner, 2011), and recommendations for treatment of missing data differ according to missing data patterns (e.g., Schafer & Graham, 2002; Sterner, 2011). When data are missing completely at random (MCAR), in other words, when nonresponses are a random subsample of the entire data set (Rubin, 1976; Schafer & Olsen, 1998) and the proportion of missing data is small, then one of the more commonly used methods, list-wise deletion, may be used with minimal reduction in power and minimal bias (Graham, 2009; Schafer & Graham, 2002; Sterner, 2011). Although the amount of missing data in our data set was small, Little's MCAR statistic (SPSS Missing Values 20.0) revealed that the missing data did not meet the assumption of MCAR, [chi square](84) = 530.74, p < .05.

If data are not MCAR, then they are either missing at random (MAR), where the probability of a missing response is associated with another variable in the study but not associated with the variable of interest, or missing not at random (MNAR), where the probability of a missing response is associated with the score on the variable of interest (Rubin, 1976; Schafer & Olsen, 1998). To test the assumption of MAR, we looked for the relationship of missingness to other variables. A dummy variable representing the presence (1) or absence (0) of missing data was created for each respondent on all 98 assessment frequency items. The t statistic was used to compare the missing and nonmissing groups for each of the 98 assessment frequency items on age, percentage of time using assessments, and frequency of use of every other assessment. Higher mean ages and higher percentage of time using assessments were associated with missingness on many of the 98 assessment frequency items, suggesting that data may be MAR.

Unfortunately, no empirical method to distinguish between MAR and MNAR exists in part because of the inherent conundrum associated with determining relationships of missingness with the value of the missing variable itself (Schafer & Graham, 2002). Until such methods become available, the use of imputation methods have been recommended (Schafer & Olsen, 1998) and simulation studies have suggested that violation of the MAR assumption has resulted in minimal bias (Collins, Schafer, & Kam, 2001). Therefore, in this study, missing data were imputed on the basis of age, percentage of time using assessments, and all assessment variables, using the expectation maximization algorithm in SPSS. Analyses were then conducted on the five imputed data sets. Estimates were averaged across the five data sets, and standard errors were calculated using the methods described by Shafer and Olsen (1998). To increase our confidence in the results, we also analyzed cases using listwise deletion (N = 866) to compare the listwise deletion results with the results from the five imputed data sets, as recommended by Tabachnick and Fidell (2007). Because the results were very similar, with virtually equivalent effect size ranges ([[eta].sup.2] = .01-. 10), we report the pooled results from the five imputed data sets.

Statistical analyses. To answer Research Question 1 ("Which tests are used most frequently by counselors overall and within counseling specialty areas?"), we computed percentage of respondents reporting usage and mean frequency of use for each test by three types of counselors: school counselors, clinical mental health counselors, and all other counselors. Percentage of respondents reporting usage was computed as the proportion of respondents who endorsed usage (2 = very rarely through 5 =frequently) divided by the total number of respondents in that category. Frequency of use was then computed by calculating the average frequency rating for each test. For each type of counselor, the tests were ranked from highest to lowest on the basis of frequency of use.

Because there were proportionally more clinical mental health counselors than school and other counselors, it was determined that clinical mental health counselors would be overrepresented in the rankings for the entire sample. To ensure even representation of the three types of counselors in the overall test rankings, we determined the test ranking for each test by summing the average frequency of use established by each type of counselor and dividing by 3.

To answer Research Question 2 ("Which test categories [e.g., personality, projective, career] are the most heavily used?"), we conducted a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparing frequency of use by category for the sample overall.

To answer Research Question 3 ("How does usage of the test categories and of tests overall differ by type of counselor?"), we computed mean frequency of use overall and for each category of test by type of counselor. For test usage overall, a one-way ANOVA was conducted comparing mean frequency of use overall by type of counselor. A one-way ANOVA was also conducted for each category of test. For example, an ANOVA was conducted comparing school counselors, clinical mental health counselors, and other counselors on their frequency of use of personality tests. In total, eight ANOVAs were conducted to compare the three groups' test usage overall and by category. To reduce the likelihood of a Type I error, we adjusted p using a Bonferroni correction ([alpha]/n = .006).

Results

All 98 tests are presented in order of rankings for the entire sample in Table 1. Also included are frequency of use, percentage of respondents who use, and rankings by type of counselor. The top five most frequently used tests for all counselors are the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; a clinical/behavioral test), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; a personality test), the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; a career test), and the ACT Assessment and SAT/PSAT (two educational/achievement tests). Rankings vary somewhat by type of counselor, with the SAT/PSAT and ACT as the top two used by school counselors, the BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as the top two used by clinical mental health counselors, and the MBTI and SII as the top two used by other counselors. Differences among the three types of counselors on overall frequency of test use were not significant, F(2, 923) = 0.49, p > .05, indicating that, overall, the three types of counselors were using tests at about the same frequency.

Pooled mean usage frequency by category of test for the entire sample is provided in Table 3. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA indicated that frequency of use differed across the categories and that these differences were statistically significant with a small effect, F(4.07, 3761.25) = 45.85, p < .006, [[eta].sup.2] = .05. Descriptive statistics in Table 3 demonstrate that, for the overall sample, usage of clinical/ behavioral tests was highest and usage of environmental/ interpersonal, educational/achievement, and intelligence/ cognitive tests was lowest.

Results of one-way ANOVAs comparing different types of counselors on mean frequency of use in each test category are also presented in Table 3. Results were statistically significant for all test categories except for projective and intelligence/cognitive tests, suggesting that usage of tests within most categories differs by type of counselor. Post hoc comparisons suggest that clinical mental health counselors use clinical/behavioral tests at higher rates than do school and other counselors, school counselors use career and educational/achievement tests at higher rates than do clinical mental health counselors, and school counselors use personality tests at lower rates than do clinical mental health and other counselors. Although these differences were statistically significant, the effect sizes were small to moderate ([[eta].sup.2] = .02-.10). This suggests that use of certain test categories may differ by type of counselor but that all counselors use tests in all categories to a degree.

Discussion

Despite the political and legislative opposition described by Dattilio et al. (2007) and Naugle (2009), results of this study demonstrate that counselors are using assessments in their practice, with some of the more frequently used tests being the BDI, MBTI, SII, ACT Assessment, SAT/PSAT, Self-Directed Search, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Conners' Rating Scales, BAI, and Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (see Table l). In addition, counselors are using assessment instruments in patterns that are appropriate given the nature of their practice. For example, school counselors use career and educational/achievement assessments more frequently than do clinical mental health counselors and clinical mental health counselors use clinical/behavioral assessments more frequently than do school and other counselors.

Although the use of projective tests by counselors is prohibited in some states and generally requires additional training if counselors are to administer them ethically (Licensed Professional Counselor Act, 1999; Naugle, 2009), these instruments were found to be used more frequently than intelligence/ cognitive and environmental/interpersonal tests. The sparse use of environmental/interpersonal tools may be due to their more systemic nature. The Marital Satisfaction Inventory, for example, can be used only with couples and is not useful for single individuals. However, such low usage may also be due to a failure on the part of counselor educators to cover such assessment instruments in their courses. In fact, although all other types of assessments were covered in several of the counseling assessment textbooks we reviewed, environmental/ interpersonal tests were covered in only one (Erford, 2007).

It is interesting that clinical mental health counselors identified a number of Level C or advanced instruments, such as projective tests, as among their most commonly used tests. For example, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were ranked within their top 15 assessments. Such instruments are identified by test publishers as requiring course work and/or experience that are generally beyond what is offered at the master's level. Clinical mental health counselors' high rankings of these tools suggest that despite the restrictions, counselors are using them. Given that use in our survey was defined as "in any capacity, ranging from administering the test to simply reviewing the results," it is possible that these counselors are merely reviewing the results of tools administered by psychologists or more advanced-level practitioners. Alternatively, clinical mental health counselors may be actively seeking advanced course work and supervision to meet administration qualifications. Whatever the case, these findings suggest that there may be a need to prepare counselors for tools that in the past many counselors had not used.

Although the highest ranked tools in this study were used by the majority of respondents, average frequency of test use across all test categories was low. In fact, counselors reported average use as falling between rarely and never (see Table 3). In today's climate of accountability, the use of objective measures is a critical component of counseling work (Neukrug & Fawcett, 2010; Rudy & Levinson, 2008). Many instruments can be useful tools to identify client concerns, create treatment plans, and quantify progress. However, these low frequency ratings indicate that counselors are not heavy users of psychological tests. Lack of usage may impede counselors' ability to collect evidence of effective practice, which may make it more difficult for them to advocate for funding to sustain or enhance their services (Studer, Oberman, & Womack, 2006).

Possible explanations as to why counselors are not using assessment instruments more frequently include legislative restrictions and a lack of interest in assessment by counselors and counselor educators (e.g. McGlothlin & Davis, 2004; Naugle, 2009; Wood & D'Agostino, 2010). However, other explanations may also include a lack of awareness about available assessments, test costs, or a lack of training and relatively little guidance from CACREP regarding which tests should be covered (Neukrug, Peterson, Bonner, & Lomas, 2013). The behaviors in assessment administration may also feel fundamentally different from the interpersonal interaction and connection that may have drawn counselors to the field in the first place, resulting in a reticence to use tools that may be seen as causing distance between counselor and client.

Although CACREP's 2009 Standards suggest that students should know "basic concepts of standardized and nonstandardized testing and other assessment techniques, including norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessment, environmental assessment, performance assessment, individual and group test and inventory methods, psychological testing, and behavioral observations" (p. 13), there is little guidance for university faculty regarding which specific tests should be taught and in how much depth. With many faculty having little or no interest in assessment (Davis et al., 2005), this lack of direction may leave faculty who do teach testing unclear about which assessment instruments should be highlighted. The present study offers a first step in providing counselor educators knowledge regarding which instruments are commonly used by practitioners and may suggest instruments that students should learn. In addition, counselor education programs may want to consider whether training in a wider range of assessment instruments might benefit counselors, especially in terms of how counselors can enhance their work with clients and how assessment instruments can be used for accountability purposes and to advocate for future funding of services.

Additional research should also investigate other explanations for limited assessment use among counselors. If lack of knowledge about the wide range of instruments available is one cause, this study offers currently practicing counselors a vehicle to identify tests that may be of help in their own work. Counselors could explore the utility of a variety of the heavily used instruments identified herein and, when necessary, consider additional training to increase their confidence and skills in competently and ethically using instruments. Counselors who are qualified to use assessments might advocate for assessment use through work with their state counseling associations to remove current barriers faced by counselors.

Limitations of the study include the low response rates from counselors in specialty areas other than clinical mental health counseling and school counseling. Although our findings provide a general overview of tests used by counselors, it would be helpful to gain more information from additional counselor specialty areas (e.g., career counselors, addictions counselors, couple and marriage counselors, rehabilitation counselors), because assessment use may vary with the population served. Second, because of concerns about the survey length, our list of assessment instruments was not exhaustive and some assessment categories, such as tests of mechanical aptitude, were not represented. Additional research should explore use of other tools and assessment categories not included herein.

Finally, findings from this study reveal which instruments counselors are using in their practice. However, it is likely to be of significant value to determine how counselors are using these instruments. For example, the cohort of school counselor respondents indicated that the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Cognitive Abilities is the fifth most commonly used assessment in their practice. However, how school counselors use the instrument is not known. Future studies on the use of assessment instruments by all counselors might address how they use instruments in practice and may focus on specific test categories.

Received 09/14/12

Revised 10/29/12

Accepted 11/09/12

DOI:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00134.x

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Christine Hamme Peterson, Department of Graduate Education, Leadership and Counseling, Rider University; Gabriel I. Lomas, Department of Education and Educational Psychology, Western Connecticut State University; Edward S. Neukrug and Matthew W. Bonner, Department of Counseling and Human Services, Old Dominion University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Christina Hamme Peterson, Department of Graduate Education, Leadership and Counseling, Rider University, 2083 Lawrenceville Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (e-mail: cpeterson@rider.edu).
TABLE 1

All Tests With Pooled Mean Usage Frequencies,
Percentage of Counselors Who Use the Test, and Rankings
by Combined Sample and Different Types of Counselors

                                            All           SCs

Test                                        Rank    M      %    Rank

Beck Depression Inventory (a)                  1   1.95    43      8
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (b)                2   1.95    41      8
Strong Interest Inventory (c)                  3   2.10    47      7
ACT (d)                                        4   2.85    55      1
SAT/PSAT (d)                                   5   2.85    56      1
Self-Directed Search (c)                       6   1.92    38     11
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
  Children (e)                                 7   2.44    49      4
Conners' Rating Scales (a)                     8   2.52    50      3
Beck Anxiety Inventory (a)                     9   1.55    26     24
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening
  Inventory (a)                               10   1.36    17     38
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (e)         11   1.67    28     19
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive
  Abilities (e)                               12   2.23    44      5
O'NET System and Career Exploration
  Tools (c)                                   13   1.74    30     17
Wide Range Achievement Test (d)               14   1.89    36     13
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
  Inventory (MMPI) (b)                        15   1.35    18     41
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (d)     15   2.18    44      6
House-Tree-Person Test (a)                    17   1.55    24     24
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (a)         18   1.80    35     16
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (d)      19   1.89    33     13
Mini-Mental State Examination (a)             19   1.25    12     52
Human Figure Drawing (f)                      21   1.53    26     27
Child Behavior Checklist (a)                  22   1.49    23     28
Children's Depression Inventory (a)           23   1.47    24     30
Values Scale (c)                              24   1.36    20     38
Symptom Checklist (a)                         25   1.21    11     58
Stanford Achievement Test (d)                 26   1.86    35     15
Attention Deficit Disorders
  Evaluation Scale (a)                        26   1.64    28     20
Behavior Assessment System for
  Children (a)                                28   1.74    27     17
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Iowa Test of
  Educational Development (d)                 29   1.94    38     10
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (a)           30   1.35    21     41
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude
  Battery (c)                                 31   1.91    37     12
MMPI-Adolescent (b)                           32   1.33    18     44
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                            32   1.54    24     26
Trauma Symptom Checklist (a)                  34   1.18    11     65
Draw-a-Man/Draw-a-Woman (f)                   35   1.38    18     37
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (a)          35   1.31    16     46
Career Occupational Preference System (c)     37   1.39    21     36
Sixteen Personality Factor
  Questionnaire (b)                           38   1.23    13     56
Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (c)        39   1.26    15     50
Thematic Apperception Test (f)                40   1.26    12     50
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (a)        41   1.08     6     89
Kuder Career Search (c)                       42   1.56    25     23
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                            43   1.47    22     30
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (e)         44   1.45    23     33
Kaufman Assessment Battery for
  Children (e)                                45   1.48    22     29
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (e)           45   1.47    20     30
Kinetic Drawing System for Family and
  School (f)                                  47   1.29    15     48
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (a)      47   1.12     7     72
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (d)           49   1.40    20     35
Cognitive Abilities Test (e)                  50   1.58    24     22
Sentence Completion Series (f)                51   1.22    12     57
Eating Disorder Inventory (a)                 52   1.19    12     63
Personality Assessment Inventory (b)          53   1.16     9     69
Plotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (f)        54   1.24    12     54
Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (d)        55   1.43    21     34
Parenting Stress Index (g)                    55   1.17     9     68
Rorschach Inkblot Test (f)                    57   1.24    15     54
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (e)           57   1.62    25     21
Differential Aptitude Tests (c)               59   1.28    15     49
Wechsler Memory Scale (e)                     60   1.21    11     58
Marital Satisfaction Inventory (g)            61   1.03     3     96
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (g)       62   1.11     7     74
Slosson Intelligence Test (e)                 63   1.36    17     38
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (a)             64   1.06     4     94
Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (e)            65   1.34    18     43
Millon Adolescent Personality
  Inventory (b)                               66   1.14     9     70
Millon Index of Personality Styles (b)        67   1.12     9     72
Career Maturity Inventory (c)                 67   1.18    11     65
Kaufman Test of Educational
  Achievement (d)                             67   1.33    14     44
Children's Apperception Test (f)              70   1.20    12     62
Quality of Life Inventory (a)                 71   1.07     6     91
Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making
  System (c)                                  72   1.19    10     63
Family Environment Scales (g)                 73   1.09     7     82
Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (b)         74   1.18    10     65
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept
  Scale (b)                                   75   1.21    11     58
Family Assessment Measure (g)                 76   1.05     4     95
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (a)      77   1.09     8     82
Metropolitan Achievement Test (d)             78   1.25    12     52
Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence
  Test (e)                                    79   1.10     6     78
California Psychological Inventory (b)        80   1.09     7     82
NEO Personality Inventory (b)                 81   1.13     9     71
Kindergarten Readiness Test (d)               81   1.31    16     46
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (a)      83   1.11     7     74
Trail Making Test (e)                         84   1.08     6     89
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test
  Battery (e)                                 85   1.10     7     78
Achenbach System of Empirically Based
  Assessment (a)                              86   1.11     7     74
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (b)         87   1.09     5     82
Raven's Progressive Matrices (e)              87   1.11     6     74
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (b)              89   1.10     6     78
NEO Five Factor Inventory (b)                 90   1.09     5     82
Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (c)        90   1.10     6     78
KeyMath (d)                                   90   1.21    14     58
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological
  Battery (e)                                 93   1.07     6     91
Forer Structured Sentence Completion
  Test (f)                                    94   1.07     5     91
Gesell Developmental Observation (d)          94   1.09     6     82
Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (a)       96   1.02     3     97
Boston Process Approach (e)                   97   1.02     3     97
Metropolitan Readiness Test (d)               98   1.09     5     82

M (h)                                              1.41
SD                                                 0.39

                                                   CMHCs

Test                                         M       %     Rank

Beck Depression Inventory (a)               3.17      73      1
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (b)             2.20      52      5
Strong Interest Inventory (c)               1.86      39      9
ACT (d)                                     1.32      15     48
SAT/PSAT (d)                                1.37      18     42
Self-Directed Search (c)                    1.62      29     20
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
  Children (e)                              1.80      33     13
Conners' Rating Scales (a)                  1.85      32     10
Beck Anxiety Inventory (a)                  2.46      54      2
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening
  Inventory (a)                             2.28      48      3
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (e)       1.83      35     11
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive
  Abilities (e)                             1.45      22     36
O'NET System and Career Exploration
  Tools (c)                                 1.26      13     59
Wide Range Achievement Test (d)             1.56      22     22
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
  Inventory (MMPI) (b)                      1.93      43      6
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (d)   1.38      18     41
House-Tree-Person Test (a)                  1.89      38      7
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (a)       1.55      26     23
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (d)    1.52      23     26
Mini-Mental State Examination (a)           2.22      42      4
Human Figure Drawing (f)                    1.74      31     15
Child Behavior Checklist (a)                1.76      30     14
Children's Depression Inventory (a)         1.73      31     16
Values Scale (c)                            1.31      16     51
Symptom Checklist (a)                       1.87      35      8
Stanford Achievement Test (d)               1.25      13     61
Attention Deficit Disorders
  Evaluation Scale (a)                      1.47      21     30
Behavior Assessment System for
  Children (a)                              1.45      20     36
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Iowa Test of
  Educational Development (d)               1.21      11     64
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (a)         1.64      29     18
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude
  Battery (c)                               1.15       9     82
MMPI-Adolescent (b)                         1.63      30     19
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                          1.46      21     31
Trauma Symptom Checklist (a)                1.83      33     11
Draw-a-Man/Draw-a-Woman (f)                 1.54      26     24
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (a)        1.50      23     28
Career Occupational Preference System (c)   1.22      11     63
Sixteen Personality Factor
  Questionnaire (b)                         1.45      24     36
Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (c)      1.29      15     57
Thematic Apperception Test (f)              1.51      26     27
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (a)      1.71      28     17
Kuder Career Search (c)                     1.16      10     79
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                          1.35      17     44
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (e)       1.31      14     51
Kaufman Assessment Battery for
  Children (e)                              1.31      16     51
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (e)         1.26      12     59
Kinetic Drawing System for Family and
  School (f)                                1.42      20     40
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (a)    1.57      24     21
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (d)         1.19      11     72
Cognitive Abilities Test (e)                1.21      11     64
Sentence Completion Series (f)              1.46      20     31
Eating Disorder Inventory (a)               1.46      23     31
Personality Assessment Inventory (b)        1.46      21     31
Plotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (f)      1.46      20     31
Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (d)      1.17      10     75
Parenting Stress Index (g)                  1.49      20     29
Rorschach Inkblot Test (f)                  1.36      19     43
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (e)         1.12       7     86
Differential Aptitude Tests (c)             1.20      11     71
Wechsler Memory Scale (e)                   1.31      15     51
Marital Satisfaction Inventory (g)          1.54      24     24
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (g)     1.44      19     39
Slosson Intelligence Test (e)               1.21      10     64
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (a)           1.34      17     45
Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (e)          1.21      10     64
Millon Adolescent Personality
  Inventory (b)                             1.33      16     47
Millon Index of Personality Styles (b)      1.34      18     45
Career Maturity Inventory (c)               1.12       7     86
Kaufman Test of Educational
  Achievement (d)                           1.17       9     75
Children's Apperception Test (f)            1.29      16     57
Quality of Life Inventory (a)               1.31      16     51
Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making
  System (c)                                1.09       6     92
Family Environment Scales (g)               1.31      15     51
Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (b)       1.25      14     61
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept
  Scale (b)                                 1.21      12     64
Family Assessment Measure (g)               1.32      16     48
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (a)    1.32      15     48
Metropolitan Achievement Test (d)           1.09       6     92
Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence
  Test (e)                                  1.16       9     79
California Psychological Inventory (b)      1.17      11     75
NEO Personality Inventory (b)               1.21      12     64
Kindergarten Readiness Test (d)             1.10       6     90
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (a)    1.21      11     64
Trail Making Test (e)                       1.18      10     74
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test
  Battery (e)                               1.12       7     86
Achenbach System of Empirically Based
  Assessment (a)                            1.19      10     72
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (b)       1.16      10     79
Raven's Progressive Matrices (e)            1.10       6     90
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (b)            1.14       9     83
NEO Five Factor Inventory (b)               1.17      10     75
Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (c)      1.09       6     92
KeyMath (d)                                 1.07       4     95
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological
  Battery (e)                               1.11       7     89
Forer Structured Sentence Completion
  Test (f)                                  1.13       8     85
Gesell Developmental Observation (d)        1.07       4     95
Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (a)     1.14       8     83
Boston Process Approach (e)                 1.07       5     95
Metropolitan Readiness Test (d)             1.04       3     98

M (h)                                       1.42
SD                                          0.34

                                                   Ocs

Test                                         M      %    Rank

Beck Depression Inventory (a)               2.48    60      4
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (b)             3.18    78      1
Strong Interest Inventory (c)               3.14    73      2
ACT (d)                                     2.04    39      6
SAT/PSAT (d)                                1.96    39      7
Self-Directed Search (c)                    2.63    57      3
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
  Children (e)                              1.81    34     13
Conners' Rating Scales (a)                  1.61    27     20
Beck Anxiety Inventory (a)                  1.92    39     10
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening
  Inventory (a)                             1.86    33     11
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (e)       1.95    40      9
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive
  Abilities (e)                             1.61    25     20
O'NET System and Career Exploration
  Tools (c)                                 2.26    46      5
Wide Range Achievement Test (d)             1.76    30     16
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
  Inventory (MMPI) (b)                      1.86    41     11
Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (d)   1.58    24     23
House-Tree-Person Test (a)                  1.63    31     19
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (a)       1.68    34     18
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (d)    1.55    25     25
Mini-Mental State Examination (a)           1.49    20     30
Human Figure Drawing (f)                    1.57    28     24
Child Behavior Checklist (a)                1.54    22     26
Children's Depression Inventory (a)         1.44    18     39
Values Scale (c)                            1.96    39      7
Symptom Checklist (a)                       1.54    23     26
Stanford Achievement Test (d)               1.47    22     33
Attention Deficit Disorders
  Evaluation Scale (a)                      1.47    23     33
Behavior Assessment System for
  Children (a)                              1.35    16     51
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Iowa Test of
  Educational Development (d)               1.37    18     46
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (a)         1.52    25     28
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude
  Battery (c)                               1.43    22     41
MMPI-Adolescent (b)                         1.51    24     29
Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                          1.47    19     33
Trauma Symptom Checklist (a)                1.44    21     39
Draw-a-Man/Draw-a-Woman (f)                 1.49    23     30
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (a)        1.60    26     22
Career Occupational Preference System (c)   1.78    35     14
Sixteen Personality Factor
  Questionnaire (b)                         1.70    37     17
Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (c)      1.77    34     15
Thematic Apperception Test (f)              1.49    26     30
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (a)      1.45    20     38
Kuder Career Search (c)                     1.47    25     33
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of
  Intelligence (e)                          1.29    15     59
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (e)       1.34    17     55
Kaufman Assessment Battery for
  Children (e)                              1.30    16     58
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (e)         1.36    17     49
Kinetic Drawing System for Family and
  School (f)                                1.35    16     51
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (a)    1.37    17     46
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (d)         1.47    20     33
Cognitive Abilities Test (e)                1.26    15     65
Sentence Completion Series (f)              1.36    18     49
Eating Disorder Inventory (a)               1.38    19     45
Personality Assessment Inventory (b)        1.39    20     44
Plotter Incomplete Sentences Blank (f)      1.28    15     61
Basic Achievement Skills Inventory (d)      1.35    18     51
Parenting Stress Index (g)                  1.29    12     59
Rorschach Inkblot Test (f)                  1.31    20     57
Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (e)         1.17    10     83
Differential Aptitude Tests (c)             1.41    20     42
Wechsler Memory Scale (e)                   1.34    17     55
Marital Satisfaction Inventory (g)          1.28    13     61
Parent-Child Relationship Inventory (g)     1.27    12     64
Slosson Intelligence Test (e)               1.24    12     70
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (a)           1.35    17     51
Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (e)          1.20    12     76
Millon Adolescent Personality
  Inventory (b)                             1.25    12     66
Millon Index of Personality Styles (b)      1.25    15     66
Career Maturity Inventory (c)               1.41    21     42
Kaufman Test of Educational
  Achievement (d)                           1.21    11     73
Children's Apperception Test (f)            1.20    11     76
Quality of Life Inventory (a)               1.28    14     61
Harrington-O'Shea Career Decision-Making
  System (c)                                1.37    19     46
Family Environment Scales (g)               1.24    12     70
Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (b)       1.21    14     73
Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept
  Scale (b)                                 1.21    12     73
Family Assessment Measure (g)               1.25    13     66
Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (a)    1.18    11     81
Metropolitan Achievement Test (d)           1.19    11     79
Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence
  Test (e)                                  1.25    12     66
California Psychological Inventory (b)      1.24    18     70
NEO Personality Inventory (b)               1.15    11     85
Kindergarten Readiness Test (d)             1.08     6     94
Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (a)    1.13     9     88
Trail Making Test (e)                       1.17     9     83
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test
  Battery (e)                               1.20    12     76
Achenbach System of Empirically Based
  Assessment (a)                            1.11     6     90
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (b)       1.15    11     85
Raven's Progressive Matrices (e)            1.19     8     79
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (b)            1.15    11     85
NEO Five Factor Inventory (b)               1.11     9     90
Jackson Vocational Interest Survey (c)      1.18    10     81
KeyMath (d)                                 1.09     5     93
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological
  Battery (e)                               1.13     8     88
Forer Structured Sentence Completion
  Test (f)                                  1.06     4     97
Gesell Developmental Observation (d)        1.10     6     92
Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (a)     1.07     4     96
Boston Process Approach (e)                 1.08     5     94
Metropolitan Readiness Test (d)             1.03     2     98

M (h)                                       1.46
SD                                          0.38

Note. All = all counselors combined; SCs = school counselors;
CMHCs = clinical mental health counselors; OCs = other counselors;
0 * NET = Occupational Information Network. (a) Clinical/behavioral
test. (b) Personality test. (c) Career test. (d) Educational/
achievement test. (e) Intelligence/cognitive test.
(f) Projective test. (g) Environmental/interpersonal test.
(h) Differences are not significant,
F(2, 923) = 0.49, p > .05.

TABLE 2

Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Variable                                       n    Valid %

Gender
  Men                                         190      20.6
  Women                                       732      79.4
Race/ethnicity (a)
  Hispanic                                     34       3.7
  African American/Black                       73       8.0
  Asian                                         6       0.7
  Native American                              10       1.1
  Caucasian/White                             795      86.6
Highest degree attained
  Master's                                    380      41.5
  Master's and additional graduate credits    376      41.1
  EdS/CAS                                      41       4.5
  Doctorate                                   118      12.9
Type of counselor
  School                                      157      17.0
  Clinical mental health                      631      68.1
  College                                      51       5.5
  Rehabilitation                               14       1.5
  Career                                       14       1.5
  Family/marriage                              11       1.2
  Counselor educator                            7       0.8
  Other (nonspecified)                         41       4.4
Type of population served (b)
  Preschool children                           47       5.1
  Elementary school children                  212      22.9
  Middle school children                      206      22.2
  Adolescents                                 389      42.0
  Adults                                      618      66.7
  Families                                    223      24.1

Note. N = 926. EdS = education specialist; CAS = certificate
of advanced study.

(a) Percentages do not total 100 because of rounding.

(b) Responses do not total 100 because respondents could
select all that apply.

TABLE 3

Pooled Mean Frequency of Use of Each Test Category by Different
Types of Counselors and for All Counselors Combined

                                 Clinical Mental     Other
                    School      Health Counselors   Counselors
                  Counselors

Test Category      M      SE       M         SE       M      SE

Personality       1.23   0.39     1.40      0.56     1.45    0.49
Projective        1.30   0.54     1.48      0.75     1.38    0.66
Career            1.50   0.60     1.28      0.51     1.82    0.78
Intelligence/
  cognitive       1.46   0.57     1.31      0.57     1.35    0.62
Educational/
  achievement     1.70   0.65     1.23      0.49     1.42    0.59
Clinical/
  behavioral      1.36   0.44     1.70      0.70     1.48    0.65
Environmental/
  interpersonal   1.09   0.34     1.42      0.83     1.27    0.74

                                                      All Counselors
                                                           (a)
                  Univariate                [[eta]
Test Category       F (b)      M Diff (c)   .sup.2]     M      SE

Personality        8.95 (d)    S < MH, O     0.02     1.38    0.53
Projective         4.83                             1.43    0.70
Career            52.46 (d)    MH < S < O    0.10     1.40    0.61
Intelligence/
  cognitive        4.41                             1.34    0.57
Educational/
  achievement     49.49 (d)    MH < O < S    0.10     1.34    0.56
Clinical/
  behavioral      20.90 (d)    S, O < MH     0.04     1.61    0.67
Environmental/
  interpersonal   12.85 (d)    S < MH, O     0.03     1.34    0.76

Note. S = school counselors; MH = clinical mental health counselors;
O = other counselors.

(a) Results of a repeated measures analysis of variance.
Differences between categories for all counselors combined
were statistically significant, F(4.07, 3761.25) = 45.85,
p < .006, [[eta].sup.2] = .05. (b) [df.sub.between], [df.sub.within]
(2, 923). (c) Games-Howell post hoc comparisons
(p < .05). (d) Significant at p < .006.
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Author:Peterson, Christina Hamme; Lomas, Gabriel I.; Neukrug, Edward S.; Bonner, Mattew W.
Publication:Journal of Counseling and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:8838
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