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Assessment of selected quality attributes of jam formulated from baobab-hogplum fruits.

The different plant parts of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) are widely utilized as foods, medicines and the bark fibres are also used (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). Its fruits are rich in organic acids such as citric, tartaric, malic, succinic and ascorbic acid and water soluble pectin, calcium and iron (Wilkinson and Hall, 2007). Nutritional analysis of baobab fruit pulp has shown that it is an excellent source of pectin, calcium vitamin C and iron (Wilkinson and Hall, 2007; Ajayi et al., 2003; Manfredini et al., 2002; Sidibe and Williams, 2002). It also has been reported to find application in local diets as seasoning agents and appetizer and as a milk substitute when soaked in water (Ajayi et al., 2003). Hogplum (Spondias mombin L.) fruit is known as Spanish plum or gully plum in Jamaica (Adepoju, 2009).

Jams are products formulated from a minimum fruit content of 40% and a final soluble solid content of 45[degrees]Brix. Some additives such as citric acid, gelling agents and pectin can be added (Garcia-Martinez et al., 2002). The objective of this work is to produce and evaluate the quality of jam prepared from baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) family Malvaceae and hogplum fruit (Spondias mombin L.). Hogplum fruit contains 82.3% moisture, 2.6% protein, 2.0% lipid, 4.2% fibre, 1% ash 7.9% total carbohydrates and 4.7% total soluble sugars. The fruit is also rich in carotene (85 [micro]g/100 g), ascorbic acid (34 mg/100 g) and relatively small amounts of niacin (0.5 [micro]g/100 g) and riboflavin (0.07 [micro]g/100 g) (Adepoju, 2009).

Jam preparation. Fresh hogplum, baobab fruits and acidity agent (lime) were obtained from an agricultural farm in Ogbomoso for preparation of jam, while food grade commercial sucrose was purchased from a laboratory chemical store in Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

The jam was prepared using method described by Oyeyinka et al. (2011) with slight modification. A weight of 200 g was used to formulate the sample composition in ratio (100:0, 0:100, 70:30, 30:70, and 50:50) for baobab and hogplum fruits, respectively. Food grade commercial sucrose was made into syrup using 60% of the weight of the fruits as basis. Acidity agent (lime) was added while the syrup solution simmered at a temperature of about 80[degrees]C. The fruits were added in the right proportion following operating conditions determined from preliminary studies. The jams were hot-filled into sterilized jars, sealed and rapidly cooled under running water to minimize thermal stress. The products were stored under refrigeration until analysis.

Quality evaluations. Titratable acidity (TTA), pH, moisture content, total soluble solids (Brix), gel strength, ascorbic acid and [beta]-carotene were determined using methods described by AOAC (1990).

Sensory evaluation. The jam samples along with bread serving as a carrier were presented to 10 semi-trained panelists using the method described by Taiwo et al. (1997). The panelists were asked to indicate their observations using a 5-point hedonic scale for aroma, colour, taste spreadability and overall acceptability. Like extremely and dislike extremely was ranked 5 and 1, respectively.

Microbiological analysis. The total viable counts of the samples were analyzed by the method of Olutiola et al. (1991). Serial dilutions were done in sterile distilled water and platings were on plate count agar (PCA, Lab M). The mean of replicate platings were calculated and the total number expressed as cfu/g. Pure cultures of isolates were stored on nutrient agar slants in a refrigerator (at 4[degrees]C). The isolates were characterized using method described by Olutiola et al. (1991).

Statistical analysis. All analyses were carried out in triplicates. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and means were separated using Duncan's Multiple Range Test at p [less than or equal to] 0.05 (Gomez and Gomez, 1985; Steeland Torrie, 1980).

The result is presented in (Table 1) shows the chemical composition of freshly harvested hogplum and baobab fruit pulps. The pectin, pH and [beta]-carotene content were higher in hogplum than in baobab pulp. On the other hand, the TTA and vitamin C content of baobab pulp was higher than those recorded for hogplum fruit pulp.

The chemical compositions (TTA, pH, brix, moisture content, ascorbic acid and [beta]-carotene) of the jam samples made from baobab and hogplum fruits pulp in ratio are presented in (Table 2), while data on the sensory evaluation of the jams are presented in (Table 3). The microbial analysis of the formulated jam samples revealed that they contain Pseudomonas and Proteus spp. (Table 4).

The study has demonstrated enormous potential of baobab and hogplum fruits in food product development. It has also provided an avenue to reduce post harvest losses of fruits and vegetables which has been estimated to be 50% loss annually. The findings from this study have shown that quality jam can be made from a blend of baobab and hogplum fruit in ratio 70:30, respectively.

References

Adepoju, O.T. 2009. Proximate composition and micronutrient potentials of three locally available wild fruits in Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4: 887-892.

Ajayi, I.A., Dawodi, F.A., Oderinde, R.A. 2003. Fatty acid composition and metal content of Adansonia digitata seeds and seed oil. La Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 80: 41-43.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th edition, Washington, DC, USA.

Garcia-Martinez, E., Ruiz-Diaz, G., Martinez-Monzo, J., Camacho, M.M., Martinez-Navarrete, N., Chiralt, A. 2002. Jam manufature in osmo-dehydrated kiwi fruit characterization of reused osmotic solution as ingredient in new product formulation. Food Research InternationalJournal, 35: 307-313.

Gomez, A.K., Gomez, A.A. 1984. Statistical Procedure for Agricultural Research. 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, USA.

Manfredini, S., Vertuani, S., Braccioli, E., Buzzoni, V. 2002. Antioxidant capacity of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp and leaves. Acta Phytotherapeutical, 2: 2-7.

Olutiola, P.O., Sonntag, H.G., Famurewa, O. 1991. An Introduction to General Microbiology--A Practical Approach. pp. 42-53, Verlagsantalt and Druckerei, Heidelberg, Germany.

Oyeyinka, S.A., Adeomowaye, B.I.O., Ngoddy, P.O., Karim, O.R. 2011. Selected quality attributes of jam produced from osmo-dehydrated cashew apple. JournalofFood Technology, 9: 27-31.

Sidibe, M., Williams, J.T. 2002. Baobab--Adansonia digitata. Fruits for the future 4, 96 pp., International Centre for Underutilised Crops, Southampton, UK.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Taiwo, K.A., Akanbi, C.T., Ajibola, O.O. 1997. Establishing Processing Conditions for Canning Cowpea seeds in tomato sauce. International Journal of FoodScience Technology, 32: 313-324.

Wilkinson, J., Hall, M. 2007. Baobab fruit, the upside down tree that could turn around the drinks industry. In: Botanical Soft Drinks International, pp. 26-28, April 2007, Available in: http://www.softdrinks-international.com/Archive.

Adekanmi Oyeyinka Abioye (a) *, Samson Adeoye Oyeyinka (b), Adewumi Toyin Oyeyinka (c) and Sarafadeen Omowumi Kareem (a)

(a) Department of Food Science and Engineering, Lautech, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

(b) Department of Home Economics and Food Science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

(c) Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

(received November 10, 2011; revised May 18, 2012; accepted August 15, 2012)

* Author for correspondence; E-mail: Oyeyinka@unilorin.edu.ng; sartf2001@yahoo.com
Table 1. Selected chemical composition of raw hog
plum and baobab fruits

Parameters           Hog plum               Baobab

% Pectin             8.60 [+ or -] 0.27a    2.43 [+ or -] 0.12b
pH                   5.58 [+ or -] 0.03a    4.52 [+ or -] 0.03b
TTA%                 2.93 [+ or -] 0.06b    9.77 [+ or -] 0.15a
VitaminC(mg/100g)    48.20 [+ or -] 0.30b   88.33 [+ or -] 2.89a
[beta]-carotene      81.67 [+ or -] 5.77a   30.00 [+ or -] 0.00b
  ([micro]g/100 g)

The values with the same alphabets are not significantly
different from each other (P < 0.05).

Table 2. Selected chemical composition of jam prepared
from baobab-hog plum fruit pulp

Sample   TTA (%)         pH              Brix ([degrees])

APJ      5.37 [+ or -]   3.27 [+ or -]   65.00 [+ or -]
           0.06a           0.06b           0.00a
HPJ      5.23 [+ or -]   3.20 [+ or -]   62.00 [+ or -]
           0.06a           0.00c           0.00c
BBJ      3.27 [+ or -]   4.47 [+ or -]   65.33 [+ or -]
           0.06c           0.06a           0.58a
JHB      4.83 [+ or -]   3.50 [+ or -]   60.00 [+ or -]
           0.06b           0.06b           0.00c
BHJ      5.00 [+ or -]   3.37 [+ or -]   61.00 [+ or -]
           0.1b            0.06b           0.00c
HBJ      5.40 [+ or -]   3.40 [+ or -]   63.33 [+ or -]
           0.00a           0.00b           0.58b

Sample   M.C (%)          Vit C            [beta]-Carotene
                          (mg/100g)        ([micro]g/100g)

APJ      29.50 [+ or -]   24.27 [+ or -]   105.00 [+ or -]
           0.10b            0.25d            0.00a
HPJ      30.13 [+ or -]   36.03 [+ or -]   95.00 [+ or -]
           0.06a            0.21c            0.00b
BBJ      29.47 [+ or -]   51.57 [+ or -]   30.00 [+ or -]
           0.06b            0.06a            0.00e
JHB      28.73 [+ or -]   44.23 [+ or -]   75.00 [+ or -]
           0.15c            0.25b            0.00d
BHJ      30.37 [+ or -]   42.30 [+ or -]   85.00 [+ or -]
           0.06a            0.17b            0.00c
HBJ      29.03 [+ or -]   40.93 [+ or -]   85.00 [+ or -]
           0.06b            0.12b            0.00c

The values with the same alphabets are not significantly
different from each other (P < 0.05). APJ = Apricot Jam
(A commercial jam product); JHB = 50% Hogplum and 50%
baobab jam; HPJ =100% Hogplum jam; BHJ = 70% Baobab and
30% Hogplum; BBJ = 100% Baobab jam; HBJ = 70% Hogplum
and 30% baobab jam.

Table 3. Sensory properties of jams made from
baobab-hog plum fruit pulp

Sample   Colour   Flavour   Taste

APJ      4.11b     3.44a    4.33a
HPJ      4.89a     2.56c    3.56b
BBJ      2.11f     2.67c    2.22d
BHJ      3.11d     3.33b    3.56b
HBJ      2.67e     3.11b    3.00c
JHB      3.78c     3.33b    3.67b

Sample   Texture   Spreadability      Overall
                                   acceptability

APJ       3.11b        3.33c           4.44a
HPJ       3.11b        2.56e           3.78b
BBJ       3.44b        3.67b           2.44d
BHJ       3.89a        4.00a           3.22c
HBJ       2.67c        3.00d           2.56d
JHB       2.67c        3.44c           3.11c

The values with the same alphabets are not
significantly different from each other (P < 0.05).

Table 4. Microbial load of formulated jam samples

Samples   Total viable count   Organisms isolated

APJ       4.0 x [10.sup.1]     Pseudomonas spp.,
                                 Proteus spp.
HPJ       4.0 x [10.sup.3]     Pseudomonas spp.
BBJ       4.0 x [10.sup.3]     Pseudomonas spp.
JHB       4.0 x [10.sup.3]     Pseudomonas spp.
BHJ       4.0 x [10.sup.3]     Pseudomonas spp.
HBJ       4.0 x [10.sup.3]     Pseudomonas spp.

The values reported are the means of triplicate
determinations.
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Abioye, Adekanmi Oyeyinka; Oyeyinka, Samson Adeoye; Oyeyinka, Adewumi Toyin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Omow
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Nov 1, 2012
Words:1765
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