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Assessment of drinking water quality in Narangi and surrounding areas of district Swabi, Pakistan.

Byline: Muhammad Tariq, Sardar Khan, Liaqat Ali, Seema Anjum Khattak, Khalid Latif, Rahib Hussain and Saeeda Yousaf

Abstract

Contaminated drinking water is the main cause of many health problems in different regions of the world and is responsible for serious diseases of nervous system damages, kidney failure and also cause stomach cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the drinking water quality sources present in Narangi and its surrounding areas (Permooli, Merali and Sherdarra). Water samples were collected from different sources (dug wells, tube wells, hand pumps and springs) in the study area and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and toxic metal concentrations. Physical parameters such as pH, Electric conductivity, Total dissolved Salts Turbidity, and temperature were determined with the help of electro-chemical analyzer on the spot, while anions including nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, phosphate and chloride were determined using spectrophotometer HACH (DR2800).

Heavy metals such as copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) were determined using atomic absorption Perkin Elmer (AAnalyst-700). Among the toxic metals lead was found above the WHO permissible limits, while in physic-chemical parameters nitrite was found above the WHO standard. It is concluded that drinking water of Narangi and its surrounding areas could pose potential health risk due to Pb and NO3 presence. We strongly recommend further detail study for drinking water sources in the adjacent areas as well as the installation of water treatment plants in the Naranji area to protect local population from serious health hazards.

Keywords: Drinking water quality; Heavy metals; Health hazard; Swabi; Pakistan.

1. Introduction

Drinking water pollution either due to heavy metals (HM) or other different chemical elements has become the matter of concern for environmental scientists of the recent years. Water contamination with various chemicals and heavy metals, released from different anthropogenic sources has become a global issue (Rapant and Krcmova, 2007). Weathering, erosion of rocks, mining, industries, wastewater irrigation and ore deposits were the main sources of HM contamination in water (Muhammad et al., 2011).

Drinking water contaminations with different anions and HM have shown adverse effects on human health through deciency or toxicity due to excessive intake (Khan et al., 2012). Nitrate (NO3), nitrites (NO2), sulfate (SO4) and phosphate (PO4) which occur naturally in water (Jordao et al., 2002). Heavy metal concentrations in drinking water can be attributed to both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The most signicant geogenic sources of metals are weathering of rocks, ore deposits and volcanic activities which release a huge amount of metals and ultimately contaminate the water bodies (Leghari et al., 2010). The excessive ingestion of heavy metals including Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn has carcinogenic effects on human health (Muhammad et al., 2011). Heavy metals are extremely toxic owing to their toxicity, persistent and their bio-accumulative nature.

Their toxic effects include headache, hypertension, irritability, abdominal pain, nerve damages, liver and kidney problems, sideroblastic anemia, intellectual disabilities, fatal cardiac arrest and carcinogenesis (Jarup, 2003; Muhammad et al., 2011a,b; Pekey et al., 2004). The environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a long-term and irreversible process. The heavy metals are not required for routine functioning of human body and can be toxic even at low concentration. Natural contamination of heavy metals usually originates from weathering of minerals, rocks and aquatic environments which result in the entry of heavy metals into water.

This study was therefore aimed to analyze drinking water (e.g. spring water, tube wells and dug wells) for physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations and their health risk on the local population of the area.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Study area

This study was conducted in district Swabi (Fig. 1) in order to assess the effect of heavy and toxic metals in the drinking water of the Narangi (Latitude: 34 19' 07.17'' N and Longitude 72 24' 59.12'' E), Mehr Ali (Latitude: 34 17' 36.13'' N and Longitude 72 21' 00.0'' E), Parmoli (Latitude: 34 16' 18.32'' N and Longitude 72 21' 12.10'' E) and Sher Dara (Latitude: 34 19' 31.98'' N and Longitude 72 23' 18.72'' E) areas. This district is divided into northern hilly areas and southern plain area. The important hills are in north-western corner of the district known as the Narangi hills. The plain area of the district is intersected by numerous streams like an important stream known as Narangi Khawar". Narangi is located 65km northeast of the city of Peshawar. Most of the rocks in the study area include syenites, feldspathoidal syenites, fenites, carbonates and associated rocks(Siddique, 1965, 1967).

These rock shave contributed high concentration of uoride-bearing mi nerals to the drinking water of Narangi and its surrounding areas (Shah and Danishwar, 2002).

2.2. Sampling

Drinking water samples were collected from different sources including hand pumps, tube wells and springs in 2011 from Narangi and its surrounding areas of the District Swabi. Each sample was stored in polythene bottles in acidied form for the determination of heavy metals and in non-acidied form for the determination of physico-chemical parameters.

2.3. Analytical procedure

Temperature, electric conductivity, pH were measured on the spot using respective electrode (CONSORT C931 Turnhout, Belgium) electrochemical analyzer,, while anions such as Nitrate (No3 ), Nitrite (No2 ), Sulfate (SO4 ), Phosphate (PO4) and Chloride (Cl) using (DR2800 spectrophotometer, HACH Company, USA). Total dissolved solids and salinity were determined using electrochemical analyzer (CONSORT C931, Turnhout, Belgium) and turbidity was determined using turbidity meter (Model 6035, Jenway, UK). Acidied water samples of the study areas were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AAS-PEA- 700) under standard operating conditions.

Each sample was analyzed in triplicate and after every 10 samples two standards and one blank were used for quality assurance. The reproducibility was found to be at 95% condence level. Therefore, the average value of each water sample was used for further interpretation.

Standard solutions of all the heavy elements were prepared from stock standard solution of 1000mg/L for the calibration of the atomic absorption spectrometer. Certied standard solutions of corresponding metals were analyzed for quality control measures.

All these analyses were performed in the Geochemistry laboratory of the National Centre of Excellence in Geology (NCEG), University of Peshawar

2.4. Statistical analysis

The data analyses were subjected to the statistical analysis (SPSS 16) and excel by calculating mean, standard deviation (Steel and Torrie, 1980).

3. Results and discussion

The aim of the present study was to assess the geochemical and environmental consequences of physico-chemical and heavy metal pollution in drinking water of Narangi and surrounding areas.

Results of the water samples from Narangi and surrounding areas (Permooli, Mirali, Sherdarra) were shown in Figures and Tables below. Table 1 and Figure1 shows the pH, EC, TDS, turbidity and salinity concentrations of the drinking water samples collected from Narangi and its surrounding areas. EC, pH, TDS, turbidity and salinity is considered as one of the important water quality parameters in the aquatic systems. Power of hydrogen ion has no direct effects on human health but it has some indirect effects, which brings changes in water quality parameters such as metal ion solubility and aquatic life survival. High range of pH attributes bitter taste to drinking water. In Narangi and its surrounding areas, the pH of the water ranged from 6.1 to 7.4 with a mean value of 6.67.

Electrical conductivity ranged from 90.2 mS/cm to 585mS/cm with a mean value of 238.15mS/cm, TDS ranged from 47.9 to 304mg/L with a mean valve of 126.34mg/L, turbidity ranged 0.10 to 100 NTU with a mean valve of 5.77NTU and salinity ranged from 0.1 to 0.3% with a mean valve of 0.12%. The results show that pH, EC, TDS, turbidity and salinity concentrations of the water samples were observed within the permissible limits set by WHO, 2004.

Table 2 and Figure 2 show anions concentration of drinking water samples of study areas, nitrate ranged 0.4 to 12.5mg/L with mean valve of 2.31mg/L. Nitrite ranged from 4 to 48mg/L with mean valve of 29.10mg/L. Chloride ranged from 0.5 to 32.5mg/L with mean valve of 9.90mg/L. Sulfate ranged from 5 to 88mg/L with mean valve of 14.62mg/L. Phosphate ranged from 0.18 to 1.45mg/L with mean valve of 0.42mg/L. The test result shows that nitrite in drinking water of the study areas are exceeds the permissible safe limits set by WHO 2004.

Nitrite is also the primary health concern in different parts of the world. According to WHO (2004), nitrate is reduced to nitrite in the stomach of infants, and nitrite is able to oxidize hemoglobin (Hb) and methaemoglobin, which is unable to transport oxygen around the body. The reduced oxygen transport becomes clinically manifest when methaemoglobin concentrations reach to 10% or more of normal Hb concentrations; the condition, called methaemoglobinaemia, causes cyanosis and, at higher concentrations, asphyxia (WHO, 2004). Exposure to high levels of nitrite has been associated with increased incidence of cancer in adults, and possible increased incidence of brain tumors, leukermia, and nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) tumors in children (Kennedy et al., 2005). The US EPA concluded that there was conicting evidence in the literature as to whether exposures to nitrate or nitrites are associated with cancer in adults and in children (Bunin, 1994).

Table 3 and Figure 3 shows the heavy metal concentrations in drinking water samples of the study areas i.e. Fe ranged from less than 0.05 to 188ppb with mean valve of 53.64ppb. Mn ranged from less than 0.05 to 19ppb with mean valve of 5.7 4ppb. Cu ranged from 0.17 to 70.7ppb with mean valve of 13.35ppb. Lead ranged from less than 0.05 to 30.66ppb with mean valve of 5.69ppb. Cr ranged from less than 0.05 to 9.43ppb with mean valve of 1.97ppb. Ni ranged from less than 0.05 to 11.15 with mean valve of 2.35ppb. Cd ranged from less than 0.05 to 2.39 with mean valve of 0.40ppb. Co ranged from less than 0.05 to 0.078 with mean valve of 0.19ppb. Zn ranged from less than 0.05 to 2897ppb with mean valve of 285.03ppb. The test result shows that all the metals in drinking water of the study areas are within permissible limits set by WHO 2004 while the concentration of Pb in some drinking water samples exceeded the WHO safe limit (15ppb).

The anthropogenic source of Lead is much higher in amount rather than the geochemical ones, but has been distributed worldwide (OehlenschlAger, 2002).

Like many other contaminants, lead is ubiquitous and can be found occurring as metallic lead, inorganic ions and salts (Harrison, 2001). Children are particularly sensitive to this metal illness because of their more rapid growth rate and metabolism, with critical effects in the developing nervous system (Castro and MACopyrightndez, 2008). Beside this lead can also causes gastrointestinal disorders, diarrhoea, stomatitis, tremor, hemoglobinuria, rustred color to stool, ataxia, paralysis, vomiting and convulsion, depression, and pneumonia (Vinceti et al., 2007).

3.1. Physico chemical and heavy metal correlation of drinking water quality from Mirali, Sherdarra and Permooli

The data obtained were subjected to the statistical analysis (SPSS 16) by calculating means, standard deviation (Steel and Torrie, 1980). The correlation matrix for the Physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals concentration of the study areas are given in Table 4. The correlation was done for the selected parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Salinity, SO4, Cl, NO3, NO2, PO4, Cr, Ni,

Table 1. Physical parameters of the water sample collected from the study area.

Parameters###Statistics###Narngi and its surrounding areas (Drinkingwater)

###na = 21

pH###Range###6.10 -7.40

###Mean###6.67

###STDV###0.40

EC###Range###90.20 -585

###Mean###238.16

###STDV###136.32

TDS###Range###307 - 1000

###Mean###126.34

###STDV###71.89

Turbidity###Range###0.10 - 100

###Mean###5.78

###STDV###21.61

SAL###Range###0.10 -0.30

###Mean###0.12

###STDV###0.07

Table 2. Heavy metal concentrations (g/L) in water sample collected from the study area.

Metals###Statistics###Narangi and its surrounding areas (Drinking water)

###11a...21

Fe###Range###less than 0.05 - 188

###Mean###53.64

###STDV###+57.79

Mn###Range###less than 0.05 - 19

###Mean###5.74

###STDV###+6.22

Cu###Range###0.17-70.7

###Mean###13.35

###STDV###+28.32

Pb###Range###less than 0.05-30.66

###Mean###5.69

###STDV###+8.08

Cr###Range###less than 0.05-9.43

###Mean###1.97

###STDV###+2.63

###Range###less than 0.05-11.15

###Mean###2.35

###STDV###+4.32

Cd###Range###less than 0.05 - 2.39

###Mean###0.40

###STDV###+0.53

Co###Range###less than 0.05-0.78

###Mean###0.19

###STDV###+0.24

Zn###Range###less than 0.05-2897S

###Mean###285.03

###STDV###664.72

Cd, Pb, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu. The correlation matrix shows that some of parameters like NO3, NO2, SO4, and Cl have no interrelationship with heavy and toxic metals. However, strong positive correlation was found in heavy metals such as Fe-Mn (r=0.797), Cu-Pb(r=0.469), Mn-Cu(r=0.591), Mn- Pb(r=0.805), Mn-Zn(r=0.597), Pb-Zn(r=0.252), Pb-Cd (r=0.422), Pb-Fe (r=0.719), Pb- Co(r=0.442),Cl-Co(r=0.440) and Cd-Co(r=0.886). All these heavy metals correlation indicate that the impact of geogenic contamination is high in the drinking water of the area. Therefore the high concentration of Pb in the drinking water can also be associated with lithologies and mineralization.

Due to shortage of water, local people have installed a large number of bore holes, tube wells and hand pumps without following the governmental guidance for their installations therefore, their quality was not satisfactory. Local people have the opinion that groundwater is not safe for drinking and, they did not have any treatment for groundwater which they used for drinking and cooking purpose. The untreated drinking water is also used in all schools and houses in the study area. Previous study about Narangi have already reported uoride pollution in the ground water and they attributed it due to high concentration of uoride- bearing minerals to the drinking water of Narangi and its surrounding areas (Shah and Danishwar, 2002) which causes uorosis and other serious health problem.

4. Conclusions

Majority of physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC, TDS, and heavy metals Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd, Co, Cr, Ni concentrations were found within the permissible limits set by world health organization (WHO), 2004. Nitrite in all drinking water samples exceeded the WHO safe limit (3mg/L). Lead is also to be found to exceed WHO limit in some samples. Inter metals correlation of selected metals in groundwater showed signicant positive correlation between metal pairs indicating strong effect of lithological and mineralogical control. It is evident from the current study that the population of the area is subjected to health risk due to nitrite and lead in the drinking water. This alarming situation should be monitored regularly and the water quality be Improved by applying advance treatment techniques.

Table 3. Anions in water sample collected from the study area.

Parameters###Statistics Narangi and its surrounding areas (Drinking water, ~a = 21

Nitrate###Range###0.4 - 12.5

###Mean###2.31

###STDV###2.57

Nitrite###Range###4-48

###Mean###29.1

###STDV###12.03

Sulfate###Range###5-88

###Mean###14.62

###STDV###18.45

Chloride###Range###0.5 - 32.5

###Mean###9.9

###STDV###8.19

Phosphate###Range###0.18 - 1.45

###Mean###0.42

###STDV###0.27

Table 4. Correlation of physico-chemical and heavy metals of Naran~i. Mirali. Sherdara. and Permooli area.

###NO:###NO2###Cl###S01###P04###Fe###Mn###Cu###Pb###Cr###Ni###Cd###Co###Zn

NO###I###0.256###-0.326###0.327 0.252 -0.164 -0.126 -0,066 -0.179###-0.269 -0.094 -Oi)-18 -0.108 -0.154

NO###1###-0108###-:.24 -0.192 -0.261 0.161###-0,127 0.022###0.01###-0.42 0.034###0.065 0.324

CI###1###0.194 -0.028 0.038 -0.077 -0.045 0.1###0.189###-0.2~4 0.118###.440' -~.224

SO4###1###0.11###0.142 -0.089 -0.155 -0. 18###-0.04###-0.075 -0.205 -ftOSP -O 1 75

P04###1###0.011 0.033###0.001###0.048###0.095###-0.068 -0.009 0.027 -0.07

Fe###1###.79~'' .454###.19"###-0.117 -0.095 -0.085 -0.096 0.314

Mn###1###.591~###.805'###-0.011 -0,1###0.03###0.06###.59'

Cu###1###.469'###0.122###-0.075 0.126###0.108 o.0-18

Pb###1###-0.03###-0.064 0.422###.142~ 0.252

Cr###1###-0.127 -0.119 0.011 -0.117

Ni###1###-0.007###-0.113 0.029

Cd###1###.886 ' 0.044

Co###1###-0.042

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Publication:Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2015
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