Assessment of Liceo de Cagayan University's Solid Waste Management System.
This study aimed at assessing the solid waste management system of Liceo de Cagayan University as basis for the crafting of a solid waste management plan for the university. This study included all personnel of the different departments in the main campus of the university. The data were collected using a survey questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings reveal that the respondents were moderately aware that R.A. 9003 is known as "the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000"; that solid wastes must be segregated according to their classification at source as "recyclables", "non recyclables", "compostable" and "special waste" and must be placed at the designated containers; and that a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) is required to avoid pollution that poses danger to public health and safety, wildlife, aquatic life, and vegetation. Moreover, the respondents were moderately receptive to the implementation of the solid waste management system that starts with waste characterization and waste composition to waste minimization through the use of substitute materials like metal spoon and fork instead of plastic and food tray or plates instead of styrofoam boxes. As found, the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness to solid waste management differed significantly. The respondents in the non-academe had significantly higher level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and receptiveness to solid waste management than those in the academe.
Keywords - Solid waste management system, solid waste, R.A. 9003
One problem that the World is now facing is climate change. One factor that causes this problem is improper disposal of solid waste. By disposing solid waste properly, we help save our environment. Rapid expansion of industry, urbanization, and increasing population, especially in large cities, has dramatically increased the amount of solid waste. At the municipal level, solid waste management constitutes one of the most crucial health and environmental problems facing authorities (Abdelnaser et al., 2011).
Waste management involves collection, transport, processing, recycling, disposal, and monitoring of waste materials produced by human activity. Waste management is generally undertaken to reduce the effect of waste materials on health and the environment. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources out from the waste. Waste to be managed can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each (Al-maaded, et al., 2012).
The increase in the volume of waste materials discharged to the environment and deterioration of environmental quality in urban areas have been an issue of major concern for many governments. Developed and developing nations, urban and rural areas, and residential and industrial producers differ in their waste management practices. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. For solid waste management in urban areas to be sustainable, it requires participation of the government, private sector, and residents (Ezebilo and Animasaun, 2011).
The researcher, being the pollution control officer and chairman of risk and solid waste management committee of the university, is tasked to assess the extent of management of solid waste generated in the campus. The assessment will be used as basis for the crafting of a solid waste management plan.
The study was anchored on Republic Act 9003 otherwise known as the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000. It is an Act providing for an Ecological Solid Waste Management Program, creating the necessary institutional mechanics and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited, and providing funds thereof and for other purposes.
The Act stipulates that it is the policy of the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program that shall (a) ensure the protection of public health and environment; (b) set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, including composing, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally-sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles; and (c) ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management excluding incineration.
In this study, the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness to solid waste management system are assumed to affect the respondents' perception of the solid waste management of the university. In turn, high level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and receptiveness to solid waste management are assumed to help facilitate the identification of the solid waste management system needs of the university. Moreover, every department's generated solid waste and encountered problems are factors seen to influence the formulation of the solid waste management system of the university.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aimed at assessing the solid waste management system of Liceo de Cagayan University as basis for the crafting of a solid waste management plan for the university.
Specifically, this study sought to determine the following: (a) the respondents' type of department, either academic or non-academic; (b) the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003, level of receptiveness to solid waste management, types of generated solid waste, encountered problems, and solid waste management practices; and the (c) difference in the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness when grouped by department.
This study used the descriptive design in determining the solid waste management of the Liceo de Cagayan University. This study was conducted at Liceo de Cagayan University situated along the Cagayan de Oro River. This university is one of the sources of contamination of Cagayan de Oro River because of its drainage system. Identifying the solid waste generated by the university is an initial step in containing contaminants that threaten the Cagayan de Oro River.
This study included all personnel of the different departments in the main campus of the university. The survey questionnaire used for data gathering was based on the Department Administrative Order (DAO) Number 2001-34 series of 2001 of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents within the 3rd quarter of the school year. Percentage, ranking, weighted mean, and analysis of variance were the statistical tools used were to analyze the collected data.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 presents the respondents' distribution in terms of their respective departments. As shown, there were more respondents from the academe than from the non--academe that included the canteen concessionaire and Cleanmate workers.
Table 2 shows the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003. The respondents were moderately aware that R.A. 9003 is known as "the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000"; that solid wastes must be segregated according to their classification at source as "recyclables", "non recyclables", "compostable" and "special waste" and must be placed at the designated containers; and that a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) is required to avoid pollution that poses danger to public health and safety, wildlife, aquatic life, and vegetation.
On the other hand, the respondents were only fairly aware that R.A 9003 is for mandatory implementation to be initiated by Local Government Unit (LGU). The law mandates LGUs to develop their own solid waste management program that covers the proper handling, storage, treatment, and disposal of solid wastes.
Table 3 shows the respondents' level of receptiveness to the Solid Waste Management System. The respondents were moderately receptive to the implementation of the solid waste management system that starts with waste characterization and waste composition to waste minimization through the use of substitute materials like metal spoon and fork instead of plastic and food tray or plates instead of styrofoam boxes. Also, they were moderately receptive to the idea that by accepting the solid waste management system, the university becomes a leading institution in the implementation of R.A. 9003. According to Wing (2008), adopting the solid waste management offers economic and environmental benefits to all people in the community where the program is implemented.
Table 4 presents the types of solid waste generated by the university. As shown, the most frequently generated solid wastes were papers, plastic bottles, and leaves. In an academic institution, everybody uses paper and a number of students and personnel consume bottled water because of the limited number of drinking fountains. Further, the campus has a lot of grown-up trees; hence, fallen leaves abound especially during summer. The generation of different solid wastes requires waste characterization that serves as basis for the solid waste management plan.
On the other hand, the least frequently generated solid wastes were syringes, needles, cotton balls, and vials.
Table 5 presents the respondents' problems in relation to solid waste management. The most prevailing problems were the absence of waste management plan and lack of solid waste containers for each type of waste, hence the non-segregation of waste at source. Other problems were the absence of labels on the existing waste containers and the unavailability of waste containers in some areas of the campus. According to Memon (2010), a solid waste management plan is an effective tool to manage waste effectively and efficiently, hence the university's need for it.
Table 6 presents the respondents' practices for managing solid wastes. As shown, most widely observed was the use of 3 R's (Recycle, Reuse and Reduce), which is followed by segregation of waste at source and avoidance of using non-biodegradable food packaging and containers. In Thailand, despite the increasing population in
2002, there was a decreasing trend in solid waste generation because of its reuse and recycling practices (Chiemchaisri et al., 2007).
According to Moller (1993), the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) was developed to promote the adoption of acceptable solid waste management throughout the world. And recycling is the favored solution for plastic waste management because it has a lower environmental impact as shown in the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Human Toxicity Potentials (HTP) indicators (Al-maaded et al., 2012).
Table 7 shows the results of the test of difference in the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness to Solid Waste Management System. As revealed, the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness to solid waste management differed significantly: The respondents in the non-academe had significantly higher level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and receptiveness to solid waste management than those in the academe. Such findings can be attributed to the fact that most of the respondents in the academe were students who were not given a seminar on solid waste management. Those in the non-academe had a seminar on solid waste in the previous years.
On the basis of the findings of the study, the following conclusions are derived:
1. The respondents' moderate awareness of R.A. 9003 and moderate receptiveness to solid waste management call for the development of a solid waste management plan to implement R.A. 9003.
2. The significant difference in the respondents' level of awareness of R.A. 9003 and level of receptiveness to solid waste management indicates the respondents' common need for further training on the implementing rules and regulations of DAO 34 to eradicate the problems related to solid waste disposal.
3. The reported non-segregation of waste at source and the lack of waste containers in the campus are indicative of the school's lack of a comprehensive solid waste management plan.
Based on the foregoing conclusions, the following recommendations are advanced:
1. Adoption of solid waste management plan to address the solid waste management problems of the university
2. Consistent implementation of the procedures and processes for proper solid waste management by all departments
3. University-wide information drive on proper waste management
4. Effective monitoring of the compliance with environmental standards of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
5. Periodic evaluation of the university's implementation of its solid waste management plan.
6. Reduction of non-biodegradable solid waste generation in the campus to help maintain a pollution-free university
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RICHIE GRACE M. LAGO
ORCID No. 0000-0002-9081-9217
Liceo de Cagayan University Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
Table 1. Distribution of the Respondents by Position in the University Department in the University Frequency Percentage 1.1 Arts and Sciences 18 5.17 1.2 Business and Accountancy 42 12.07 1.3 Engineering 38 10.92 1.4 Nursing 38 10.92 1.5 Cleanmate 15 4.31 1.6 Finance 7 2.01 1.7 Registrar 4 1.15 1.8 Guidance 4 1.15 1.9 Information Technology 41 11.78 1.10 Criminology 37 10.63 1.11 Clinic 9 2.59 1.12 Medical Laboratory Sciences 35 10.06 1.13 College of Pharmacy 27 7.76 1.14 Library 7 2.01 1.15 Canteen 9 2.59 1.16 Education 1 0.29 1.17 Publishing 10 2.87 1.18 Physical Therapy 6 1.72 Total 348 100.00 Table 2. Respondents' Level of Awareness of R.A. 9003 Indicators Mean SD Interpretation 2.1 R.A. 9003 is known as 2.54 0.954 Moderately Aware the "Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000". 2.2 I know R.A. 2.48 0.912 Fairly Aware 9003 is for mandatory implementation to be initiated by the LGU's. 2.3 One of the 2.63 0.900 Moderately Aware most important components of R.A. 9003 is the Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) for processing of recoverable wastes into useful products. 2.4 Mandatory segregation 2.64 0.910 Moderately Aware of solid waste is also embodied in R.A 9003. 2.5 R.A. 9003 provides 2.78 0.921 Moderately Aware for provision of having solid waste segregating containers marked with "recyclables"; "non- recyclables"; "compostable"; and "special waste". Overall 2.61 0.919 Moderately Aware Table 3. Respondents' Level of Receptiveness to Solid Waste Management System Indicators Mean SD Interpretation 3.1 The implementation 2.93 0.748 Moderately of the solid waste management Receptive system starts with the waste characterization and waste composition. 3.2 The implementation 2.92 0.899 Moderately of the solid waste management Receptive system includes waste minimization or waste reduction such as: 3.2.1 Use of metal pork and spoon instead of plastic; 3.2.2 Use of glass/metal 2.94 0.884 Moderately cups instead of plastic; Receptive 3.2.3 Use of paper 2.98 0.929 Moderately bags instead of plastic for takeout orders; Receptive 3.2.4 Use of food tray 3.18 0.796 Moderately or plates instead of Styrofoam box; Receptive 3.2.5 Provision of 3.11 0.823 Moderately additional drinking fountain to minimize Receptive accumulation of plastic water bottles. 3.3 Acceptance of the 2.93 0.851 Moderately solid waste management system puts our institution Receptive on the lead towards the support and implementation of R.A. 9003. Overall 3.00 0.847 Moderately Receptive Table 4. Solid Waste Generation With Response No Response Solid Waste Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Generation 4.1 Papers 279 80.17 69 19.83 4.2 Cans 108 31.03 240 68.97 4.3 Plastic Bottles 242 69.54 106 30.46 4.4 Plastic 154 44.25 194 55.75 bags/wrappers 4.5 Food Waste 126 36.21 222 63.79 4.6 Napkins/toilet 123 35.34 225 64.56 papers 4.7 Plastic 108 31.03 240 68.97 spoon/forks 4.8 Styrofoam boxes 83 23.85 265 76.15 4.9 Leaves 106 30.46 242 69.54 4.10 Syringes, 10 2.87 338 97.13 needles, vials, cotton balls Table 5. Problems Encountered Problems Encountered With Response No Response Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 5.1 No waste 84 24.14 264 75.86 container(s). 5.2 No segregation 132 37.93 216 62.07 of waste at source. 5.3 No waste 151 43.39 197 56.61 management plan. 5.4 No proper 182 52.30 166 47.70 solid waste container for each type of waste 5.5 Irregular schedule 102 29.31 246 70.69 of collection of waste. 5.6 No segregation 118 33.91 230 66.09 of solid waste at the storage area. 5.7 No label on 156 44.83 192 55.17 waste containers Table 6. Solid Waste Management Practices Solid Waste Management With Response No Response Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 6.1 Segregation of 115 33.05 233 66.95 waste at source. 6.2 Use of paper 107 30.84 240 69.16 bags instead of plastic wrappers 6.3 Use of 104 29.89 244 70.11 metal fork and spoon instead of plastic. 6.4 Recycle 163 46.84 185 53.16 6.5 Reuse 117 33.62 231 66.38 6.6 Use of plates 122 35.06 226 64.94 instead of Styrofoam boxes. 6.7 Discharge in___ 27 7.76 321 92.24 (please specify what location) 6.8 Waste 98 28.16 250 71.84 Minimization (Reduce) 6.9 Avoidance of using 108 31.03 240 68.97 Styrofoam boxes. Table 7. Results of the Test of Difference in the Respondents' Level of Awareness of R.A. 9003 and Level of Receptiveness to Solid Waste Management Indicators Mean Qualitative T-TEST RESULT Description Level of Non Academe 3.074 Moderately T Calculated Value = 6.53 Awareness Aware Degrees of freedom =119 of Academe 2.512 Moderately P-values = 0.000 Aware Republic Difference 0.5622 Moderately Conclusion =T Calculated Aware Act Value>T Critical 9003 Value Description Interpretation = Significant Level of Non Academe 3.292 Moderately T-TEST RESULT Recep- Re- ceptiveness Academe 2.931 Moderately T Calculated Value = Recep- to Solid Difference 0.3610 Moderately 5.04 Receptive Waste Degrees of freedom Management = 121 System P-values = 0.000 Conclusion =T Calculated Value>T Critical Value Interpretation = Significant
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|Author:||Lago, Richie Grace M.|
|Publication:||Liceo Journal of Higher Education Research|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2013|
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