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Assessment of Floristic Microbial Composition and Growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst Ex A. Rich) in Soil from Two Dumpsites in Benin City Nigeria.

Byline: G.C. Mgbeze and J.O. Osazee

Abstract: Survey of dumpsite plant composition assessment of rhizosphere microorganisms and growth performance of Sphenostylis stenocarpa grown on two dumpsite (CAPITOL and NITEL ROAD) soils in Benin City was investigated. Control treatment was top soil. A total of 9 and 30 flora were observed at the CAPITOL and NITEL ROAD dumpsites respectively. Analysis of the rhizosphere soils of the plants grown in dumpsite soils at different amendments showed a total heterotrophic bacterial count ranging from 1.57 x 104 to 4.18 x 104cfu/g and a total heterotrophic fungal count in the various rhizosphere soils ranged from 5.05 x 103 to 1.68 x 104cfu/g. The bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere soil samples were Arthrobacter sp. Bacillus sp Pseudomonas sp. Escherichia coli Enterobacter sp. Klebsiella sp. Micrococcus sp. and Staphylococcus sp. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus sp Mucor sp Fusarium sp Penicillium sp Trichoderma sp. and Saccharomyces sp. Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. Penicillium sp. and

Aspergillus sp. Aspergillus sp. 100 % (present in all dumpsite soils analyzed) had the highest frequency of occurrence amongst the isolates.Percentage seedling emergence was significantly reduced from 86.67 13.33 % - 100.00 0.00 % in control (top) soil to 60.00 0.00 % to 93.33 6.67 % in CAPITOL dumpsite soil. Shoot height at 6 weeks after planting (WAP) was significantly (p less than 0.05) increased from 78.33 18.53 cm in the control soil through 131.50 18.79 cm in the CAPITOL dumpsite soil to 186.33 13.68 cm in NITEL road dumpsite soil all without amendment. Number of leaves at 6 WAP increased on addition of FYM in both soil types. Chlorophyll content was not significantly different (p greater than 0.05) from control plants. Leaf area in both dumpsite soils was found to be significantly different (p less than 0.05) from the control soil but leaf area increased on addition and increase in amendment in both soil types. In all parameters observed it was noted that the control treatment did better than the plants grown in

the dumpsite soils with increased amendment.

Keywords: amendment dumpsite soil growth Rhizosphere microorganisms S. stenocarpa.

INTRODUCTION

The African yam bean [Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst. Ex A. Rich) Harms] is a climbing legume adapted to lowland tropical conditions. It is one of the lesser-known legumes [1-3] and widely cultivated in the Southern parts of Nigeria. The legumes are a good source of dietary protein [4]. They are cheaper than animal products such as meat fish poultry and egg therefore they are consumed worldwide as a major source of cheap protein and especially in the developing or poor countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic social cultural or religious-factors [4]. Studies have shown that the lesser known legumes together with other conventional legumes can be used for combating protein malnutrition prevalent in the third world; achieving this by consumption of the legumes both in whole and various processed forms or as condiments [5].

Due to developmental pressures leading to limited land space in most urban areas it has become a common practice to utilize lands previously used as dumpsites (the major waste disposal option in the country) for crop production [6] or to utilize soils from such places as manure. These lands are usually converted to agricultural fields for the cultivation of crops such as vegetables cereals and fruits as they are considered by most people as being fertile [6].

The rhizosphere is the volume of soil surrounding and under the influence of plant roots and the rhizoplane is the plant root surfaces and strongly adhering soil particles [7]. An extremely complex microbial community including saprophytes epiphytes endophytes pathogens and beneficial microorganisms is harboured in the rhizosphere [8]. Important and intensive interactions take place between the plant roots soil microorganisms and soil microfauna [9] thus the importance of studying the rhizosphere organisms to understand these interactions.

In natural systems microbial communities tend to live in relative harmony where all populations generally balance each other out in their quest for food and space [8]. In agriculture there is a modification in this natural balance that can drastically alter the microbial community and can lead to loss of beneficial microbes and/or ingress of plant pathogens that may have a devastating effect on plant productivity [10]. Thus the integration of beneficial microorganisms into production systems can somewhat shift the balance of the microbial communities toward a population structure more conducive to increased plant health and productivity [10]. Due to the need for improvement of the yield of AYB as well as the current trend of increased use of dumpsites for agricultural purposes in Africa it is therefore important to study the effect of various dumpsite soils on the growth and rhizosphere microorganism diversity of AYB. This study aims at determining which dumpsite soil better supports beneficial or harmful microbial system and hence growth of Sphenostylis stenocarpa.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Study LocationThe study was carried out at the Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology University of Benin Benin City Nigeria which lies within the rainforest ecological zone of the South - South Nigeria (6o 23' 50'' N and 5o 37' 23'' E) with a mean annual rainfall of 1825 mm.

Source of Experimental Materials

Seeds were obtained from Genetic Resources Centre of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan Nigeria on the 15th of August 2012. Soils were collected from 2 dumpsites in Benin City namely; NITEL road and CAPITOL dumpsites.

NITEL road dumpsite is located in Government Reservation Area (G.R.A.) Benin City. The land area is about 200 m2. CAPITOL dumpsite is located behind the Ugbowo campus of the University of Benin Benin City. The dumpsite occupies an area of about 4000 m2. Both dumpsites were composed mainly of municipal and household solid wastes such as waste food items clothes paper broken glasses rubber cans and polythenes. The control soil was collected from a plot which consisted mainly of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) prior to usage from the Botanical garden of the Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology University of Benin. All soil samples collected from the various dumpsites were placed in sterile polythene bags until required for use.

Land Preparation and Sowing

Soil chemical parameters were determined prior to experiment to ascertain the chemical nature of the soil [11]. The dumpsite soils were sundried for 2 weeks prior to usage and afterwards 3 kg of soil of each dumpsite was weighed into nursery polythene bags previously perforated measuring 30 cm in height and 23 cm in diameter. Cow dung (farm yard manure) collected from a cattle shed at the Technical School Road Ugbowo Benin City served as amendment in the following proportions; 100.00 % soil and 0 % cow dung 87.50 % soil and 12.50 % cow dung 75.00 % soil and 25.00 % cow dung 50.00 % soil and 50.00 % cow dung. The bags were placed on the field at a spacing of 60 cm x 30 cm as proposed by Okeleye et al. [12] amounting to 55000 stands/Ha.

Planting was done on August 23 2012 following the methods of Klu et al. [13]. Seeds were sown at the rate of 5 seeds per bag and at a depth of about 3 cm [14]. When seedling had attained 2 leaf stage (8 15 cm in height) they were thinned down to 2 seedlings per bag. The 2 dumpsites and control soils received amendment with cow dung in four concentrations and had 6 replicates each. A total of 36 bags and 72 plants including control were prepared and used for the experiment.

Plant Survey of Dumpsites

Plant species present at the two dumpsites prior to soil collection were identified and counted.

Growth Performance (Parameters Determined)

Percentage seedling emergence was recorded per dumpsite. Shoot height was measured from the soil level to the tip of the plant using a metre tape. Number of leaves was counted in situ. Leaf area was determined using the graph sheet method as described by Eze [15]. Chlorophyll content was determined using the chlorophyll content meter [16].

Experimental Design

The Experimental design used for the experiment was the completely randomized design (CRD) following assumption of homogeneity of the experimental plot in use.

Isolation of Organisms from Rhizosphere Soil

Rhizosphere soil was separated from 5 6 roots with the help of a sterile brush into a Petri dish. Ten grams of the soil sample was suspended in 100 ml sterile distilled water in a conical flask and shaking with a magnetic stirrer was done for 15 minutes. The soil suspension was serially diluted up to 10-3 using tenfold dilution. Using pour plate technique aliquots from each dilution was plated in triplicates on sterile nutrient agar for total heterotrophic bacterial counts and potato dextrose agar for total heterotrophic fungal counts. The nutrient agar plates were incubated aerobically at 37 C for 24 - 48 hours to enumerate the aerobes and facultative heterotrophic bacteria. The potato dextrose plates were incubated at room temperature (28 o C) for 72 hours. After incubation counts obtained from culture plates were recorded [17].

Microbial counts in rhizosphere soils per gramme of the soil (on a dry weight basis) are calculated by applying the formula: [17].Equation

The bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of classification schemes published in Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology [18]. Bacterial isolates were characterized to generic level and where possible to the species level on the basis of their cultural characteristics (i.e. colour shape edge elevation etc) morphological characteristics (Gram-reaction cell arrangement and shape) and biochemical characteristics.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Plant Species CompositionA total of 9 (Table 1a) and 29 (Table 1b) plants were observed at the CAPITOL and NITEL ROAD dumpsites respectively. The plants of the two dumpsites used in this study are listed based on family groupings according to Aigbokhan [19].

Rhizosphere Microorganisms

Analysis of the rhizosphere soils of the plants grown in dumpsite soils at different amendments showed a total heterotrophic bacterial count ranging from 1.57 x 104 to 4.18 x 104cfu/g. The total heterotrophic fungal count in the various rhizosphere soils ranged from 5.05 x 103 to 1.68 x 104cfu/g (Table 2). Table 2 shows the bacterial and fungal isolates from the rhizosphere soil of S. stenocarpa grown in the two dumpsite soils and their frequency of occurrence. Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. (100 %) had the highest frequency of occurrence while Arthrobacter sp. Fusarium sp. and Mucor sp. (33.33 %) were the least occurring isolates. About 2 to 5 % of rhizobacteria when reintroduced by plant inoculation in a soil containing competitive microflora exert a beneficial effect on plant growth and are termed plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) [20]. PGPR are free-living bacteria and some of them invade the tissues of living plants and cause unapparent and asymptomatic infections [21]. PGPR may induce plant growth promotion by direct or indirect modes of action [22 23]. Production of stimulatory bacterial volatiles and phytohormones lowering of the ethylene level in plant improvement of the plant nutrient status (liberation of phosphates and micronutrients from insoluble sources; non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation) and stimulation of disease-resistance mechanisms (induced systemic resistance) are direct mechanisms for plant growth promotion [9]. Indirect effects originate for example when PGPR act like biocontrol agents reducing diseases when they stimulate other beneficial symbioses or when they protect the plant by degrading xenobiotics in inhibitory contaminated soils [24].

Some of the microbes isolated from the rhizosphere soils of the AYB plants grown in the different dumpsite soils were PGPR. Thus they must have had a bearing on the growth performance and yield (another paper) of the plants in the various soil types.

The frequency of occurrence of Bacillus sp corresponds with the work of Garbeva et al. [25] which showed that 95 % of Gram-positive bacteria in soil under different regimes (permanent grassland grassland turned into arable land and arable land) were putative Bacillus species. The observation of Arthrobacter sp as the least frequently occurring bacteria isolate in this research also conforms to the work of Tzeneva et al. [26].

Bacterial isolates such as Arthrobacter sp. Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Enterobacter sp. usually termed growth promoting rhizobacteria (GPR) have been implicated at different times to be involved in growth promoting activities in plants whose rhizospheric region they colonize. [20]. Bacillus spp. is able to form endospores that allow them to survive for extended periods under adverse environmental conditions and have been reported to promote the growth of a wide range of plants [9 27 28]; however they are more effective in the biological control of many plant microbial diseases.

Strains of pseudomonads (Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida) have been shown to induce

Table 1a: Plant Composition in CAPITOL Dumpsite

###Plant###Family###Habit###Origin

###Amaranthus spinosus###Amaranthaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Amaranthus viridis###Amaranthaceae###Herb###Native

###Cyperus rotundus###Cyperaceae###Sedge###Cosmopolitan

###Euphorbia hirta###Euphorbiaceae###Herb###Native

###Ipomea triloba###Convoloulaceae###Vine###Native

###Panicum maximum###Poaceae###Grass###Native

###Pennisetum pupurum###Poaceae###Grass###Native

###Tridax procumbens###Arteraceae###Herb###Exotic

Table 1b: Plant Composition of NITEL ROAD Dumpsite

###Plant###Family###Habit###Origin

###Ageratum conyzoides###Asteraceae###Herb###Native

###Amaranthus spinosus###Amaranthaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Amaranthus viridis###Amaranthaceae###Herb###Native

###Carica papaya###Caricaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Commelina erecta###Commelinaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Cromolaena odorata###Asteraceae###Shrub###Exotic

###Crotelaria retusa###Fabaceae###Shrub###Native

###Cyperus rotundis###Cyperaceae###Sedge###Cosmopolitan

###Digitaria horizontalis###Poaceae###Grass###Exotic

###Eleusine indica###Poaceae###Grass###Cosmopolitan

###Euphorbia heterophylla###Euphorbiaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Euphorbia hirta###Euphorbiaceae###Herb###Native

###Euphorbia hyssopifolia###Euphorbiaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Gomphrena celosioides###Amaranthaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Icacina tricanta###Icacinaceae###Vine###Exotic

###Ipomoea triloba###Convoloulaceae###Vine###Native

###Mimosa diplotricha###Fabaceae###Herb/Vine###Native

###Musa sapientum###Musaceae###Herb###Cosmopolitan

###Panicum maximum###Poaceae###Grass###Native

###Phyllantus amarus###Phyllanthaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Phyllantus amarus###Phyllathaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Physallis angulata###Solanaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Senna occindentalis###Fabaceae###Shrub###Native

###Sida acuta###Malvaceae###Shrub###Native

###Solenostemum monostachys###Lamiaceae###Herb###Native

###Spigellia anthemia###Loganiaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Talinum triangulare###Portulacaceae###Herb###Exotic

###Tridax procumbens###Asteraceae###Herb###Exotic

Table 2: Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts in the Rhizosphere Soil Samples of S. stenocarpa

###Samples###Mean bacterial count (cfu/g)###Mean fungal count (cfu/g)

###4###4

###Control (0 %)###1.69 10###1.05 10

###4###4

###Control (12.5 %)###1.89 10###1.51 10

###4###4

###Control (25 %)###2.17 10###1.30 10

###4###4

###Control (50 %)###2.48 10###1.64 10

###4###3

###Capitol (0 %)###1.57 10###6.80 10

###4###3

###Capitol (12.5 %)###1.67 10###8.20 10

###4###4

###Capitol (25 %)###3.24 10###1.68 10

###4###4

###Capitol (50 %)###1.92 10###1.45 10

###4###3

###Nitel (0 %)###4.18 10###5.05 10

###4###3

###Nitel (12.5 %)###2.24 10###7.65 10

###4###3

###Nitel (25 %)###3.11 10###7.00 10

###4###3

###Nitel (50 %)###2.91 10###5.60 10

statistically significant increases in yield ranging from 14 to 33 % in Solanum tuberosum L. seeds treated with them [29]. Apart from their involvement in yield increase pseudomonads are well known for their involvement in the biological control of several plant pathogens [9]. Alabouvette et al. [30] showed that in addition to non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum P. fluorescens and P. putida are the main candidates for the biological control of fusarium wilts. Thus the high frequency of occurrence of pseudomonads in this experiment may also have been responsible for the low occurrence of Fusarium sp observed in the rhizospheric soil of the plants used in the experiment.

The beneficial effects of these bacteria have been attributed to their ability to promote plant growth and to protect the plant against pathogenic microorganisms [31].

All the benefits of the isolates as mentioned in the literatures reviewed above shows the fact that most of the bacterial isolates were most likely beneficial to the plants as increase was observed in plant mass and productivity with increased bacterial population (Tables 6 and 9). These suspected PGPR isolated could also be responsible for the fact that none of the plants died from disease infestation throughout the duration of the experiment as they may have been responsible for keeping the population of the pathogenic microbes present in the rhizosphere to the barest minimum.

A number of the isolates in this study were plant growth promoting microorganisms which enhances the growth performance and health of plants. The control plants which had a better growth performance in comparism to the dumpsite grown plants had the highest diversity of these microorganisms that help enhance growth.

Percentage Seedling Emergence

Percentage seedling emergence was only significantly reduced from 86.67 13.33 % to 100.00 0.00 % in control (top) soil to 60.00 0.00 % to 93.33 6.67 % in Capitol dumpsite soil (Table 3).

Shoot Height

All through the 6 weeks of observation for shoot height as shown in Tables 5 and 6 significant differences (pless than 0.05) were observed at the first and sixth weeks after planting. In 1 week after planting (WAP) plants grown in the control soil exhibited higher shoot lengths ranging from 13.75 1.61 cm to 17.17 1.01 cm in the different amendments when compared to the plants grown on the dumpsite soil whose shoot heights ranged from 10.50 0.80 cm to 14.58 0.90 cm. There was no significant difference (pgreater than 0.05) observed in 2 3 and 4 WAP both in the different dumpsite soils and control as well as in application of amendments.

In the sixth WAP there was no significant difference (pgreater than 0.05) in control plants from the plants grown in the NITEL dumpsite soils as these groups exhibited high shoot length values ranging from 78.33 18.53 cm to 249.50 22.02 cm. However this was observed to be significantly different from the crops planted on the

Table 3: Distribution and Occurrence of the Microorganisms in the Rhizosphere Soil Samples

###Bacterial isolates###Control###NITEL###Capitol

###Arthrobacter sp.###+###-###-

###Bacillus sp.###+###+###+

###Pseudomonassp.###+###+###+

###Escherichia coli###+###-###-

###Enterobacter sp.###-###-###+

###Klebsiella sp.###+###+###-

###Staphylococcus sp.###+###+###-

###Fungal isolates

###Aspergillus sp.###+###+###+

###Mucor sp.###-###+###-

###Fusarium sp.###+###-###-

###Penicillium sp.###+###+###+

###Saccharomyces sp.###-###+###+

Table 4: Percentage Seedling Emergence of S. stenocarpa Seeds in Dumpsite Soils

###1###1###1

###Treatments###Control soil###NITEL###Capitol

###0 % FYM###100.00 0.00###80.00 11.55###60.00 0.00

###12.50 % FYM###100.00 0.00###86.67 6.67###73.33 6.67

###25.00 % FYM###86.67 13.33###86.67 13.33###93.33 6.67

###50.00 % FYM###100.00 0.00###86.67 6.67###80.00 11.55

1

Table 5: Effects of Dumpsite Soils on Shoot Height (cm) 1 and 2 WAP

###Treatments###1 WAP###2 WAP

###1###1###1###1###1###1

###Control###NITEL###Capitol###Control###NITEL###Capitol

###a###a###c###a###c###a

###0 % FYM###13.75 1.61###13.75 0.99###11.08 0.87###18.33 1.26###22.17 1.75###18.42 1.01

###a###b###c###a###a###c

###12.50 % FYM###16.08 1.29###14.58 0.90###12.00 1.44###22.17 1.49###24.50 1.12###19.50 2.01

###a###c###d###a###c###c

###25.00 % FYM###17.17 1.01###10.50 0.80###13.50 1.33###24.33 2.23###18.83 1.75###20.83 1.72

###a###b###c###a###c###b

###50.00 % FYM###16.02 0.76###12.33 0.49###10.75 1.07###21.83 1.46###20.67 0.85###17.00 1.53

Capitol dumpsite soil which exhibited shoot length values ranging from 68.67 9.85 cm to 215.83 16.16 cm (Tables 5 and 6). The implication of these results reported above was that some dumpsite soils improved plant shoot height significantly with increasing amendment while others didn't. Number of Leaves

No significant difference (pgreater than 0.05) was observed in number of leaves in all experimental setups in weeks 1- 3. However significant difference (pless than 0.05) was observed in weeks 4 and 6 in which the number of leaves in some amendments of the plants grown on the NITEL road dumpsite soils was significantly different

Table 6:###Effects of Dumpsite Soils on Shoot Height (cm) 3 4 and 6 WAP

###3 WAP###4 WAP###6 WAP###

Treatments

###CONTROL###NITEL###CAPITOL CONTROL NITEL CAPITOL CONTROL NITEL CAPITOL

0 % FYM###20.67 1.38###29.33###21.33###23.67 3.27###54.83###30.17 5.71###78.33 18.53###186.33###131.50

###b###b###c###b###d

###4.01###1.05###8.85###13.68###18.79

###a

###12.50 % FYM###29.17 2.98###32.67###21.92###61.17###80.00###42.50###199.00###235.67###160.50

###b###a###a###a###b###a###b###b

###3.45###2.15###15.75###12.08###11.64###30.58###16.91###20.41

###a

###25.00 % FYM###38.83 8.08###21.50###28.33###84.67###45.17###59.67###233.17###183.33###215.83

###b###b###a###c###c###a###b###c

###2.14###5.51###15.94###12.18###11.72###39.01###15.35###16.16

###a

###50.00 % FYM###30.50 3.88###24.58###20.17###73.33###62.00###38.67###242.67###218.17###144.83

###b###b###a###a###b###a###a###b

###1.38###2.02###13.10###10.92###12.59###21.94###12.99###27.90

(pless than 0.05) from all the other dumpsite soils and control plants as well (Tables 7 and 8).

Leaf Area and Chlorophyll Content

Leaf area (LA) was observed to be significantly different (pless than 0.05) from the control plants. Leaf area was observed to be highest in the control plants with a range of 37.18 3.68 cm2 to 68.24 4.59 cm2. Leaf area was observed to increase with corresponding increase in amendment (cow dung) in all dumpsite soils and control soil respectively as shown in Table 8. Introduction of nitrogen (which helps in the vegetative growth of plants as well as leaf formation) to the soils from amendment may be responsible for this increase. This is in line with the work of Ikhajiagbe [32] who showed that AYB exhibited an increase in LA with increase in nitrogen supplied to plants.

Nitrogen is a chlorophyll component and it promotes vegetative###growth and green colouration###of foliage which is important in the process of photosynthesis. Although no significant differences (pgreater than 0.05) were observed amongst the plants grown on the dumpsite soils and control plants (Table 9) it was observed that there was profound increase in chlorophyll contents of the plants in this experiment when compared to the

Table 7: Effects of Dumpsite Soils on Number of Leaves 1 and 2 WAP

###Treatments###1 WAP###2 WAP

###Control###NITEL###Capitol###Control###NITEL###Capitol

###a###a###a###a###a###b

###0 %FYM###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.60 0.60

###a###a###a###a###a###b

###12.50 %FYM###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.60 0.60

###a###a###a###a###a###a

###25.00 %FYM###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.00 0.00###5.00 0.00

###a###a###a###a###b###c

###50.00 %FYM###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###2.00 0.00###4.83 0.17###5.50 0.50###5.00 0.00

Table 8: Effects of Dumpsite Soils on Number of Leaves 3 4 and 6 WAP

###Treatments###3 WAP###6 WAP###4 WAP

###Control###NITEL###Capitol###Control###NITEL###Capitol###Control###NITEL###Capitol

###a###a###a###a###b###b###a###c###c

###0 % FYM###7.50 0.50###7.83 0.17###7.60 0.40###14.17 2.79###27.83 1.60###28.20 3.10###8.83 1.74###12.83 1.72###13.6 1.29

###a###b###a###a###a###a###a###b###b

###12.50 % FYM###8.00 0.00###7.50 0.50###8.00 0.00###38.00 5.42###33.83 3.31###36.60 3.04###16.67 3.19###17.33 2.08###18.40 2.02

###a###b###a###a###a###a###a###b###b

###25.00 % FYM###8.00 0.00###7.17 0.54###8.00 0.00###37.33 7.35###35.17 3.42###35.40 1.44###17.83 3.53###15.17 1.40###17.20 0.66

###a###a###b###a###a###c###a###a###b

###50.00 % FYM###8.33 0.00###8.50 0.92###7.40 0.60###34.33 1.78###38.00 2.61###32.40 4.76###18.00 1.75###19.67 1.45###15.00 2.41

Table 9: Effect of Dumpsite Soils on Leaf Area (cm ) and Chlorophyll Content of S. stenocarpa

###2

###Treatments###LEAF AREA (cm )###CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT

###Control###NITEL###Capitol###Control###NITEL###Capitol

###a###c###a###a###b###a

###0 % FYM###37.18 3.68###13.88 2.18###36.16 3.79###8.85 1.64###9.68 1.01###8.35 0.81

###a###b###b###a###c###a

###12.50 % FYM###64.04 3.77###25.40 2.58###38.87 1.97###10.28 0.86###9.55 0.92###9.93 0.80

###a###b###b###a###b###a

###25.00 % FYM###59.05 4.76###42.14 5.46###52.82 7.31###10.13 1.23###11.47 1.17###9.95 0.86

###a###b###b###a###c###b

###50.00 % FYM###68.24 4.59###42.18 7.13###39.89 3.60###9.93 1.38###10.82 1.51###8.97 0.97

work of Ikhajiagbe [32] who reported total chlorophyll content ranging from 3.26 0.11 mg/g to 3.50 0.07 mg/g in African yam bean plant supplemented with N P and K nutrients.

In effect growth performances of S. stenocarpa in the dumpsite soils without amendment were better when compared to those grown in control soils without amendment. Also plants grown on the CAPITOL dumpsite soil had a greater performance than the plants grown on the NITEL road dumpsite soil without amendment. However with the introduction of amendment both the plants grown in the NITEL dumpsite soil and the control (top) soil did significantly (p less than 0.05) better than the plants grown on the capitol dumpsite soil.

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