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Assessment in fieldwork courses: what are we rating?

Introduction

Fieldwork has many variations, definitions, and interchangeable terms associated with it. Library schools have different names for the experience, including practicum, field problems, internship in libraries, library practice work, professional field experience, and cooperative education (Futas, 1994; Mediavilla, 2006). According to the Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) (1990), fieldwork essentially entails learning in a professional work setting. Formally, ALISE says it is the "structured pre-professional work experience which takes place during graduate coursework or after coursework but preceding the degree" (Futas, 1994, p. 146).

For the purposes of this study, Coleman's (1989) definition of fieldwork (echoed by Nakano & Morrison, 1992) as a "relatively short-term, professionally supervised work experience offered as part of the school's curriculum and taken during the academic sequence" (p. 22) is restricted to unpaid experience, and enlarged to include the practica and field experiences discussed in literature describing fieldwork. It is generally held that fieldwork of this nature is conducted pre-degree, but at the end of a degree program (Monroe, 1981; Palmer, 1975). It is commonly administered by faculty or designees within library schools. A host site is the location where the fieldwork occurs.

Ongoing communication between all involved is necessary so there are no surprises in assessment (Claggett, et al., 2002). Instantaneous feedback on any misinterpretations or errors is often necessary (Genovese, 1991). The student is not only gaining real world experience about library basics, but is also participating in an introduction to peer review, evaluation, and human resources issues. One school reports that its evaluation form serves as a mechanism through which students can get "more formalized feedback on their progress as measured against professional criteria" (Botello, 2006, p. 15), although the exact criteria are not specified.

Assessment as a problem regularly occurs in library literature, as it is difficult to assess what is not always seen (Brundin, 1989; Damasco & McGurr, 2008; Nakano & Morrison, 1992; Ricker, 2005). It is hard to create a fair evaluation of competence and skill based on infrequent observation. Faculties are noted as indicating the need for better methods to assess student performance, and how to assess their own support of the students (Nakano & Morrison, 1992). A lack of correspondence between faculty and site supervisors is an issue, and there is a lack of group effort in establishing the objectives before field experience begins (Coburn, 1980; McGurr & Damasco, 2010). No consensus exists as to whether faculty should ultimately be responsible for assigning grades or credit for fieldwork, or the site supervisor, or some combination of both parties.

This study aims to collocate and analyze the evaluation forms used by library schools that are distributed to fieldwork supervisors in order to discern what attributes we expect students to be rated. Specific research questions include:

What are the most frequently occurring attributes?

How do library school evaluation forms compare to one another?

How do the attributes on evaluation forms compare to the ALA Core Competences for Librarianship?

The researcher also proposes a new evaluation form that takes the ALA Core Competences into consideration, along with information that can help the library school assess the experience.

Literature Review

History of Fieldwork in Library Schools

Research looking at fieldwork in library schools has generally been historical and comparative, showing a progression in the regard for fieldwork in the curriculum. Since the late 1800s, the idea of fieldwork has been discussed in library literature. Monroe (1981) stated that its initial purpose was to mitigate a deficiency of textbooks and a lack of established curriculum. Library school advocates in the late 1800s argued that trained professionals were needed, but the suggested methods through which to train them were varied and opposing. Melvil Dewey (1879) spoke of fieldwork as apprenticeships, and recommended guided, supervised experience as a part of librarian education (Metcalf, et al., 1943).

In 1923 Williamson said, on the other hand, that students reading library literature in conjunction with faculty teaching would be training enough. The first president of ALA, Justin Winsor, advocated in 1891 that fieldwork is "the best preparation for librarianship" (White, 1961, p. 76). Much debate ensued during this time as to which of three methods of training was the best: formal training in school, formal training in school coupled with fieldwork, or straight practical work in a library.

The number of library schools grew, and the differences between the training programs expanded. The contest between theory versus practice raged, and ALA committees conducted a number of studies to ascertain the extent of uniformity in schools and to make recommendations for changes. In 1905, the Committee on Library Training stated a requirement for at least one-sixth of a student's time to be spent in supervised practice work (Churchwell, 1975). Library schools disagreed, although one library school, Antioch College in Ohio, did initiate a cooperative fieldwork type of education. Those students took turns filling practical positions in libraries in Ohio, then traded back to class work. Northwestern University and the University of Cincinnati also implemented similar plans during this time (St. John, 1938).

Williamson's 1923 report showed that all schools of the day required some form of practice work, but regulations, time involved, and names varied. He commented that no school could rationalize decisions regarding fieldwork even though it appealed to the schools as part of the curriculum, and better administration of it was needed. Further, schools could make no indications as to how sites were selected, and there was a lack of regard for student needs or wants.

ALA gave suggested curriculum requirements in 1926, including a minimum of 108 hours of fieldwork. In 1933, however, Reece denounced fieldwork and advocated a separation of it from the curriculum. St. John looked at the history, short as it was then, of fieldwork in library education and made the recommendation that an experimental program be established at libraries approved by the ALA Board of Education for Librarianship to train interns, and that perhaps this could occur at the expense of a philanthropic association. A trial program started in the Tennessee Valley Authority library system, but before it could conclude, the Second World War ended it (Palmer, 1975; St. John, 1938).

Debate and differentiation on the part of the library schools continued into the 1940s. At the 1948 Conference on Education for Librarianship, comparisons between the field and other professions made a strong case for including fieldwork in the curriculum. A paradigm shift from separating theory and practice to simultaneous occurrence seemed to transpire, and fieldwork gained more acceptance among library schools. Van Deusen (1949) noted the shift in his summary of library education at the time. He predicted that more attention would be paid to the students themselves, and a consideration of their lives before and after the library school program. This would entail a preparatory phase, in the form of fieldwork.

The 1960s brought more research and suggestions from different angles, including medical librarianship interns, suggestions of favor for fieldwork from the student perspective, and the need for more comprehensive study (Ricker, 2005; Rothstein, 1989). The Conant Report in the 1970s recommended a "substantial" fieldwork experience, but noted that only some faculty supported this. It was during this time that a number of library school surveys ensued, where researchers either analyzed the stated offerings of the schools, or polled them on fieldwork requirements. The findings showed an upward trend in the percentage of schools offering fieldwork in their curricula (Futas, 1994).

In the 1980s library schools promoted provision of fieldwork as a job-seeking tool (Samek & Oberg, 1999). Berry (1998) recommended that prospective students make note of the availability of fieldwork in the curriculum as a selection tool in choosing the right library school program. Case studies of well-performed fieldwork and models for future development of fieldwork appeared. Students began writing about their own experiences, and these articles could be used as recruiting tools for libraries and library schools alike (Samek & Oberg, 1999).

Library School Surveys

Over the past century there have been numerous surveys of accredited library schools about their curricula in general, and of fieldwork offerings specifically. These surveys provided a succinct portrait of the requirements and administration of fieldwork at different schools, and showed how the varying definitions of fieldwork affect the responses given. From year to year the amount of schools requiring or offering fieldwork changed, and not always in a predictable manner.

A primary exploration conducted by the ALA Committee on Library Training after its formation in 1903 discerned that library schools were experiencing a shift from general apprenticeships to more theoretical curricula (Vann, 1961). Two years later, only three of 11 schools met the recommended standard for practice work in library curriculum set forth in 1905 by a new Committee on Library Training, who advocated one-sixth of a library school student's time be spent in fieldwork. Another survey regarding fieldwork requirements occurred through Williamson's visits to library schools in the early 1920s. All of the 15 schools he visited required practical library work. Even though it was required, the schools had different constraints and methods for administering the programs, and hours required ranged from 160 to 480 (1923). The American Association of Library Schools reported that all 14 library schools in 1925 required fieldwork, and the next year, the ALA Board of Education for Librarianship's "Minimum Standards for Graduate Library Schools" recommended that 108 hours of a library school student's time be spent in fieldwork (Katz, et al., 1989).

In 1968, Rothstein published results from his examination of 36 library school catalogs. He reported that most of the schools requiring fieldwork might waive the obligation for students with prior experience (Rothstein, 1989). A few years later Grotzinger (1971) followed up Rothstein's study with a survey sent directly to the schools because she thought content-analysis of the catalogs to be insufficient and inaccurate. She found that some had specialized variations of field experience, including internships and special courses. In 1972, Witucke surveyed 55 library schools as part of her dissertation, and found that eight schools offered no credit hours for field work experience, and that 25 offered between one and 18 hours of credit. Twenty-three programs issued a letter grade for the course, and nine listed a pass/fail grading system. Not much was required by any school for assessment, and few schools had communication between faculty and fieldwork supervising librarians (Witucke, 1976).

Shortly thereafter, Palmer questioned 58 library schools in his 1973 survey covering different types of fieldwork. His results show that practica were the most popular form of fieldwork experience offered by schools. His conclusion was that field experience was "about to enter its Renaissance" (Palmer, 1975, p. 252). Tietjen queried 62 library schools at the request of the Council on Library Resources in 1975. She discovered that fieldwork policies still varied greatly. She studied the responses geographically, indicating that the Southeast offered more fieldwork opportunities (1977).

In 1978, Coburn received responses from 55 library schools and found that 27 schools offered letter grades, and 18 used a pass/fail system. He asked in his questionnaire about payment to the student by the fieldwork site. Some schools have no problems with the practice, and one school even paid the fieldwork supervisors for each student they had doing fieldwork. Twenty-eight schools offered three credit hours for completion of a fieldwork assignment. Coburn also studied the similarities and differences among the components of the evaluation forms provided by the library schools (1980).

Almost ten years passed before the next examination of fieldwork requirements. Coleman distributed a survey to all ALA-accredited programs in 1987. Half of the schools counted the course for three credit hours, with six schools not offering credit at all. The range of hours for fieldwork experience varied from 84 to over 200 hours (Coleman, 1989). Although their research was not aimed specifically at fieldwork experiences but rather at reference coursework, a 1988 survey by Nakano and Morrison (1992) indicated that six schools did not offer any fieldwork course work.

The Association for Library and Information Science Education decided to explore fieldwork requirements in library schools in 1989. Eighty-four percent offered course credit. ALISE did not inquire as to the length requirements for fieldwork courses, but did show that many schools had fieldwork prerequisites. The Association has continued asking these questions for the Curriculum section in annual statistical reports (Barron & Harris, 2004). One result from this study is the acknowledgement of a need for standards across library schools for fieldwork (Howden, 1992). During 2000 and 2002, Markey researched education trends in library and information science, comparing library school names, degree names, degree programs, and required coursework and found that 9 of 54 schools require fieldwork (Markey, 2004).

Assessment

As Wright (1949) said, if "practice work is to be truly educational, it must be as carefully thought out and planned as any classroom course" (p. 40). Learning objectives are necessary, and the principles of education must be communicated to all involved parties. Fieldwork should demonstrate a close relationship with true classroom coursework, and should be married with learning objectives (Ball, 2008; Ward, 1973). Steps should be taken to ensure a student is not seen as free labor only (Berry, 2005; Claggett, et al., 2002; Hacker, 1986; Williamson, 1923), although this could be seen as a potential benefit to site supervisors (Futas, 1994; Ottolenghi, 2012).

Coburn (1980) provides a rudimentary evaluation form that could be adapted for different fieldwork situations. He based this form on an analysis of entry-level librarian position descriptions, during which he identified skills and characteristics required of those job candidates. One section of this form covers personal attributes, such as integrity, personal appearance, and work habits. The second section covers professional competencies, like general knowledge, research skills, and communication effectiveness. He conducted another analysis of library school evaluation forms from which he gleaned suggested rating scales, and characteristics to be reviewed. Coburn (1980) also admits incorporating his own "experience and judgment".

Methodology

The researcher undertook content analysis of fieldwork supervisor evaluation forms provided by library and information science schools to gauge what the schools ask public librarians hosting fieldwork students to asses, and to compare this with the American Library Association's Core Competences of Librarianship. The researcher obtained copies of the assessment tools that English-speaking, ALA-accredited Library and Information Science schools offer to the site supervisors of fieldwork students at public libraries. The list of schools was generated by viewing the 2011 Directory of ALA-Accredited Master's Programs in Library and Information Science document found on the ALA website.

Form collection was done through purposive, or relevance, sampling by locating such forms on each school's website, or, if not available online, contacting the schools directly and requesting copies of the forms. All forms were collected between April and June of 2012. No geographic restrictions were in place for form collection, but forms were only obtained from those schools whose websites were written in English. This eliminated two schools, one whose website was in French, and another whose website was in Spanish. One school does not offer an unpaid fieldwork course, and therefore has no evaluation form. Eight schools that do not use a formalized written or online form were also excluded from this analysis. Therefore, out of 58 ALA-accredited library schools listed in ALA's 2011 Directory, a total of 47 forms were collected and analyzed.

Inductive content analysis was selected as a research method in order to "make replicable and valid inferences" in textual content that emerged "in the process of a researcher analyzing a text" (Krippendorf, 2013, p. 24). The coding units were the assessment characteristics, represented by words or phrases, on the forms. From the 47 library school evaluation forms, the researcher identified and extracted every individual item that required the fieldwork supervisor to assign some sort of ranking, grade, or evaluation to a fieldwork student, whether that be narrative or a provided choice. This totaled 836 characteristics that were isolated and copied into a spreadsheet.

To categorize the content of the evaluation forms, the researcher replicated Coburn's 1980 analysis of library school evaluation forms. Coburn evaluated 23 forms, identified rating scales, and grouped the content of the evaluation forms into the categories of "traits of character" and "competencies." So, the researcher clustered the remaining words and phrases into categories, and then frequencies within these categories were counted to ascertain how often distinct assessment characteristics appeared in the evaluation forms.

Results

The clusters below evolved from the routine duplication of evaluation characteristics on the forms provided by the library schools, and echo Coburn's (1980) method of combining synonymous terms. As he found back then, it is still the case that library schools do not define all terms on evaluation forms, and there is the possibility for misinterpretation.

The categories that emerged were:

* American Library Association's Core Competences (broken into the eight competency statements)

* Personal Characteristics

* Relations with Others

* Work Habits

* Personal Knowledge and Abilities

* Ability to Learn

* Emotional Attributes

* Commitment

* Professionalism

* Work Performance

* Strengths and Weaknesses

The evaluation forms provided to fieldwork supervisors ranged in depth and complexity. For the mechanism of evaluation, 36 asked for both ratings of qualities and narrative descriptions. One used ratings solely, and seven used narratives only. Two forms simply asked the question "How did the student meet the objectives?" The last form provided a blank space for the supervisor to choose qualities that they elected to rate.

Some of the library school fieldwork evaluation forms contained additional questions about the students that did not fit into a direct evaluation category. Several required yes or no answers, but a few required narrative responses that pinpoint the student's responsibilities and best qualities.

Almost half of the forms provided a space in which the fieldwork supervisor could list the student's responsibilities and/ or goals, and about half of those asked for a rating of success on whether or not the student met them. Twelve of the 47 forms had a space for the supervisor to indicate whether or not they would hire that particular fieldwork student. Only one form asked the supervisor directly if they had any problems working with the student.

Another component of some of the evaluation forms was the library schools' inquiries to the fieldwork supervisors about the value of the fieldwork experience. Eleven asked how the library school could improve the experience for the library. Nine asked if the experience was worthwhile for the library. Lastly, six asked the supervisors if they would do fieldwork supervision again.

Core Competences

The characteristics included in the grouping category of "Core Competences" reflect the skills and aptitudes included in the ALA Core Competences (2009). According to ALA's document, "a person graduating from an ALA-accredited master's program in library and information studies should know and, where appropriate, be able to employ" the skills and aptitudes in the document.

Foundations of the Profession

The "Foundations of the Profession" competency covers the role of librarians, intellectual freedom, ethics, principles, and history of the profession. It is the broadest of the eight competencies, and envelops types of libraries, current trends, legal implications, certification, the history of human communication, and advocacy. A final tenet of the foundations competency is communication, both written and verbal.

For this competency, none of the evaluation forms asked for assessment of the student related to the history of human communication, or made direct reference to legal implications of any quality.

Information Resources

The "Information Resources" competency covers topics related to collection development, collection management, and preservation and maintenance of collections. It is concerned with the entire cycle of information, including creation, selection, evaluation, processing, and disposal.

One form included information resources development specifically for special populations. For this competency, there were no mentions of purchasing of resources.

Organization of Recorded Knowledge and Information

The "Organization of Recorded Knowledge and Information" competency encompasses general standards of information organization, cataloging, metadata, classification and indexing. It also includes the actual skills needed to be able to describe and organize resources.

Although developmental and evaluative skills did not appear on the forms, they are included in the competency document. For this competency, only one form inquired about the OPAC, indexing, or metadata.

Technological Knowledge and Skills

The "Technological Knowledge and Skills" competency is concerned with using technologies, applying them to different services, and being aware of emerging technology. It comprises different types of technology, including that related to communication, information, and assistive ones.

A few forms did separate out types of technology, and two made allusion to the use of technology in an ethical manner. For this competency, none of the evaluation forms asked for assessment of the student related to the appraisal of various aspects of technologies, including technological specifications or cost-efficiency.

Reference and User Services

The "Reference and User Services" competency is broad, and covers general reference, literacy, advocacy, responding to diversity of patron needs, and development of services. It incorporates emerging circumstances that may have an effect on user services.

No forms included evaluation of numerical or statistical literacy, which appear in the ALA Core Competences. For this competency, none of the evaluation forms asked for assessment of the student related to emerging conditions that may affect user services.

Research

The "Research" competency is the shortest one. It mentions quantitative and qualitative methodologies, the research of the field, and the mechanisms to understand and utilize research findings.

For this competency, there was only one form that made any reference at all to research, and it was simply listed as research techniques.

Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning

The "Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning" competency speaks of the role of the library, the need for professional involvement, and the application of lifelong learning. It also involves the application of learning theories and instruction in libraries.

Few forms incorporated the tenets of this competency. The mentions were mostly about post-graduation professional development in respect to organizations, activities, and continuing education, and one was about preparedness for the profession.

Administration and Management

The last competency covers "Administration and Management." It incorporates leadership, collaboration, assessment, human resources, planning, and budgeting. This competency represents administration at a broad level, covering all stakeholders and communities served.

For this competency, none of the evaluation forms asked for assessment of the student related to budgeting, nor were there qualities on the forms about networking.

Non-Competence Based Qualities

The next section will cover the categories of characteristics on the evaluation forms that did not fall into the ALA Core Competences. These are:

* Personal Characteristics

* Relations with Others

* Work Habits

* Personal Knowledge and Abilities

* Ability to Learn

* Emotional Attributes

* Commitment

* Professionalism

* Work Performance

* Strengths and Weaknesses

Personal Characteristics

In the grouping category of "Personal Characteristics," there are many qualities that are represented both as adjectives and nouns which describe personal attributes that a fieldwork student may or may not possess. These are reminiscent of what an employer might look for in a job candidate.

Initiative, dependability, creativity, and judgment floated solidly to the top of this list of characteristics. Many forms asked supervisors to rate these qualities. However, not so many inquired as to the flexibility, resourcefulness, or responsibility of the fieldwork student. One form inquired as to whether the student "understands and applies logical principles to the 'doing' of the project."

Relations with Others

The grouping category of "Relations with Others" is operationally defined as containing the many qualities concerned with how the fieldwork student got along with others, and how they worked with others.

Working with others, cooperation, and interpersonal skills were the most frequently appearing characteristics on evaluation forms from this set of characteristics. They were represented in many forms, such as "cooperation," "cooperation with others," "work cooperatively with others." Teamwork and the ability to get along with others also appeared repeatedly. Only one form asked as to the compatibility of the fieldwork student to the work environment, and only one asked about how considerate of others the student was.

Work Habits

In the grouping category of "Work Habits," the qualities are concerned with characteristics that directly relate to how the fieldwork student performs work assignments. Many speak of how the student handles direction, how they complete tasks, and how organized they are.

Although only one form asked fieldwork supervisors to evaluate the speed with which students completed tasks, many asked about whether or not the tasks were completed, how independently the student performed the task, and how organized they were in doing so. Some did ask about how well the fieldwork student followed directions, and others asked about the student's ability to plan and prioritize.

Personal Knowledge and Abilities

The grouping category of "Personal Knowledge and Abilities" is operationally defined as the qualities that deal with the student's own comprehension of library skills and topics, and how they use that knowledge to perform in fieldwork assignments.

Job knowledge was the quality that appears most on evaluation forms from this thematic grouping. Problem-solving skills appeared the next most frequently, followed by presentation skills. Only one form included teaching skills, and only one asked fieldwork supervisors to assess the 'unique talent' of a student.

Ability to Learn

In the grouping category of "Ability to Learn," the attributes deal with the potential of the fieldwork student, his or her willingness to learn, and the flexibility the student displays in handling new things.

The ability to accept and react to criticism appeared frequently on the forms in one manner or another. Adaptability also emerged as a common basis for evaluation. The fieldwork student's willingness and eagerness to learn appears as the next most common attribute for evaluation. Appearing only once in the forms was whether or not the student sought evaluation of his or her performance, and whether or not he or she "exploited learning opportunities."

Emotional Attributes

In the category of "Emotional Attributes," the researcher includes characteristics that are more expressive in regards to personal sentiments and deportment. Manners and demeanor encompass these qualities.

This grouping category had the most unique non-competency attributes from the forms, with nothing appearing on more than nine forms. Poise, patience, sensitivity, and vitality appeared only once in the entire corpus of evaluation forms. Enthusiasm, attitude, and tact, however, were more common emotional attributes for evaluation.

Commitment

The grouping category of "Commitment" is operationally defined as containing the qualities incorporating how the fieldwork student fits in to the organization, how they adhere to the basic schedules, culture, and restrictions of the workplace.

Attendance and punctuality were the front running qualities from this category. Other characteristics here are vaguely similar, but hard to group. For example, one school grouped adherence to agreements about schedule and assignments in one rating. Another asked for a simple rating of the fieldwork student's discipline.

Professionalism

In the grouping category of "Professionalism," the fieldwork student's standards and ethics are rated. From dress code to personal vision of librarianship, it is through these attributes the student demonstrates his or her professional attitude and behavior.

Vision and equity each appeared once on an evaluation form. Professional behavior dominated this category with 15 appearances in different variations on the forms. The fieldwork student's ethical standards also appeared often. Trustworthiness materialized in this category twice, and four schools asked the supervisors to rate the students' grooming.

Work Performance

The quality, quantity, and method through which the fieldwork student accomplishes work appear in the grouping category of "Work Performance." It is in this category that the fieldwork supervisor rates his or her student on performance and whether or not tasks are completed.

Many schools asked fieldwork supervisors about their students' work quality; fewer asked about the quantity of work the student performed. Accuracy and thoroughness appeared as the next most often. One school asked about the students' physical stamina.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The simplest grouping category is "Strengths and Weaknesses." These qualities generally appear at the end of the evaluation forms, and usually incorporate a space for narrative explanation.

More schools asked about a fieldwork student's weaknesses, or areas of improvement, than asked about the strengths, or areas of excellence. In few cases was this phrased from the student's point of view, as in whether or not the student acknowledges his or her own strengths and weaknesses.

The most frequently appearing characteristic for evaluation on the forms provided by library schools to fieldwork supervisors is "initiative." Secondly, schools asked for "areas for improvement" the next most often.

Conclusion

As stated above, it might be helpful to reexamine the evaluation forms provided to fieldwork supervisors for evaluation of students. In 1980, after conducting an analysis of fieldwork evaluation forms from 23 schools, Coburn created a sample evaluation form that could be used by a supervisor in a fieldwork experience to assess a student. He took the commonly appearing rating scales and evaluation characteristics on library school evaluation forms and accumulated them into one.

This research has undertaken a similar approach by identifying the most frequently appearing characteristics from 47 library school fieldwork evaluation forms, comparing that to what fieldwork supervisors indicate they use as a basis for evaluation of fieldwork students, and suggesting additional characteristics to comprise a new evaluation form. Most library school-provided evaluation forms do not incorporate the ALA Core Competences of Librarianship and other practical skills that fieldwork supervisors state they wish they could evaluate. To do this, the researcher proposes a four part form that would cover assignments, core competencies, personal characteristics, and final thoughts. A full example of said form can be found in Appendix A.

Evaluation Form Section One: Assignments

The introductory section of the proposed evaluation form would contain general information about the fieldwork experience. It should contain:

* Name of student

* Semester

* Name of supervisor & hosting institution

* Due date

* Contact information (email and phone)

* Where to return form

There should also be a brief statement thanking the supervisor for his or her input:
   Thank you for supporting the Library
   School Fieldwork Program. The fieldwork
   experience you provide is a valuable part of
   our students' educational experience. We
   value the information you can supply about
   the fieldwork student's activities and contributions
   during the fieldwork experience.
   Please use the following form to appraise
   the student's involvement and performance.


There could be a place for the supervisor to sign if they give permission for the evaluation information to be shared with the student:
   Although final grades are assigned by
   Library School, your evaluation provides
   constructive information that we use in
   conjunction with final reports to fully
   assess the student. This evaluation is confidential,
   and will not be shared with the student
   without your permission. If you agree
   to share this with the student, please sign
   here:--.


The last part of this initial section of the form should have at least these two things:

* List the goals set with the student, the general responsibilities of the student, and/or specific projects completed.

* Did the student work the required number of hours to complete the fieldwork experience?

Evaluation Form Section Two: Core Competences

The following section of the proposed evaluation form would contain rating tables in which the fieldwork supervisor would use a defined scale to rate the student's performance in the various aspects of the ALA Core Competences. An example is given in Table 22 below. The rating scale uses '5' as best and '1' as worst.

Evaluation Form Section Three: Personal Characteristics

This section of the proposed evaluation form integrates the most commonly appearing characteristics from the analyzed library school evaluation forms with a few others suggested by respondents to the online survey and interviews. Characteristics are broken into these sections: general characteristics, relations with others, work habits, ability to learn, commitment, professionalism, work performance, and emotional attributes. A sample section of the form is given here with '5' as best and '1' as worst.

Evaluation Form Section Four: Final Thoughts

The last section of the proposed evaluation form should provide the fieldwork supervisor the opportunity to write more narrative assessments not covered in the ratings scales from sections two and three. In this section, a variety of questions are suggested:

* Please comment on the student's strengths.

* Please comment on the student's areas for improvement.

* Please provide any other comments you have on this student not covered in this evaluation.

* If you had a vacancy, would you hire this student?

* Would you give this student a recommendation to a prospective employer?

This final section would also be used to give feedback to the library school about the host site supervisor's thoughts on the fieldwork experience. These could include:

* Do you have any thoughts on improving the fieldwork experience?

* How can the library school help you during the fieldwork experience?

* Would you like to host another fieldwork student?

* Do you believe that the library school has adequately prepared this student for work in a library/information institution?

* Did you/your institution benefit from this experience? If so, how?

The full example given in Appendix A is longer than each of the forty seven forms analyzed for this research. There are forty one separate competency statements alone in ALA's Core Competences of Librarianship document, and when combined with a variety of personal characteristics, it is acknowledged that this form could be considered too lengthy and excessive by library schools. The researcher contends that the inclusion of a choice of NA for "not applicable" gives the supervisor the prerogative to exclude any unsuitable characteristic or competence for evaluation. The inclusion of the content for potential evaluation, however, gives a more accurate picture of the performance of the student, and therefore aids the library school is assessment.

A gap in fieldwork research in library science is the lack of a current comprehensive analysis of fieldwork in library and information science programs (Ball, 2008; Banks & Lents, 1992). Another major gap is the paucity of input or recommendations from governing organizations, or groups at a national level, aside from the over-twenty-year-old ALISE's 1990 Guidelines for Practices and Principles in the Design, Operation, and Evaluation of Student Field Experiences. There does not appear to be a current 'Board for Librarianship' or 'Alliance of LIS Educators' that is making recommendations or creating accreditation requirements regarding fieldwork. ALA's 2008 Standards for Accreditation of Master's Programs in Library and Information Studies make no mention of fieldwork at all.

Assessment of fieldwork is another area needing more exploration, and one in which national organizations should get involved. The discrepancies between library school programs as to grading and course credit merits more study. Perhaps a recommended uniform rubric that could be modified by each school to lay out an assessment plan would be useful. Also, looking into the responsibility of assessment, and who it ultimately lies with, is lacking published research at this time. Though not always a required course, fieldwork is offered as part of all but one English-speaking library schools' curricula. The fieldwork experience is important to students, libraries, and library schools, and offers benefits to each. The supervisors of fieldwork students are an integral part of the experience, and the entire experience warrants further exploration through targeted research.

Appendix

Sample Fieldwork Evaluation Form

Library School Name:--

Name of student:--

Name of supervisor:--

Hosting Institution:--

Email:--

Telephone:--

Semester:--

Due Date:--

Please complete and send this form to:--

Thank you for supporting the Library School Fieldwork Program. The fieldwork experience you provide is a valuable part of our students' educational experience. We value the information you can supply about the fieldwork student's activities and contributions during the fieldwork experience. Please use the following form to appraise the student's involvement and performance.

Although final grades are assigned by library school, your evaluation provides constructive information that we use in conjunction with final reports to fully assess the student. This evaluation is confidential, and will not be shared with the student without your permission. If you agree to share this with the student, please sign here:

Part One--Assignments

List the goals set with the student, the general responsibilities of the student, and/or specific projects completed.

Did the student work the required number of hours to complete the fieldwork experience?

Part Two--Core Competencies

This section contains the American Library Association's Core Competences of Librarianship http://www.ala.org/educationcareers/careers/corecomp/corecompetences. According to their website, "The Core Competences of Librarianship define the knowledge to be possessed by all persons graduating from ALA-accredited master's programs in library and information studies." Each part of the eight competencies is included below.
Please use the following scale to evaluate
the student's performance:

5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Average
2 = Needs Improvement
1 = Unacceptable
NA = Not Applicable

                                     5    4    3    2    1    NA

Foundations of the Profession

Ethics, values, and                  []   []   []   []   []   []
  foundational principles of the
  library and information
  profession.
Role of library and information      []   []   []   []   []   []
  professionals in the promotion
  of democratic principles and
  intellectual freedom (including
  freedom of expression, thought,
  and conscience).
History of libraries and             []   []   []   []   []   []
  librarianship.
History of human communication       []   []   []   []   []   []
  and its impact on libraries.
Current types of library             []   []   []   []   []   []
  (school, public, academic,
  special, etc.) and closely
  related information agencies.
National and international           []   []   []   []   []   []
  social, public, information,
  economic, and cultural policies
  and trends of significance to
  the library and information
  profession.
Legal framework within which         []   []   []   []   []   []
  libraries and information
  agencies operate. That
  framework includes laws
  relating to copyright, privacy,
  freedom of expression, equal
  rights (e.g., the Americans
  with Disabilities Act), and
  intellectual property.
Importance of effective              []   []   []   []   []   []
  advocacy for libraries,
  librarians, other library
  workers, and library services.
Techniques used to analyze           []   []   []   []   []   []
  complex problems and create
  appropriate solutions.
Effective communication              []   []   []   []   []   []
  techniques (verbal and
  written).
Certification and/or licensure       []   []   []   []   []   []
  requirements of specialized
  areas of the profession.

Information Resources

Concepts and issues related to       []   []   []   []   []   []
  the lifecycle of recorded
  knowledge and information, from
  creation through various stages
  of use to disposition.
Concepts, issues, and methods        []   []   []   []   []   []
  related to the acquisition and
  disposition of resources,
  including evaluation,
  selection, purchasing,
  processing, storing, and
  deselection.
Concepts, issues, and methods        []   []   []   []   []   []
  related to the management of
  various collections.
Concepts, issues, and methods        []   []   []   []   []   []
  related to the maintenance of
  collections, including
  preservation and conservation.

Organization of Recorded
Knowledge

The principles involved in the       []   []   []   []   []   []
  organization and representation
  of recorded knowledge and
  information.
The developmental, descriptive,      []   []   []   []   []   []
  and evaluative skills needed to
  organize recorded knowledge and
  information resources.
The systems of cataloging,           []   []   []   []   []   []
  metadata, indexing, and
  classification standards and
  methods used to organize
  recorded knowledge and
  information.

                                     5    4    3    2    1    NA

Technological Knowledge and Skills

Information, communication,          []   []   []   []   []   []
  assistive, and related
  technologies as they affect the
  resources, service delivery,
  and uses of libraries and other
  information agencies.
The application of information,      []   []   []   []   []   []
  communication, assistive, and
  related technology and tools
  consistent with professional
  ethics and prevailing service
  norms and applications.
The methods of assessing and         []   []   []   []   []   []
  evaluating the specifications,
  efficacy, and cost efficiency
  of technology-based products
  and services.
The principles and techniques        []   []   []   []   []   []
  necessary to identify and
  analyze emerging technologies
  and innovations in order to
  recognize and implement
  relevant technological
  improvements.

Reference and User Services

The concepts, principles, and        []   []   []   []   []   []
  techniques of reference and
  user services that provide
  access to relevant and accurate
  recorded knowledge and
  information to individuals of
  all ages and groups.
Techniques used to retrieve,         []   []   []   []   []   []
  evaluate, and synthesize
  information from diverse
  sources for use by individuals
  of all ages and groups.
The methods used to interact         []   []   []   []   []   []
  successfully with individuals
  of all ages and groups to
  provide consultation,
  mediation, and guidance in
  their use of recorded knowledge
  and information.
Information                          []   []   []   []   []   []
  literacy/information competence
  techniques and methods,
  numerical literacy, and
  statistical literacy.
The principles and methods of        []   []   []   []   []   []
  advocacy used to reach specific
  audiences to promote and
  explain concepts and services.
The principles of assessment         []   []   []   []   []   []
  and response to diversity in
  user needs, user communities,
  and user preferences.
The principles and methods used      []   []   []   []   []   []
  to assess the impact of current
  and emerging situations or
  circumstances on the design and
  implementation of appropriate
  services or resource
  development.

Research

The fundamentals of                  []   []   []   []   []   []
  quantitative and qualitative
  research methods.
The central research findings        []   []   []   []   []   []
  and research literature of the
  field.
The principles and methods used      []   []   []   []   []   []
  to assess the actual and
  potential value of new
  research.

Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning

The necessity of continuing          []   []   []   []   []   []
  professional development of
  practitioners in libraries and
  other information agencies.
The role of the library in the       []   []   []   []   []   []
  lifelong learning of patrons,
  including an understanding of
  lifelong learning in the
  provision of quality service
  and the use of lifelong
  learning in the promotion of
  library services.
Learning theories,                   []   []   []   []   []   []
  instructional methods, and
  achievement measures; and their
  application in libraries and
  other information agencies.
The principles related to the        []   []   []   []   []   []
  teaching and learning of
  concepts, processes and skills
  used in seeking, evaluating,
  and using recorded knowledge
  and information.

Administration and Management

The principles of planning and       []   []   []   []   []   []
  budgeting in libraries and
  other information agencies.
The principles of effective          []   []   []   []   []   []
  personnel practices and human
  resource development.
The concepts behind, and             []   []   []   []   []   []
  methods for, assessment and
  evaluation of library services
  and their outcomes.
The concepts behind, and             []   []   []   []   []   []
  methods for, developing
  partnerships, collaborations,
  networks, and other structures
  with all stakeholders and
  within communities served.
The concepts behind, issues          []   []   []   []   []   []
  relating to, and methods for,
  principled, transformational
  leadership.

Part Three--Personal Characteristics

Please use the following scale to evaluate
the student's performance:

5 = Excellent
4 = Very Good
3 = Average
2 = Needs Improvement
1 = Unacceptable
NA = Not Applicable

General Characteristics              5    4    3    2    1    NA

Initiative                           []   []   []   []   []   []
Dependability                        []   []   []   []   []   []
Creativity                           []   []   []   []   []   []
Judgment                             []   []   []   []   []   []
Decision-making skills               []   []   []   []   []   []
Reliability                          []   []   []   []   []   []
Flexibility                          []   []   []   []   []   []
Resourcefulness                      []   []   []   []   []   []
Innovativeness                       []   []   []   []   []   []
Curiosity                            []   []   []   []   []   []

                                     5    4    3    2    1    NA

Relations With Others

Cooperation                          []   []   []   []   []   []
Interactions with staff              []   []   []   []   []   []
Interactions with customers          []   []   []   []   []   []
Collaboration                        []   []   []   []   []   []
Customer Service                     []   []   []   []   []   []

Work Habits

Organization                         []   []   []   []   []   []
Completion of tasks                  []   []   []   []   []   []
Independence                         []   []   []   []   []   []
Follows instructions                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Helpfulness                          []   []   []   []   []   []
Prioritization skills                []   []   []   []   []   []
Time management                      []   []   []   []   []   []
Speed                                []   []   []   []   []   []

Ability to Learn

Adaptability                         []   []   []   []   []   []
Learns from critique                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Desire to learn more                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Interest in the work                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Seek evaluation of                   []   []   []   []   []   []
  performance/feedback
Improvement in skills over           []   []   []   []   []   []
  fieldwork experience

Commitment

Punctuality                          []   []   []   []   []   []
Attendance                           []   []   []   []   []   []
Learn organization's policies        []   []   []   []   []   []
  and procedures
Participate in organization's        []   []   []   []   []   []
  operations
Adherence to organization's          []   []   []   []   []   []
  restrictions
Appreciation of organization's       []   []   []   []   []   []
  culture

Professionalism

Behavior                             []   []   []   []   []   []
Integrity                            []   []   []   []   []   []
Appearance                           []   []   []   []   []   []
Interest in profession               []   []   []   []   []   []

                                     5    4    3    2    1    NA

Work Performance

Quality of work                      []   []   []   []   []   []
Quantity of work                     []   []   []   []   []   []
Thoroughness                         []   []   []   []   []   []
Accuracy                             []   []   []   []   []   []
Recognizes strengths                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Recognizes areas for improvement     []   []   []   []   []   []

Emotional Attributes

Attitude                             []   []   []   []   []   []
Enthusiasm                           []   []   []   []   []   []
Tact                                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Courtesy                             []   []   []   []   []   []
Maturity                             []   []   []   []   []   []


Part Four--Final Thoughts

Please comment on the student's strengths:

Please comment on the student's areas for improvement:

Please provide any other comments you have on this student not covered in this evaluation:

If you had a vacancy, would you hire this student?

Would you give this student a recommendation to a prospective employer?

Information for the Library School:

Do you have any thoughts on improving the library school's fieldwork experience?

How can the library school help you during fieldwork experiences?

Would you like to host another fieldwork student?

Do you believe that library school has adequately prepared this student for work in a library/information institution?

Did you/your institution benefit from this experience? If so, how?

References

American Library Association. (2008). Standards for Accreditation of Master's Programs in Library and Information Science. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/accreditedprograms/sites/ala. org.accreditedprograms/files/content/standards/ standards_2008.pdf

American Library Association. (2009). Core Competences of Librarianship. Retrieved from http:// www.ala.org/educationcareers/sites/ala.org. educationcareers/files/content/careers/corecomp/ corecompetences/finalcorecompstat09.pdf

American Library Association. (2011). Directory of ALA-Accredited master's programs in library and information science. Retrieved from http:// www.ala.org/accreditedprograms/sites/ala.org. accreditedprograms/files/content/directory/pdf/ LIS%20DIR2009-2010.pdf

Association for Library and Information Science Education, Information Organization Heads Task Force on Internships and Field Experiences. (1990). Guidelines for Practices and Principles in the Design, Operation, and Evaluation of Student Field Experiences. Retrieved from http://www.alise.org/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=49

Ball, M. (2008). Practicums and service learning in LIS education. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 49, 70-82.

Barron, D. & Harris, C. (2004). Curriculum. Library and Information Science Education Statistical Report. Retrieved from http://ils.unc.edu/ ALISE/2004

Berry, J. (2005). The practice prerequisite. Library Journal, 130, 8.

Botello, K. (2006). Library school internship programs: how UCLA does it. In C. Mediavilla (Ed.), Public library internships: Advice from the field (pp. 13-18). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Brundin, R. (1989). The place of the practicum in teaching reference interview techniques. Reference Librarian, 11, 449-464.

Churchwell, C. (1975). The shaping of American library education. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Claggett, L., Chindlund, J., Friedman, C., Malinowski, M., Pospisil, K., ... Sebby, B. (2002). Library practicum 101. Information Outlook, 6, 36-42.

Coburn, L. (1980). Classroom and field: the internship in American library education. New York, NY: Queens College.

Coleman, J. G. (1989). The role of the practicum in library schools. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 30, 19-27.

Damasco, I., & McGurr, M. (2008). A survey of cataloger perspectives on practicum experiences. Cataloging and Classification Quarterly, 45, 43-64.

Dewey, M. (1879). Apprenticeship of librarians. Library Journal, 4, 147-148.

Donnelly, J. (1925). Report of committee on fieldwork in the AALS member schools. American Association of Library Schools Conference, Seattle, WA. Courtesy of the University of Illinois, American Library Association Archives.

Futas, E. (1994). The practicum in collection development: A debate. In P. Johnson & S. Intner (Eds.), Recruiting, educating, and training librarians for collection development (pp. 145-156). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Genovese, R. (1991). The use of library school students for technical services projects. Technical Services Quarterly, 8, 63-69.

Grotzinger, L. (1971). The status of 'practicum' in graduate library schools. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 11, 332-339.

Hacker, R. (1987). The role of practical work in library and information science curricula. Paper presented at the International Conference on Library and Information Science Education, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.

Howden, N. (1992). Practicums and field experiences. Journal of Library Administration, 16, 123-140.

Katz, W., Bunge, C., & Rothstein, S. (1989). Rothstein on reference: With some help from friends. New York, NY: Haworth Press.

Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Larned, J.N., Hasse, A., Browning, E., & Garland, C. (1896). Report of Committee on Library Schools. Library Journal, 21, 93-97.

Markey, K. (2004). Current educational trends in the information and library science curriculum. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 45, 317-339.

McGurr, M., & Damasco, I. (2010). Improving the practicum or internship experience in cataloging. Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 1-16.

Mediavilla, C. (Ed.). (2006). Public library internships: Advice from the field. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.

Metcalf, K., Russel, J., & Osborn, A. (1943). The program of instruction in library schools. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Monroe, M. (1981). Issues in field experience as an element in the library school curriculum. Journal of Education for Librarianship, 22, 57-73.

Nakano, K., & Morrison, J. (1992). Public-service experience in the introductory reference course: A model program and survey of accredited library schools. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 33, 110-128.

Ottolenghi, C. (2012). Defensive promotion. AALL Spectrum, 16, 16-17.

Palmer, R. (1975). Internships and practicums. In M. Cassata & H. Totten (Eds.), The administrative aspects of librarianship (pp. 239-253). Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Plummer, M, Fairchild, S., Sharp, K., Kroeger, A., Robbins, M., & Anderson, E.H. (1903). Report of the Committee on Library Training. Library Journal, 28, 83-101.

Reece, E. (1933). Work-contacts for library-school students. Library Quarterly, 3, 170-179.

Ricker, J. (2005). Public librarians' perceived value of experiential learning (Unpublished master's thesis). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Rothstein, S. (1989). A forgotten issue: Practice work in American library education. Reference Librarian, 25-26, 199-224. (Reprint of 1968 article).

Samek, T., & Oberg, D. (1999). Learning to think like a professional: Reflections from LIS students. Paper presented at the Canadian Association for Information Science Conference, Sherbrooke, Quebec.

St. John, F. (1938). Internship in the library profession. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Tietjen, M. (1977). Playing the field . . . or practice makes perfect. Wilson Library Bulletin, 52, 61-63.

Van Deusen, N. (1946). Field work in accredited library schools. College and Research Libraries, 7, 249-255.

Van Deusen, N. (1949). Professional education for librarianship: Summary. In B. Berelson (Ed.), Education for librarianship: Papers presented at the Library Conference, University of Chicago, August 16-21, 1948 (pp. 187-203).

Vann, S. (1961). Training for librarianship before 1923. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

Ward, B. (1973). A rationale for field experience in library education. Journal of Education for Librarianship, 13, 232-237.

White, C. (1961). The origins of the American library school. New York, NY: Scarecrow Press.

Williamson, C. (1923). Training for library service: a report prepared for the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Boston, MA: Updike Press.

Witucke, V. (1976). Library school policies toward pre-professional work experience. Journal of Education for Librarianship, 16, 162-172.

Wright, H. (1949). Discussion. In B. Berelson (Ed.), Education for Librarianship: Papers Presented at the Library Conference, University of Chicago, August 16-21, 1948 (pp. 38-43).

Sian Brannon

Libraries, University of North Texas, Email: Sian.brannon@unt.edu
Table 1. Major Surveys of Library Schools
Including a Fieldwork Component.

Study Conductor (Date Reported)        Date of   Number of
                                        Study     Schools
                                                 Offering
                                                   Data

Report of Committee on Library          1896         4
  Schools (Larned et al. 1896)
Report of the Committee on Library      1903         9
  Training (Plummer et al. 1903)
Association of American Library         1915        15
  Schools (Vann 1961)
Williamson (1923)                       1921        15
Association of American Library         1925        14
  Schools (Donnelly 1925)
Van Deusen (1946)                       1944        32
Rothstein (1989, reprint from 1968)     1967        36
Grotzinger (1971)                       1969        42
Grotzinger (1971, second survey)        1970        48
Witucke (1976)                          1972        55
Palmer (1975)                           1973        35
Tietjen (1977)                          1975        62
Coburn (1980)                           1980        55
Coleman (1989)                          1987        59
Nakano & Morrison (1992)                1988        55
Howden (1992)                           1989        51
Markey (2004)                           2002        54

Study Conductor (Date Reported)          Number of     Number of
                                       Schools that     Library
                                          Require       Schools
                                       Fieldwork of    that Offer
                                       All Students    FieldWork
                                                       as Option

Report of Committee on Library               4             --
  Schools (Larned et al. 1896)
Report of the Committee on Library           9             --
  Training (Plummer et al. 1903)
Association of American Library             15             --
  Schools (Vann 1961)
Williamson (1923)                           --             --
Association of American Library             14             --
  Schools (Donnelly 1925)
Van Deusen (1946)                           28             --
Rothstein (1989, reprint from 1968)         10             --
Grotzinger (1971)                           --             14
Grotzinger (1971, second survey)            10             --
Witucke (1976)                               6             --
Palmer (1975)                               --             20
Tietjen (1977)                               4             40
Coburn (1980)                               --             50
Coleman (1989)                               6             49
Nakano & Morrison (1992)                     7             42
Howden (1992)                                8             38
Markey (2004)                                9             --

Study Conductor (Date Reported)        Typical Hours
                                        Required of
                                          Student

Report of Committee on Library              --
  Schools (Larned et al. 1896)
Report of the Committee on Library          --
  Training (Plummer et al. 1903)
Association of American Library           120-464
  Schools (Vann 1961)
Williamson (1923)                         160-480
Association of American Library             --
  Schools (Donnelly 1925)
Van Deusen (1946)                           --
Rothstein (1989, reprint from 1968)         --
Grotzinger (1971)                           --
Grotzinger (1971, second survey)            --
Witucke (1976)                            18-450
Palmer (1975)                             80-160
Tietjen (1977)                            30-400
Coburn (1980)                             80-180
Coleman (1989)                            84-225
Nakano & Morrison (1992)                    --
Howden (1992)                               --
Markey (2004)                               --

Table 2. Additional Evaluation Form Questions.

Characteristic                                           Frequency

Ask supervisor to list student responsibilities/goals       20
Rate success in meeting stated goals/assignments            12
Would you hire student?                                     12
Would you give student a recommendation?                     4
Was student able to contribute to the host site?             4
Was student adequately prepared via coursework?              3
Predict student's degree of success in the field             3
General impression of student                                2
What do you think student learned/gained?                    2
Did student work required amount of time to                  1
  complete course?
Did you have any problems working with student?              1
Did you discuss career plans with student?                   1
List most valuable skills you look for in an intern          1
List most valuable skills of this particular intern          1

Table 3. Frequency of "Foundations of the Profession" Competencies.

Characteristic                                            Frequency

Communication, communication skills, employs effective       17
  communication skills, communicated, communicated
  well, communicates well with patrons, communicates
  well with patrons and staff, communicates well with
  staff, communicate with   supervisor
Analysis skills, analytic ability problem solving,            6
  analytical skills, analyze problems, assist in
  providing original solutions, and follow through
  with implementation plans; critical thinking skills
Communicate in writing, communication skills written,         6
  writing ability, written communication
Communicate verbally, communication skills verbal,            6
  oral/speaking ability, verbal communication
Apply theory, apply theory to practice; apply theory,         4
  conceptual principles and scholarly research;
  applying the concepts and principles of library
  and information sciences
Communicates clearly in writing and speaking, oral            4
  and written communication, written and spoken
  communication
Expressed himself/herself in written and oral English,        4
  Uses correct English, use of English-spoken, use of
  English-written
Intellectual freedom, recognizes the tenets of                3
  intellectual freedom
Privacy, maintain confidentiality, patron privacy             3
Information policy, information issues and regulations        2
Knows history of information professions, background          2
  knowledge of librarianship at the outset
Awareness of current issues/events that impact                1
  libraries
Awareness of professional ethics                              1
Communicate appropriately to individuals, and groups          1
  through group discussions and presentations
Express oneself                                               1
Foreign language proficiency                                  1
Intellectual property                                         1
Interest in the issues, policies, and organizations           1
  related to the field
Knowledge of subject area                                     1
Maintains a professional demeanor in verbal                   1
  interactions with staff
Recognizes libraries' needs for advocates                     1
Self-confidence in speaking and behavior                      1
Understands the changing roles of information                 1
  professionals

Table 4. Frequency of "Information Resources" Competencies.

Characteristic                                         Frequency

Selection skills, select best potential                    8
  resources to meet information needs, principles
  of materials selection, principles of collection
  development, recommending resources for purchase,
  verify requested items for selection
Awareness of acquisition and disposition of                3
  resources, acquisitions, ordering materials
Information resources, knowledge of information            3
  sources, knowledge of sources
Collection management skills; analysis,                    2
  interpretation, and evaluation of an existing
  collection
Knowledge of reviewing sources, evaluate resources         2
Understanding of preservation and conservation of          2
  collections, repair materials
Bibliography preparation                                   1
Collection development                                     1
Create, select, or acquire information resources           1
Develop resources for special populations                  1
Develop, maintain, and evaluate information content        1
Identification, selection, and acquisition                 1
Manage and/or preserve information resources               1
Receiving and processing materials                         1
Retrieval, provision of access, storage, and               1
  preservation
Weeding                                                    1

Table 5. Frequency of "Organization of Recorded
Knowledge and Information" Competencies.

Characteristic                             Frequency

Cataloging, original cataloging, online        6
editing, copy cataloging

Organize, classify, and deliver                6
information; organize and/or describe
information resources; organization of
recorded knowledge and information,
understands the principles of the
organization and representation of
information; understands information
organization

Technical services skills, technical           4
services and skills, work with technical
matters

Shelve materials, reads shelves                2

Classification standards                       1

Indexing                                       1

Management principles to the creation,         1
administration, and promotion of
information organizations and systems

Metadata                                       1

Perform proofreading and material              1
correction

Periodical management                          1

Uploading onto OPAC                            1

Table 6. Frequency of "Technological Knowledge and
Skills" Competencies.

Characteristic                             Frequency

Information technology skills,                 6
demonstrated and acquired knowledge and
skill in using information technologies,
technological knowledge and skills,
technology skills, possessed or learned
technological skills needed

Evaluate and assess technologies               2

Media literacy/media utilization               2
technologies

Understanding of technologies,                 2
understands, implements and/or uses
appropriate technologies

Use of technologies in an ethical              2
manner, proper use and care of
department equipment

Comfortable with appropriate technology        1

Use assistive technologies                     1

Use communication technologies                 1

Use current information technologies           1

Table 7. Frequency of "Reference and User Services"
Competencies.

Characteristic                              Frequency

Reference and research skills, use              6
primary reference tools, use secondary
reference tools, provide bibliographic
assistance

Programming, programming other than             4
story hour, story hours, conduct library
programs

Online searching, bibliographic                 3
searching

Provides consultation, mediation, and           3
guidance to all users, serve diverse
clientele, provides access to relevant
information to diverse users

Determine information needs for self and        2
for customers, ability to determine
information needs for self and patrons

User services/reference, user guidance          2

Manage user-centered information                1
services and systems to meet the needs
of changing and diverse communities of
users by analyzing the information needs
of the individuals and communities in
the context of the demographic, social,
economic, and ethical factors

Readers advisory                                1

Reference interviews/question negotiation       1

Retrieve and disseminate information            1

Telephone reference                             1

Understands role in assisting patrons           1

Use print information                           1

Table 8. Frequency of "Research"
Competencies.

Characteristic        Frequency

Research techniques       1

Table 9. Frequency of "Continuing Education and
Lifelong Learning" Competencies.

Characteristic                        Frequency

Professional development, knowledge       2
of professional development

Continuing education                      1

Learn about, select, and join             1
appropriate organizations for
specialties

Participation in professional             1
activities

Preparedness for profession               1

Table 10. Frequency of "Administration and
Management" Competencies.

Characteristic         Frequency

Leadership,                5
leadership skills,
leadership
principles

Administration/            4
management,
administrative
ability, management

Supervision,               2
supervisory skills

Assess information         1
needs of diverse and
underserved

Assess information         1
services

Awareness of the           1
principles of
assessment and
evaluation of
library
services/programs
and outcomes

Discussed criteria         1
used to evaluate
services and
programs

Negotiation skills         1

Planned with others        1

Table 11. Frequency of Personal Characteristics.

Characteristic        Frequency

Initiative,              26
willingness to take
initiative

Dependable,              18
dependability

Creative,                17
creativity,
imagination

Judgment, soundness      17
of judgment

Decision-making,          9
makes appropriate
work decisions,
makes decisions

Reliability, could        9
be relied upon,
reliability in
following
instructions

Flexible,                 7
flexibility,
flexibility in
handling new
situations

Resourceful,              7
resourcefulness

Responsible,              7
responsibilities

Innovation,               3
innovativeness,
ingenuity

Curiosity                 2

Self-director,            2
self-starter

Act decisively            1

Originality               1

Think objectively         1

Understands and           1
applies logical
principles to the
doing' of the
project

Table 12. Frequency of Relations with Others Characteristics.

Characteristic         Frequency

Work with others,         15
work well with
supervisor, staff,
and patrons; work
with administrators,
staff, public; work
with patrons, work
with staff, worked
with staff and
patrons; worked with
staff, other
personnel, and
patrons/clients;
working with the
public; working with
the staff, works
well with coworkers

Cooperation,              14
cooperate with
members of his or
her own and other
units, cooperation
with others, work
cooperatively with
others,
cooperativeness,
works cooperatively
with other staff
members

Interpersonal             11
skills, Interaction
with others,
interacts
successfully with
all ages and groups,
interpersonal
relations,
interpersonal
relations with
clientele,
supervisors,
colleagues, and
staff, interpersonal
relations with
constituencies,
relations with
library public or
staff, relations
with others,
interaction with
others

Teamwork,                  8
adaptability to team
environment, sense
of teamwork, work as
a team member,
worked as team

Get along with             6
others in a team
environment, got
along with other
staff, interaction
with office
personnel,
interaction with
other staff,
interaction with
supervisor,
interpersonal
relations with peers

Collaboration,             4
builds collaborative
relationships,
collaborate with
future members of
other information
professions,
collaboration with
other students
through group
projects

Assisted and               2
interacted with
library users, deal
with clientele

Customer service,          2
human relations
skills

Presented a                2
professional manner
with patrons,
presented a
professional manner
with the other
librarians

Compatibility to the       1
work environment

Consideration of           1
others

Effectiveness in           1
dealing with others

Table 13. Frequency of Work Habit Characteristics.

Characteristic         Frequency

Organization,             16
organization of
work, organizational
ability,
organizational
skills, organize,
organized,
organizing

Complete tasks,           12
completes assigned
tasks, completion of
project goal(s),
completion of
projects,
satisfactorily
complete tasks,
completed assigned
tasks in a timely
manner, completes
project within
allotted time frame,
completes work in a
timely manner,
completed
assignments
promptly, and of
high quality;
assigned work
performed
satisfactorily

Independence,             11
independence of
action, independent
project/research,
independently act on
needs, work
independently,
worked independently
with no more than
necessary
instruction and
supervision,
performs independent
projects without
close supervision;
has the ability to
carry out job tasks
with or without job
supervision

Follow instructions,       9
follow directions
and ask questions,
willingness to take
direction; willing
to ask for guidance
and to follow it,
willingness to ask
for and use guidance

Helpfulness;               3
willingness to serve

Prioritize, set            3
priorities and make
decisions, setting
priorities

Time management, use       3
of time

Work habits                3

Organizes, plans,          2
and completes work
efficiently;
planning and
organizing

Persistence,               2
persistence to
complete tasks

Plan, ability to           2
plan

Take action without        2
being asked to do
so, anticipate needs

Accommodate change         1

Assumed                    1
responsibilities

Effective                  1

Efficient                  1

Follow-through             1

Managed multiple           1
work assignments

Meeting deadlines          1

Speed                      1

Table 14. Frequency of Personal Knowledge and
Abilities Characteristics.

Characteristic         Frequency

Knowledge, academic       15
knowledge, knowledge
of tasks,
professional
knowledge, technical
and professional
knowledge

Problem solving            8
skills, problem
solving, create and
communicate possible
solutions to
problems, suggest
viable solutions for
problems

Presentation skills,       7
makes presentations
to share knowledge,
group presentation
and individualized
instruction

Assess skills,             4
assess skills and
knowledge

Grasp essentials,          4
grasp of subject

Job knowledge over         3
time, increasing
knowledge and skills

Potential as a             2
professional
librarian,
probability for
success in the
profession,
professional ability

Bring unique talent        1
to projects

Identifies, corrects       1
and/or reports
problem areas,
identify problems
and communicate
findings

Knowledgeable and          1
inquisitive
concerning the
relationship between
theory and practice

Teaching skills            1

Technical skill            1

Table 15. Frequency of Ability to Learn
Characteristics.

Characteristic                     Frequency

Adaptability, adapt to a              13
variety of tasks, adaptability
to change, adaptable, adapted
well to changes, adjustability

Learn from constructive               13
criticism, learn from
criticism, reacts well to
suggestions, respond
positively to criticism;
attitude toward
instruction/criticism, learn
to take criticism; open to
feedback and evaluation; learn
from mistakes; accept
constructive criticism, accept
criticism, response to
criticism

Desire to gain more expertise         10
and knowledge of job,
eagerness to learn, readiness
to learn, professional
responsibility to learn;
willingness to acquire new
skills, willingness to learn,
willingness to learn new
things; interest in the
practicum as a learning
experience

Ability to learn, ability to           5
learn and apply new skills and
procedures, aptitude for
learning

Asks for clarification when            4
unsure of proper procedures,
seeks direction, seeks
instruction; asks for
direction

Ability to accept                      3
instructions, receptive to
feedback and directions from
supervisors, respond
positively to direction

Application to work, apply             2
oneself

Asks appropriate questions;            2
asked questions, and reflected
upon the answers

Willingness to assume                  2
responsibility

Exploited learning                     1
opportunities

Improvement in the student's           1
skills over the course of the
practicum

Interest in the work                   1

Professional growth                    1

Receptive to new ideas                 1

Responsiveness to supervision          1

Seeks evaluation of performance        1

Table 16. Frequency of Emotional Attributes.

Characteristic                                Frequency

Attitude                                          9
Enthusiasm, enthusiasm for assignments,           8
  enthusiasm for the experience
Tact                                              5
Courtesy, courtesy to staff and volunteers        4
Alertness                                         3
Conduct, conduct at work, personal demeanor       3
Emotional stability, emotional stamina,           3
  possession of emotional control
Maturity                                          3
Poise                                             3
Assertiveness                                     2
Conscientious, conscientiousness                  2
Cope in stressful learning situations,            2
  cope in stressful situations
Positive attitude, positive attitude              2
  towards assigned tasks
Self-control                                      2
Avoid bias and emotional response                 1
Patience                                          1
Sensitivity                                       1
Stability                                         1
Tolerance                                         1
Vitality                                          1

Table 17. Frequency of Commitment Characteristics.

Characteristic                                Frequency

Promptness, punctual, punctuality, arrived       14
  promptly and did not leave early;
  arrives for work ready to begin his or
  her shift
Attendance; arrives for work at scheduled        11
  time or has given prior notification of
  absence or lateness
Became informed about existing policies,          4
  informed about the institution's/
  department's policies, knowledge of
  policies and procedures, policy and
  procedures
Honors schedules, appointments, and               4
  deadlines; kept to schedule; commitment
  to scheduled work days and hours;
  followed the schedule without unexcused
  absences
Commitment, commitment to job                     3
Adapted to the culture of the library's           2
  environment; show an understanding for
  your organizational culture, clients,
  and mission
Made a noticeable contribution to the             2
  department, project value to the
  organization
Participates in the organization/department       2
  meetings/activities, participation in
  library operations
Adheres to work area restrictions                 1
Became familiar with reports, including how       1
  including how information is gathered,
  processed, routed and the use to which
  reports are put
Conformity to codes                               1
Dedication                                        1
Discipline                                        1
Gained an appreciation, and understanding         1
  of your library/information center and
  its services
Maintenance of an atmosphere conducive to         1
  achieving the goals and objectives of
  the organization
Participated in agency activities in the          1
  community, as appropriate
Uphold the agreements made pertaining to          1
  working hours and assignments

Table 18. Frequency of Professionalism Characteristics.

Characteristic                                    Frequency

Professional behavior; professional demeanor;        15
  professionalism; work professionally; acted
  in a professional manner, conduct herself/
  himself in a professional manner;
 demonstrate professional growth
Ethical attitude, ethical standards, ethical          8
  standards and practices; high ethical and
  professional standards; maintains ethical
  behavior
Integrity, professional integrity, commitment         7
  to professional principles
Appearance, dress code, grooming, personal            4
  appearance
Professional attitude                                 4
Service ethic; service orientation                    3
Trustworthiness                                       2
Completes assignments in a professional manner        1
Equity                                                1
Interested in professional issues and policies        1
Vision                                                1
Worked within a reasonable set of expectations        1
  for conduct as defined by the profession and
  workplace

Table 19. Frequency of Work Performance Characteristics.

Characteristic                                 Frequency

Quality, quality of assignments, quality of       18
  assignments completed, quality of work,
  quality of effort
Accuracy, accurate, accurately, attention          8
  to accuracy and detail, attention to
  detail, completes assigned tasks
  accurately
Quantity of work                                   7
Thorough, thoroughness                             6
Met objectives, met practicum standards,           4
  achieved objectives, fulfilled
  expectations for working productively
Performance, work performance                      4
Productivity                                       3
Admits errors, avoidance of errors and             2
  ability to learn from them
Industriousness, industry/thoroughness             2
Creates project successfully                       1
Demonstrated growth                                1
Performance met minimum standards for              1
  academic credit
Physical stamina                                   1
Project completed and delivered in timely          1
  fashion
Seemed to gain much                                1

Table 20. Frequency of Strengths and
Weaknesses.

Characteristic                      Frequency

Strengths                              17
Recognizes personal strengths           1
Areas of excellence                     1
Areas for improvement                  20
Recognizes need for improvement         1
Recognizes areas for improvement        1
Weaknesses                              2

Table 21. Most Frequently Appearing
Evaluation Characteristics.

Characteristic                      Frequency

Initiative                             26
Areas for improvement/weaknesses       24
Strengths                              19
Dependability                          18
Quality of assignments                 18
Communication skills                   17
Creativity                             17
Judgment                               17
Organization skills                    16
Works with others                      15
Professionalism                        15

Table 22. Sample Competency Section of Proposed Evaluation Form.

Continuing Education and    5    4    3    2    1    NA
Lifelong Learning

The necessity of            []   []   []   []   []   []
continuing professional
development of
practitioners in
libraries and other
information agencies.

The role of the library     []   []   []   []   []   []
in the lifelong learning
of patrons, including an
understanding of lifelong
learning in the provision
of quality service and
the use of lifelong
learning in the promotion
of library services.

Learning theories,          []   []   []   []   []   []
instructional methods,
and achievement measures;
and their application in
libraries and other
information agencies.

The principles related to   []   []   []   []   []   []
the teaching and learning
of concepts, processes
and skills used in
seeking, evaluating, and
using recorded knowledge
and information.

Table 23. Sample Personal Characteristics Section of
Proposed Evaluation Form.

General Characteristics       5    4    3    2    1    NA

Initiative                    []   []   []   []   []   []
Dependability                 []   []   []   []   []   []
Creativity                    []   []   []   []   []   []
Judgment                      []   []   []   []   []   []
Decision-making skills        []   []   []   []   []   []
Reliability                   []   []   []   []   []   []
Curiosity                     []   []   []   []   []   []

Relations With Others

Cooperation                   []   []   []   []   []   []
Interactions with staff       []   []   []   []   []   []
Interactions with customers   []   []   []   []   []   []
Customer Service              []   []   []   []   []   []
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Author:Brannon, Sian
Publication:Journal of Education for Library and Information Science
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 22, 2014
Words:11009
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