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Assessing the Impact of Complaints Management System in Hospitality Organizations in Egypt: A Customer-organization Perspective.

1. Introduction

The highly-competitive environment of hospitality operations requires a solid approach and a robust supporting system for customer retention. While concepts like Customer Relations Management (CRM) and Total Quality Management (TQM) proved to be vital to maintain such customer loyalty, a more critical and supportive system i.e. complaints management is also required to back up a long-term customer-operation relationship (Samsona and Terziovskib, 1999; Stone, 2011).

The significance of fostering a complaints management system in hospitality operation stems from the fact that retention of existing and loyal customers is a real marketing priority. In the meantime, it is a key component of customer relationship management and an explicit element of TQM system. Sustaining such a complaints management system requires a distinctive response, effective, and systematic handling (Ro and Wong, 2012).

It is also well-recognized that the unique characteristics of hospitality services e.g. variability, inseparability, and intangibility provoke failures while providing the service, and hence complaints are unavoidable. Moreover, these characteristics place an even more constraints on management to be more alert and develop strategies that would allow them to recover from any operational failures that might arise (Bosch and Enriquez, 2005; Rodie and Martin, 2001). It should also be acknowledged that placing a complaint is not the end of the customer-operation relationship. On the contrary, it could be a good chance to develop and restore a better or even loyal relationship (Hoffman and Chung, 1999).

Although, the hospitality industry can be perceived as an industry vulnerable to customer-organization conflict due to the nature of the characteristics of the services provided, it can also be considered to be at an advantage to enhance and strengthen its ties with its customers even with those who had negative experience (Heung and Lam, 2003).

Furthermore, complaints are not yet recognized as an operational value. Rationally, complaints provide a real source of information and marketing intelligence for the management that need to be properly investigated and analysed. Therefore, the main goal of this empirical research is to look at how significant is complaints management for hospitality operations and how it impacts on organizational performance (Johanson and Woods, 2008; Lee and Ko, 2012; Lo and Lamm, 2005). Some of the potential impacts may include, inter alia, influences on customer retention, competitive advantages and quality of the services provided. Moreover, the moral aspect of frontline employees will be addressed (Robbins and Miller, 2004).

Despite the growing interest in receiving customers' feedback as an effective tool to monitor the performance of hospitality organization, very few operations consider a robust system of complaints management. The knowledge about how to successfully develop and implement a complaints management system is limited and not supported as an organizational policy. It is mainly developed based on intuition or individual initiatives from senior and top management. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to investigate the current applications/standards of complaints management system, to explore its value and impact on hospitality organizations' performance in Egypt, and finally, to emphasize the relevant implications and recommendations for the hospitality industry practitioners for improving the existing customers' complaints management systems and strategies. Hence, the research problem can be stated in the following question: "What is the impact of complaints management system on hospitality organizations' performance?"

2. Literature Review

The customer complaints management system is a basic but essential requirement for any business--especially businesses that want to become and remain successful. The concept of complaints management has been addressed theoretically by authors and researchers. Primarily, the term "complaint" was tackled as an articulation of subjective dissatisfaction towards the delivery of a particular service/product so that the provider can consider proper procedures to favourably settle this situation (Stauss and Seidel, 2004). Further, a more systematic approach was adopted by using the term "complaint management" to include redefining policies, procedures, systems, or protocols in order to avoid the occurrence of such a problem again (Stichler and Schumacher, 2003). In a more pragmatic methodology, the international standard for customer satisfaction (ISO 10002) was developed. It provides guidelines for setting in place complaints management system--helping organizations to identify complaints, their cause, and how to eliminate them. The standard outlines management controls and processes that would help to handle customer complaints more effectively and efficiently--making sure that more customers are satisfied with the service provided (ISO, 2014).

It should be recognized that customer dissatisfaction is the main trigger for customer complaints. Dissatisfaction occurs as a result of customer disappointment due to the variance between the delivered level of service and the expected standard (Estelami, 2000; Singh and Pandya, 1991). While not every dissatisfaction event breeds a complaint, hence complaints should have the proper weight. Consequently, adopting an effective complaints management system is a necessity rather than handling or sorting individual cases.

It is also important to monitor the channels to release the displeasure of unsatisfied customers. The normal pattern is to complain directly to the service provider or to a third party i.e. government agency or consumer protection bodies. The shortcomings of such an action can result in poor reputation, legal costs and possible regulatory interventions. A more serious reaction and even difficult to handle is to remain silent and switching to competitors, and/or spreading negative word-of-mouth about the hospitality operation. Hirschman's theory which describes the three basic possible responses to decline in firms' quality: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, is a reflection of this outcome (Hirschman, 1970). While the exit response refers to withdrawal from the relationship, the voice response refers to the attempt to repair or improve the relationship through communication of the complaint, grievance or proposal for change. Hirschman clearly identified some factors related to the consumer complaining behaviour i.e. the costs related to complaining, the importance of the product and the likelihood that the problem will be resolved in favour of the complainant. These factors were also addressed by Blodgett et al. (1995) investigating the behaviour of unsatisfied customers and the likelihood of actions to be taken by the customers.

The literature also addressed the organizational response and how it relates to complainant satisfaction. This approach includes six stages i.e. timeliness, facilitation, redress, apology, credibility, and attentiveness via meeting or exceeding the complainant's expectations (Davidow, 2003). This approach provides an efficient and effective guide to handle complaints. A different methodology adopted the justice theory by which the customer experiences interactional, procedural, and distributive justice even though this action did not meet the complainant's expectations (Sparks and McColl-Kennedy, 2001).

The significance of the concept of complaints management is very much correlated with the concept of CRM as an effective tool for customer retention (Roussinov and Zhao, 2004). As the customer complains, the company is given a second chance to satisfy the customer and prevent her/him from boycotting the company, or from engaging in negative word-of-mouth. Statistics show also that 95% of complainants will revisit the company if they are satisfied with complaint handling while dissatisfied customers will tell around nine to ten people about their negative experience or switch to competitors (Zineldin, 2006).

The model of customer lifetime value also confirmed the increased profitability of the organization as the relationship of customer-organization is maintained (Johnston, 2001; Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Moreover, in an attempt to calculate the profitability of complaints management system, authors like Kim and Chen (2010) and Stone (2011) discussed how to calculate the profitability of such a system by operationalizing the costs and benefits of complaints in an estimated monetary value.

Additionally, complaints management system is also considered as a source of quality feedback and a TQM element. In fact, complaints management system aims at improving the quality of service by resolving customers' problems, avoiding their reoccurrence, and restoring customer satisfaction. Moreover, it is an essential tool of quality control by identifying the shortcomings and the failures, eliminating them, and then avoiding them in the future (Bosch and Enriquez, 2005; Foster, 2004; Sparks and McColl-Kennedy, 2001).

In an attempt to investigate the most efficient and effective way to handle customer complaints, researchers like Stauss and Seidel (2004) investigated the complaint management process; a process that starts with complaint stimulation, complaint acceptance, complaint processing, complaint reaction, complaint analysis, complaint management controlling, and complaint reporting. It has been established that 5 to 10% of unsatisfied customers complain directly to the company and, therefore, the management has to maximize the number of direct customer feedback and remove any barrier that hinder the customer feedback. The technology has further supported this approach by using E-mails, or online complaint forms, or even by providing IPADs at the lobby to communicate directly any complaint to the management on the spot (Stauss and Seidel, 2004). It is also important to realize the significance of the role of human resources; namely customer-contact employees who receive at least 65% of filled complaints (Brown, 2000).

The different approaches for complaints management extends to the conceptual branch of organizational learning and development. According to La and Kandampully (2004), management of service failure catalyzes organization-wide learning and triggers initiates at various levels - operational, strategic, and conceptual - that guide the implementation of value-enhancing and product innovations. In fact, service recovery is not just a 'damage-control' mechanism affecting the first-line service level, but part of the organization's strategic planning to ensure that its offerings are continuously improved.

The strategic aspect tends to associate the operation's external orientation with internal orientation and to undertake a systematic analysis and management of the entire service delivery system. Further, it identifies service problem and its remedy to realign the inner mechanisms of the service system, nurtures the culture of organization-wide learning through assimilation and dissemination of information, learns from failure and recovery information, and affects improvement that will reflect on the firm's competency and market performance.

The psychology of complaints and service recovery along with customers' expectations were also scrutinized to understand the engagement and emotional attachment of customers associated with the issue. Robbins and Miller (2004) addressed the phenomenon of engagement, emotional attachment, and service recovery which means that the guest will be more likely to return and spend more with the property if, and only if, proper handling of the problems and service recovery was fulfilled. Additionally, the emotional aspect extends to employees as well. Possession of effective complaints management system and proper handling of complaints have proved to influence the performance of employees in many areas. The association of emotional labor and the influence of work environment in hospitality operations impact on employees' absenteeism rate, employees' level of satisfaction and subsequently on retention rate (Johanson and Woods, 2008; Lee and Ko, 2012; Lo and Lamm, 2005).

3. Methodology

The nature of the investigation plays a major role in deciding the methodology type (Creswell, 1994; Silverman, 2000). In particular, Chacko and Nebel (1990) advocate that qualitative research is a more appropriate methodology for hospitality researchers to use, particularly when the subject of the study is concerned with leadership, managerial and behavioural issues and processes. However, Easterby-Smith et al. (2012) pointed out the attempt by authors and researchers to mix methods to some extent, because it provides more perspectives on the phenomenon being investigated.

Moreover, Bryman (2015), Easterby-Smith et al. (2012), Fielding and Fielding (1986) and Kvale (1996) claim that the whole research process involves the interaction of qualitative and quantitative approaches. This interface normally takes place in the phase of data collection and data analysis. Furthermore, the final phase, reporting the results, is predominantly qualitative where tables and correlation coefficients require qualitative interpretations of their meanings.

Within the framework of this research, the aims and objectives are related to approaches and processes of managing customers' complaints and feedback in hotel operations. It is about investigating and exploring the tools and operational procedures currently in use by the participating hotel companies. Consequently, the features of this research correspond with the doctrine of qualitative methods and the inductive approach. However, some of the data were very revealing and forced the researcher to interpret them in simple quantitative frequencies to monitor a trend or a pattern of management.

The objectives of the investigation are to examine thoroughly the complaints management system of the participating hotel operations. The primary data were gathered from those subjects in charge of handling complaints within the participating hotel operations. Semi-structured interviews over the phone were administered to explore the practices and the system criterion. The secondary data were gathered from sources including various published sources. These published sources included academic books and journals, organizations' training materials, and documents.

The research design adopted for this research used a purposive sample approach. The purposive sampling technique has the rationale of selecting particular elements of the population while looking at the wider context where the phenomenon being investigated is apparent. It also provides alternative access options if selected element(s) deny access (Bryman, 2015; Etikan et al., 2016; Silverman, 2000).

The purposive sample was selected from chain hotels rather than independent hotels for many reasons. According to Altinay and Paraskevas (2007), the chain hotels have similar clear policy, rules, regulations, procedures and consistency in quality of services and products. Moreover, they are up-to-date with the fast progress in information technology. Moreover, they are showing better performance and greater marketing power than independent hotels. On the global level, chain hotels more often achieve better results than independent hotels.

Primarily, the questions' schedule was piloted amongst five hotel experts to check the validity and clarity of questions. The author received some few comments and suggestions as regards the sequence and rephrasing of some questions and consequently, amendments were made to improve the quality and clarity of the questions' schedule. The purposive sample comprised 20 hotel operations of four and five-star hotels in Cairo, Alexandria, and Hurghada of different brands to reflect the various approaches of handling complaints management systems. As such, a total of 20 interviews were conducted with the target respondents within the selected hotel companies. The interviews were conducted during August 2017.

The interview started with a general question about the respondent's department, job title and to whom he/she is reporting to. Further, the questions tended to identify the channels/tools in use to collect complaints from customers and further to identify the most effective channels/tools for collecting complaints/feedback. The researcher also asked the participants to identify whether there is a designated member for the task of handling complaints. The operational questions dealt with, inter alia, training, reporting and analysing customers' complaints and feedback. Other operational issues included how to handle the feedback and whether a documented policy is in place in addition to the use of any software designed for this task. All interviews were later transcribed and analysed by the researcher to identify themes and issues as they relate to the objectives of the investigation.

4. Results

The use of qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the survey from which themes and categories emerged. The objective was to emphasize the significance of understanding the meaning of the context and the role of the researcher was solely the construction of the meaning (Bryman, 2015). However, Easterby-Smith et al. (2012) addressed certain problems associated with the analysis when text is analysed for social science purposes. These problems are measurement, indication, representation and interpretation (Easterby-Smith et al., 2012). As qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the survey data, measurement and indication (mainly associated with quantitative content analysis) were clearly not problems for this research. However, the researcher recognized the issues relevant to representation and interpretation and followed a systematic approach and a step-by-step model in conducting the analysis in order to guarantee both the reliability and the validity of the findings. Samples of the transcribed text was used in presenting the results of the telephone interviews as examples of the various approaches, different themes, and issues in implementing and dealing with complaints management systems in practice. In the meantime, it should also be recognized that the sample responses do not necessarily need to be identical or reflect an overall consensus of the idea under investigation. While these responses may reflect either a unique case or a general pattern, the significance is attached to the interpretation of the meanings and within the overall context of the investigation. Moreover, in some instances, some quantitative data emerged and it was worth noting their significance and weight.

First, respondents were questioned to provide some general information about their job title, association of department and reporting relationship within their hotel operation. The objective was to identify the different approaches of dealing with complaints management by different hotel operations. The results provided a variety of models implemented by the participating hotel units. The job title varied amongst Guest Relations Officer, Assistant Manager/Duty Manager, and Guest Service Manager. As for the association of department, there were also variety of patterns 20% (4 respondents) were associated with the Front Office/Rooms Division department and mainly reporting to the head of the department. Another model was association with Marketing and Sales department (20% representing 4 respondents) and as such reporting to the Director of Marketing and Sales. The last model was reporting to the General Manager or the Executive Assistant Manager (60% representing 12 respondents) in an attempt to ensure promptness, significance and effectiveness of handling and dealing with customers' complaints.
"Our complaints management system is monitored by our Executive
Assistant Manager and prompt action is taken on the spot".

Customer Service Manager Hotel 3


As regards the channels/tools in use to collect feedback and complaints from customers, a variety of means was in use. For instance, guest comment form, verbal communication with both management and frontline staff (marketing intelligence), courtesy calls, guest interviews (face-to-face), guest satisfaction and loyalty surveys, venues organized by hotel operations, and finally, most importantly the social media. The social media was considered the most important channel either via direct hotel operation website or indirect via hotel booking platform.
"There is a daily follow-up and immediate response to deal with any
service feedback or guest complaint by a senior management colleague".

Duty Manager Hotel 1

"We organise a bi-weekly cocktail venue for our in-house guests. This
face-to-face communication is an invaluable feedback".

Assistant Manager Hotel 2


The respondents acknowledged direct guest contact either via guest interviews, courtesy calls or hotel/guest communication venues, as the most effective channels/tools for feedback collection.
"Courtesy calls are part of my daily customer service duties. Any
alarming comment or feedback is dealt with immediately and reported to
senior management".

Guest Relation Officer Hotel 4


The social media was equally effective considering the technological advances and the new customer segments i.e. 'the millennials' in the hospitality market. An important indicator was also to find out the volume of customers' complaints input into every channel. During one year of operation, respondents indicated that the average percentages of channels in receipt of complaints were as follows in table (1).

As for having a designated member of staff to deal with the complaints management system, only five respondents (25% of the twenty participants) indicated that they have someone in charge of dealing with and handling the customers' complaints. This person in charge was either a designated member of the marketing and sales department, a guest relation officer or an executive assistant of the management team.

From operational perspectives, all the participating hotel companies confirmed providing training sessions on regular basis on how to handle complaints to all members of staff. Additionally, further training was provided to employees who may have contributed to the initial failure of the service.
"We have a yearly scheduled training plan to all members of staff on
how to handle complaints properly".

Customer Service Manager Hotel 7


A very interesting result was that all respondents have considered developing reports on received complaints in order to promptly deal with any service deficiency. However, reporting time-span varied amongst participants. Only five hotel operations (25% of participants) confirmed having weekly reports, twelve participants (60% of respondents) established having monthly reports, and finally, the remaining segment of 15% (three participants) acknowledged developing quarterly reports. The pattern of distribution of the complaints report was mainly addressed to all head departments of operations. However, further distribution and discussion of the problems were supposed to be communicated to the lower ranking staff during regular briefings and meetings. Moreover, six respondents (30% of respondents) confirmed communicating complaints report to their corporate office. The pattern of distribution is summarized in table (2).

The operational procedures for handling the feedback of complaints' reports had dual aspects. Respondents confirmed that in addition to communicating the complaints' reports to the designated staff to deal with, a formal contact with the complainer is initiated either for further details, to provide an apology, or to advise the customer of actions being taken. Fifteen out of the twenty respondents (75% of participants) asserted that they have a clear documented policy on how to handle complaints within the operation. It was also acknowledged that the policy is part of their operations' policy and procedures.
"Our monthly complaints' reports are distributed to all head
departments for taking actions if relevant and required".

Assistant Manager Hotel 5


The result also revealed that three of the participating hotel chains (15%) are using software programs in recording, analysing, and reporting final results of customers' complaints. In addition, half of the participating hotel operations (10 respondents) confirmed having a database for complaints management purposes. Classification and records of the database comprised complaints by department and even per individual employee, frequency, and action being taken. The advantages of this particular tool enable the hotel operation to calculate the satisfaction level of their recovery/handling of complaints and scrutinize their effectiveness in this respect. The records of those participants (using software programs) revealed both a higher rate of repeat business and customers' loyalty level. The software also allowed effective follow-up of complainers and monitoring of their pattern of behaviour.
"Our database system is very efficient and supportive. We can easily
record, refer to and trace any complaint/problem. Additionally, we can
record the actions being taken and thus the system facilitates
follow-up and further monitoring customers' satisfaction level".

Assistant Manager Hotel 10

"We use some "Net Promoter Score" to measure the effectiveness of our
customers' satisfaction and loyalty level".

Duty Manger Hotel 14


One of the most interesting results was the prominence being given to the social media channels. All the hotel operations participants confirmed their prompt handling and association with their customers via the social media. They also confirmed the effectiveness of this tool in handling customers' complaints and ensuring customers' loyalty as recovery is promptly addressed.

"The use of social media is extremely powerful in supporting our service recovery".

Guest Relations Officer Hotel 12

With reference to employees' satisfaction survey, 65 % of respondents (13 participants) indicated a higher rate of employees' satisfaction level. As for the remaining participants 35% (7 participants) indicated that there were no significant change or positive indication in either employees' satisfaction level or turnover rate.

5. Conclusion, Implications, and Limitations

Complaints management has become a major top/senior management task that is being handled as a top strategic issue. Different perspectives to this approach relate directly to many operational and conceptual hospitality management theories. Good examples of these approaches include CRM and TQM. The significance of this trend is apparent in the outcome of the interviews. Reflecting on the results as regards the association and reporting of complaints within the hotel operation hierarchy, direct senior management was the most dominant liaison in comparison to other alternative affiliation.

There is no doubt that mishandling customers' complaints/dissatisfaction could ruin the reputation of the hotel operation as most customers are likely to engage in private complaint behaviors such as word-of-mouth communication and ceasing to patronize the hospitality operation. Further, it is quite important to identify the pattern of complaints behavior (Heung and Lam, 2003). Participants also confirmed the significance of "Net Promoter Score" (NPS) with reference to customers feedback as regards how likely customers may recommend the property to friends and colleagues and how likely they may return to the hotel property. Overall measures of satisfaction and NPS are chiefly used as internal and external benchmarks of performance. Holding of database for customers' complaints is also of great eminence. The objective is to use "RECOVSAT" instrument which measures satisfaction with six dimensions of service recovery - communication, empowerment, feedback, atonement, explanation and tangibles (Boshoff, 2005). Customers' feedback is the best way to improve performance and guest experience. How well a complaint is managed is a key determinant of consumer satisfaction, which maybe correlated with loyalty (Stone, 2011).

It was also concluded by participants that customers' complaints are valued for the purpose of creating service recovery opportunities and improve service quality and enhance customer loyalty and relationship (Johnston and Michel, 2008; Koo, 2005; Ro and Wong, 2012; Zairi, 2000). Moreover, excellent service was featured with proper handling of customers' problems as a key driver of customers' perceptions of excellent or poor service (Stone, 2011). Those results are consistent with the review of the literature and subsequently proved their validity.

Regarding employees' satisfaction and employees' retention rate, the results supported the compatibility with positive employees' moral as clear and established complaints procedures are in place. The psychological and emotional impacts of conflict are significantly minimized with an established handling of complaints' system. Reduction in numbers of complaints and improvements of operational performance impacted positively on both employees' retention and guest loyalty and repeat business.

The participants also asserted that there should be a variety of listening devices, formal and informal, qualitative (focus groups and marketing intelligence) and quantitative (surveys). Depending on the type of property, survey questions will vary. However, all tools in use should include both qualitative (open-ended questions), where guest are encouraged to give their opinions and quantitative (closed questions) so guest comments can be translated into numbers.

An interesting result was the transparency of communicating complaints to corporate or head office. While the norm for some time was to hide/cover operational problems from senior management, it has become more of a demand by some Headquarters to receive customers' feedback and complaints in many forms and in various frequencies. This trend is growing and is being justified to support both product development and marketing strategies.

A key significant outcome was the role of social media reflecting the impact of technological advances on many aspects of goods and service markets along with the emergence of a new customer segment i.e. 'millennials'. The term of electronic customer relations management (e-CRM) with reference to handling customers' complaints via the social media is a reflection of this trend (Cho et al., 2002).

Authors like Cambra-Fierro et al. (2015), Stauss and Schoeler (2004), and Stone (2011) have confirmed that designing effective complaints management system would maximum financial performance from many perspectives. They also emphasized that the system needs to focus on process improvement and employees' motivation and moral, rather than customer satisfaction per se. Respondents also confirmed a strong relationship and link between operational financial performance and complaints' processes, satisfaction, retention, process/product improvement, employee attitude and retention.

Finally, successful complaints handling and recovery tend to counterbalance service failure and produce good return on investment. More specifically, excellent service recovery can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty, increases re-patronage, market share, and positive word-of-mouth. Benefits also extend to improved branding and superior design of the service/product. Service failure should be considered an opportunity to impress customers with good service performance.

The research paper highlighted the significance of sponsoring a complaints management system to support the operational quality and enhance the organization-customer relationship. The primary implications for this research for practitioners could be accentuated as developing a robust and reliable complaints management system and feedback. This system should be a top-management priority and must be monitored regularly and dealt with effectively. Further, a statistical record should also be maintained and communicated to key operational management figures and associated members of staff. Lastly, technology applications should be considered for the purpose of efficiency and effectiveness of handling customers' complaints. Software applications will definitely facilitate monitoring, follow-up, and more importantly establish efficient channels of communication with hospitality operations' customers in general and complainants in particular.

One of the limitations of this research was that the interviews were only focusing on the management of hospitality operations. The reason was that it was difficult to communicate directly with a segment of complaining customers and to be able to locate them. If so, this approach would have taken a long and unknown time span for this research. Further, it would be also beneficial to investigate the relationships between customers' demographic backgrounds such as age, gender, and educational level and their pattern of complaints' behavior and the channels they use to report their complaints.

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Ashraf Tag-Eldeen, Associate Professor. Faculty of Tourism & Hotels Alexandria University, Egypt. Current Postal address: Dammweg Str. 16, 01097 Dresden, Germany.

E-mail: a_tageldeen@hotmail.com / Mobile: + 49 1525 8375 830; Mobile: + 20 1000 59 76 77.

Author Biography

Ashraf Tag-Eldeen is a tourism and hotel management graduate, holder of MBA from the American University in Cairo and PhD degree from Business School of Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK. Tag-Eldeen holds a permanent academic post at the Faculty of Tourism and Hotels, Alexandria University in addition to visiting professorship posts in German universities. He is also a Certified Hospitality and Tourism Management Consultant by Alexandria University, Egypt.

DOI: 10.26465/ojtmr.2018339512
Table 1: Average % of incoming complaints to various channels.

Channel/Tool for Reporting Complaints     Average % of Incoming
                                               Complaints

Guest comment form.                                15%
Verbal and face-to-face communication              25%
(courtesy call, guest interviews, etc.).
Guest satisfaction and loyalty surveys.            10%
Social media (hotel operation                      50%
website/agency booking platform).

Table 2: Pattern of complaints report distribution.

Channel for Distribution of  Inclusive  Inclusive
Complaints Report            Frequency  Percentage
Head department                 20         100%
Supervisory staff               10          50%
Rank and file staff              6          30%
Corporate office                 6          30%
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Author:Tag-Eldeen, Ashraf
Publication:Ottoman: Journal of Tourism and Management Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7EGYP
Date:Jun 1, 2018
Words:5960
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