Assessing Periodontal Disease by Measuring Molecular Biomarkers of Inflammation in Gingival Crevicular Fluid.
Problem Statement: There are cases of periodontitis non-responsive to typical treatment strategies. These cases demonstrate a need for novel treatment options focused on molecular interventions.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of recently discovered pro--and anti-inflammatory mediators: TREM-1, TREM-2, RAGE, HMGB-1, and their soluble forms: sTREM-1, sTREM-2, and sRAGE in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during gingivitis and periodontitis to discover an appropriate target for future molecular interventions.
Methods: The research protocol was approved by the Creighton University IRB (#1015786-1). Fourteen participants (5 healthy, 4 gingivitis, 5 periodontitis) were consented and enrolled in this blinded, ex vivo study. GCF samples were collected via PerioPaper[R] during scheduled appointments. Expression levels of TREM-1, TREM-2, RAGE, HMGB-1 and their soluble mediators in GCF samples were measured using commercially available ELISA kits.
Results: Analysis of ELISA assays revealed greater expression of TREM-lin GCF from patients with gingivitis (26,672 pg/mL) and periodontitis (15,118.8 pg/mL) compared to healthy subjects (5,091.6 pg/mL). Protein expression of RAGE, sTREM-1, and sTREM-2 were higher in healthy samples (2,323.9; 1,511; and 202,871.5 pg/ mL respectively) compared to periodontitis (103.2; 1,229.8; and 37,101 pg/mL) with no expression in gingivitis samples. TREM-2 was found to be expressed only in samples from patients with periodontitis (2790.9 pg/mL) and HMGB1 only in patients with gingivitis (13,246 pg/mL); sRAGE was not detectable in any of the samples. However, only differences in the expression level of HMGB-1 reached the threshold for statistical significance.
Conclusions: Results from this study highlight potential differences in the expression levels of specific biomarkers between gingivitis and periodontitis. More research is needed, however, with a larger sample size, to draw definitive conclusions or elucidate a target for future molecular interventions to arrest periodontal diseases.
*Courtney P. Rudick, RDH-EA, MS, CHES (1)
Takanari Miyaomoto, DDS, PhD, CAGS, MS, MBA (2)
Melissa Lang, DDS, MS (2)
Devendra K. Agrawal, PhD, MBA, MS, FAAAAI,
FAHA, FAPS, FIACS (1)
(1) School of Medicine and (2) School of Dentistry, Creighton University, Omaha, NE, United States
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|Title Annotation:||Dental Hygiene Practice|
|Author:||Rudick, Courtney P.; Miyaomoto, Takanari; Lang, Melissa; Agrawal, Devendra K.|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2018|
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