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Assemblages of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals on an urban military base in Oklahoma.

Loss, degradation, or alteration of habitats are leading causes of loss of species (Gibbons et al., 2000; Brennan and Kuvlesky, 2005), potentially contributing to a decline in functions and services of ecosystems. urban development causes extensive local extirpations of native species; thereby, changing composition of communities of plants and animals, as well as structure and function of ecosystems (McKinney, 2002). Rapid rates of alteration of land in urban and rural settings have decreased available habitats for many species across North America in the past 50 years (Gibbons et al., 2000; McKinney, 2002). Nevertheless, many native species persist in urban environments (McKinney, 2002; Endriss et al., 2007).

Military installations often cover large areas of relatively undeveloped land and may serve a critical role in management of natural resources. The Department of Defense is the fifth largest land-management agency in the federal government (Lowrie and Greenberg, 2001), and many military installations represent large portions of remaining critical habitats for threatened and endangered species (e.g., Jacobson and Marynowski, 1997; Cimprich and Kostecke, 2006). However, although avoidance is the preferred initial option, military operations may have negative impacts on natural resources (Milchunas et al., 1999; Quist et al., 2003) unless properly managed or mitigated. in many cases, resource managers on lands of the Department of Defense have been able to effectively manage and mitigate impacts their operations have on local flora and fauna (Cimprich and Kostecke, 2006; Endriss et al., 2007), as well as maintain good relations with state and local management agencies (Lowrie and Greenberg, 2001).

We report results of a 2-year survey on Tinker Air Force Base, an urban military installation in central oklahoma, designed to collect baseline data on occurrence and diversity of three classes of fauna (amphibians, reptiles, and mammals). in addition, we sought to assess faunal health for these classes using metrics of species diversity. use of integrative ecological metrics for herpetological and mammalian communities has lagged behind those for aquatic communities. For example, the index of biotic integrity (Karr, 1981) incorporates multiple attributes (e.g., species diversity and composition, trophic composition, and abundance of fish) of assemblages of fishes to evaluate effects of humans on water resources (Karr, 1991). Karr (1991) noted that the index of biotic integrity provides an ecological framework to develop similar indices with other taxa. in coordination with integrated natural-resource-management plans of managers, we focused on two main objectives: to assess presence or absence of species expected to reside in Tinker Air Force Base and its satellite properties, in Oklahoma County, and in surrounding counties, and to determine diversity for all species and selected species within significant areas on the base.

MATERIALS AND METHODS--Tinker Air Force Base covers ca. 2,000 ha in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma (35[degrees]24'58" N, 97[degrees]24'41" W). The base largely is an urban military installation serving the united states Air Force as a maintenance and supply depot. About 66% of the base is industrialized, developed, or maintained as buffer areas around military operational units (i.e., mowed grass surrounding airfield runways). Land managers at the base have prepared a plan to develop and sustain a network of green spaces that balances the military mission with maintenance of environmental resources (Green infrastructure plan, in litt.). since 1990, they have been developing an urban greenway of ca. 45 ha that includes fragmented grasslands, woodlands, wetlands, and urbanized areas with the objective of promoting recreation, conservation, and education. The core of the greenway is a set of three wildlife-reserve areas connected by a multi-use pathway.

We delineated study areas on Tinker Air Force Base by natural or organizational boundaries, although in some instances, we combined areas that would be considered separate by natural-resource managers into a single study area to facilitate ease of trapping and other operations (i.e., wildlife-reserve 2 as defined by our study also included a future hospital and open space surrounding the compound for security forces). We did not survey the airfield due to lack of access. The airfield is managed uniquely to decrease biodiversity via removal-trapping to maintain safety for aircraft traffic. Grassland-herbaceous areas have been separated into eight communities on the base (Dorr et al., 2005) and are dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), plains bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), side-oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani), tall fescue (Lolium pratense), and eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana). A total of 10 forested communities have been identified (Dorr et al., 2005), with upland forests dominated by oaks (Quercus) and bottomland forests dominated by cottonwoods (Populus), pecans (Carya illinoinensis), sugarberries (Celtis laevigata), and elms (Ulmus). other areas have been delineated into a variety of shrubland, improved, and semi-improved vegetative communities (Dorr et al., 2005).

We determined which species of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals were extant historically in the region prior to beginning our survey. According to published literature (Webb, 1975; Glass et al., 1989; sievert, 2005) and species listed in the integrated natural-resource-management plan for Tinker Air Force Base (R. W. Moody, unpublished data) and the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in oklahoma by recorded sightings, we expected to potentially find as many as 128 species (19 amphibians, 59 reptiles, and 50 mammals). This initial estimate included species not reported from oklahoma County, but they occurred in adjacent counties.

We employed several surveying techniques (Table 1). To measure effort in fortuitous encounters, we maintained logs of time spent in the field at each study area while conducting surveys. We searched suitable habitats visually, overturning natural cover objects (e.g., logs), and recording locations of animals on maps. Fortuitous encounters primarily were intended to detect species unlikely to be captured by other surveying techniques (e.g., certain rodents, aquatic snakes, large carnivores).

Animals were captured with cover boards, hoop traps, Havahart traps (Havahart Traps, Lititz, Pennsylvania), Sherman traps (H. B. Sherman Traps, Tallahassee, Florida), and pitfall traps. Wooden or metal cover boards (ca. 0.6 by 0.9 m) were placed in suitable habitats and were checked 2-5 times/month. primary targets of cover boards were snakes. Hoop traps to monitor turtles were placed in streams and ponds 3-6 days/ month; traps were baited with frozen fish and checked daily. We placed Havahart traps in transects along forest-grassland edges or in grids and baited them with tuna or sardines to target mammalian mesocarnivores. Traps were in the field 5-10 days/ month and were closed during daylight hours. We placed Sherman traps to target small mammals in transects along suitable edges of habitats or in grids and they were checked on the same schedule as Havahart traps. Sherman traps were baited with rolled oats and cotton batting; they were checked daily and were left closed during daylight hours. Most small mammals captured were marked permanently with unique toe clips. pitfall traps were Y-shaped, drift-fence arrays with 18.9 L buckets at each terminal end. Traps were opened for 5 days/month and were checked 2-3 times daily; captured animals were marked permanently. pitfall traps were largely unfeasible for surveying after June 2007, as rainfall events eroded buckets or filled them with water.

We also used two noninvasive surveying techniques: frog-call surveys and wildlife cameras. We conducted frog-call surveys following guidelines provided by the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (Weir and Mossman, 2005). Briefly, they were conducted once per month at 12 stations within 72 h of significant rainfall events. Abundance was categorical (single, few individuals, or large numbers of individuals) and we estimated number of individuals based on these categories (1, 5, or 10 individuals, respectively). in addition, we placed wildlife cameras (Cuddeback model EXcite, Non Typical, Inc., Park Falls, Wisconsin) in the field for 14 days/month with bait (sardines or tuna) 1-3 m from cameras.

We selected indicator species, which we defined as species with known life-histories whose presence indicate biologically diverse grasslands or forested habitats, or species of concern as listed by the oklahoma Wildlife Action plan (oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, in litt.) for the crosstimber and mixed-grass prairie ecoregions, which included our study area, oklahoma County, and surrounding counties. We chose the ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata), spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera), eastern river cooter (Pseudemys concinna), slender glass lizard (Ophisaurus attenuatus), prairie king snake (Lampropeltis calligaster), speckled king snake (L. getula), and Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum) as reptiles to monitor. Texas horned lizards (a diet and habitat specialist; Donaldson et al., 1994), spiny softshell turtles, and eastern river cooters are listed as species of greatest conservation need in the crosstimbers and mixed-grass prairie ecoregions according to the oklahoma Wildlife Action plan (oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, in litt.). We also selected ornate box turtles (Bowen et al., 2005; Bernstein et al., 2007) and slender glass lizards (Lee, 2009) as representatives of sufficiently persistent grassland ecosystems due to their sensitivity to fragmentation and relative scarcity, respectively. We chose prairie and speckled kingsnakes as dietary indicators of suitable reptilian prey (Conant and Collins, 1998; Jackson et al., 2004). Amphibians are sensitive to local and landscape-scale alterations of habitats (Gibbs et al., 2005; Gagne and Fahrig, 2010) and have been used to reliably infer trends in biodiversity (Welsh and ollivier, 1998). We chose cricket frogs Acris crepitans, Great Plains narrowmouth toads Gastrophryne olivacea, and Strecker's chorus frogs Pseudacris streckeri because they are intolerant of disruptions of habitats (M. R. Whiles, pers. comm.). We chose prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster and fulvous harvest mice Reithrodontomys fulvescens as indicator species of grasslands based on recent research (Leis et al., 2008). We also chose coyotes Canis latrans and bobcats Lynx rufus because they are top predators in the system and require fairly large areas of contiguous habitats (Nielsen and Woolf, 2001; Atwood et al.,2004).

We tallied and obtained georeferenced locations for individuals we captured, observed, or heard during surveys. We calculated diversity for each study area using the Shannon-Wiener function, which represents species diversity (H') using the formula

H'= [summation] [p.sub.i] ln [p.sub.i],

where [p.sub.i] = n/n is relative abundance of each species (proportion of the number of individuals of a species [n.sub.i] relative to number of individuals in the community, n) in the absence of a suitable mathematical biological indicator (e.g., index of Biotic Integrity; Karr, 1981). We calculated H for all species and separately for indicator species for each study area. We also scaled species diversity and evenness in each area by sampling effort. For this scaling, we treated all units of sampling as equal (i.e., one trap-night plus one person-hour of effort equals two total units of effort) and simply divided H' by units of effort. Our justification for this was that traps that could only capture one individual (i.e., traps for mammals) were measured by trap night, whereas traps that could capture multiple individuals (e.g., hoop traps, wildlife cameras) were measured by hour. We were not able to determine if individuals returned to the same camera site during a session, and consequently, could not determine if such events skewed our estimates of diversity.

Results--Surveying effort totaled 2,192 person-hours of searching, 1,800 cover-board checks, 8,900 Sherman trap-nights, 1,150 Havahart-trap-nights, 108 frog-call surveys, 2,016 hoop-trap hours, 2,400 pitfall-trap hours, and 17,976 camera hours. However, our surveying efforts, and especially our trapping techniques, were skewed in favor of managed green-space areas, which constituted 646 ha (31.6%) of the base. indeed, > 85% of effort expended on each technique, except for frog-call surveys (83.3%) and hoop-trap hours (71.4%), occurred on green-space areas.

We captured, detected, or remotely observed >2,000 individuals during our survey (Table 1); most were on managed green-spaces (Table 2). It is possible that rates of detection on unmanaged areas may have been higher if more intensive surveying was employed. Many of these areas had ongoing military operations that made surveying unfeasible, but we attempted to include fortuitous surveys of obvious species. Differences in surveying techniques, management regime of sites surveyed, surveying effort among sites, and site-specific probabilities of detection (MacKenzie et al., 2002, 2003) biased results of our data on diversity.

Overall, we detected 59 of 128 (46.0%) species on Tinker Air Force Base that potentially could be found within Oklahoma County and adjacent counties. Species present included 11 amphibians (all anurans), 26 reptiles (6 turtles, 7 lizards, 13 snakes), and 24 mammals (including domestic cats and dogs; Table 1). Species removed (number of individuals in parentheses) from the airfield by personnel of the United States Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services during our study included the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus (1), American beaver Castor canadensis (12), coyote Canis latrans (7), domestic dog Canis lupus familiaris (5), red fox Vulpes vulpes (1), Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana (1), raccoon Procyon lotor (1), and striped skunk Mephitis mephitis (13).

Diversity was higher for all species and for indicator species alone in managed green-space areas when compared to unmanaged, industrialized areas (Table 2). in addition, using our method of adjustment, species diversity scaled by effort also was higher on green-space areas. Wildlife-reserves 1 and 3 coupled with the recycling-center area exhibited spatial connectivity and represented focal points for diversity (Table 2).

DISCUSSION--Species diversity of herpetofauna and mammals was higher on green-space areas, especially those areas directly managed by the Environmental Engineering Operations Branch of the base, such as wildlife-reserves 1 and 3. industrialized areas had low species diversity, even when adjusted for effort. These areas had little, if any, natural habitats for herpetofauna or mammals. We minimized effort on these areas because of the low probability of finding target species and difficulty in obtaining access. Similarly, the airfield was not surveyed due to restricted access. in addition, it is managed to minimize presence of animals for safety of air traffic. We also detected about one-half of species known to occur in Oklahoma County and adjacent counties.

The Texas horned lizard is a species of concern that has been a focus of research and management on Tinker Air Force Base since 2003 and it has a density of ca. 5 individuals/ha on wildlife-reserve 3 (Endriss et al., 2007). Although wildlife-reserve 3 supported the largest population of Texas horned lizards on the base, they also were in three other areas. The recycling-center area is connected to wildlife-reserve 3 by a narrow corridor of habitat, and the Engineering Initiative Group-Leased Training Area is contiguous with potential habitats south of the base. Records indicated presence of Texas horned lizards near wildlife-reserve 1 and the landfills in the early to mid-1990s. However, we did not detect the species in these areas. Changes in habitats, including capping of landfills, may have contributed to loss of Texas horned lizards in these areas. They also were captured on the airfield in 2009, suggesting they may be more widespread than our surveys indicated.

Our results were comparable to surveys conducted on other military installations in the region, such as the 1,613-ha Texas National Guard Fort Wolters, Parker County, Texas (Ryberg and Fitzgerald, 2005) dominated by mixed-grass prairie and oak (Quercus) woodlands. A key difference between installations was presence of Texas horned lizards, a species of conservation interest in Texas and Oklahoma that occurred on Tinker Air Force Base, but not on Fort Wolters. Ryberg and Fitzgerald (2005) discussed possible reasons for absence of Texas horned lizards at Fort Wolters, particularly nontarget effects of pesticides on harvester ants (Pogomyrmex), but they also mentioned anecdotal accounts of Texas horned lizards being present. We detected a greater diversity of herpetofauna on Tinker Air Force Base than on the 152-ha Camp Mabry, Travis County, Texas (Ferguson et al., 2008), probably as a function of larger area and lesser urbanization.

Our results, combined with published literature (e.g., Carignan and Villard, 2002), provide some input into use of amphibians, reptiles, or mammals as indicators of faunal health. Rather than outline advantages and disadvantages of each species we selected, we instead highlight one group in our discussion (similar discussions could be presented for each of our indicator species). We chose three turtles (spiny softshell turtles, ornate box turtles, and eastern river cooters) as indicator species. The spiny softshell turtle is a species of conservation need in the crosstimbers and mixed-grass prairie ecoregions in Oklahoma (Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation, in litt.). However, studies of survival (Plummer et al., 2008) and occupancy (Conner et al., 2005; Rizkalla and Swihart, 2006) of spiny softshell turtles in urban and intensively farmed areas, coupled with our observations of this species in four areas on Tinker Air Force Base, including the golf course and wastewater-treatment plant (Table 2), suggest that this species may not be a good indicator of health of ecosystems because of its resilience to extensive or periodic disturbances of habitats, even in urban landscapes (Plummer et al., 2008). Alternatively, the ornate box turtle may serve as a suitable indicator species, as recent studies indicate demographics and genetic diversity of populations are sensitive to fragmentation of habitats (Kuo and Jackson, 2004; Bowen et al., 2005; Converse et al., 2005). Other studies that have examined population dynamics of turtles in disrupted or fragmented habitats have suggested opposite demographic responses of male and female turtles (Dodd and Dreslik, 2008; Bennett et al., 2009); perhaps, due to differential strategies employed in balancing the trade-off between investment in reproductive resources and growth. in general, turtles may serve as suitable terrestrial indicators of biotic integrity due to the importance of survival of adults on persistence of populations (Congdon et al., 1993; Eskew et al., 2010). Similar considerations should be made for indicator species selected by other researchers for studies of health of ecosystems.

We did not detect several species identified by the Oklahoma Wildlife Action Plan (Oklahoma Department of Wild life and Conservation, in litt.) as species of greatest conservation need and that were expected in the county or adjacent counties based on our review of the literature. For example, we did not detect the eastern spotted skunk Spilogale putorius, long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata, blacktailed prairie dog Cynomys ludovicianus, or swamp rabbit Sylvilagus aquaticus. These species were listed because of low abundance, fragmented distributions, or being at the periphery of their ranges; therefore, it is not surprising that they were not detected on our urban study areas.

Reptilian and amphibian species of conservation need that were not detected on the base, but potentially were present, included one frog, two snakes, one lizard, and three turtles. Of these, the crawfish frog Rana areolata and western chicken turtle Deirochelys reticularia were at the western edge of their ranges. The other two species of turtles, the midland smooth softshell turtle Apalone mutica and the Ouachita map turtle Graptemys ouachitensis, are species of large rivers (Ernst et al., 1994), and these habitats were not present on the base. Habitats for the western massasauga Sistrurus catenatus, which occupies wet meadows near rocky outcrops (Conant and Collins, 1998) and the northern scarlet snake Cemophora coccinea, which occupies sandy or loose soils in pine and oak forests, is nonexistent on the base. Finally, areas on the Engineering Initiative Group-Leased Training Area may have been suitable for the lesser earless lizard Holbrookia maculata; however, this species is common on sandy or gravelly soils (Conant and Collins, 1998). in addition, the study area was on the eastern edge of its distribution (Sievert, 2005).

Our data represent an initial comprehensive survey of the herpetological and mammalian fauna of Tinker Air Force Base. We recommend future surveys in urban military installations be conducted at regular intervals to monitor trends in occurrence and relative abundance of these species, and surveys should attempt to standardize searching effort for appropriate comparisons. ideally, access will be available to all of a Department of Defense facility, but this may not be realistic. in these instances, calculation of probabilities of detection would be beneficial. We were unable to exert sufficient effort in industrialized areas due to constraints on access. Future studies of military installations should focus on increasing surveying efforts in industrialized or militarized areas to provide further information on effects of military activities on natural communities. Areas of high diversity, such as urban greenways, riparian zones in wildlife reserves, and golf courses, should remain focal areas of effort and activities for conservation. Measurements of responses of mammals and herpetofauna to ongoing management activities, such as restoration of grasslands and construction of buildings, are important to assess efficacy of these activities. Overall, our data for Tinker Air Force Base are in agreement with published records of diversity and presence of threatened and endangered species on military lands.

This work was funded by grant W9132-T-07-2-0018 through the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Field work was conducted under Southern Illinois University Carbondale Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol 07-011. The staff at Tinker Air Force Base (specifically, J. Krupovage, J. C. Baker, J. McCanne, B. Gilliam, G. Hakman, and G. Hart) played supporting roles that made this work possible. D. Lesmeister graciously provided Cuddeback field cameras. We acknowledge our field technicians (A. Bauer, P. Calhoun, M. Cook, J. Dierks, M. Gage, R. Karsch, R. Moll, B. Wasserman, B. Watson, and A. M. Zebal) for assistance and general good humor.

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Victor Bogosian III, * Eric C. Hellgren, and Raymond W. Moody

Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Mailcode 6504, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6504 (VB, ECH)

Natural Resource Program, 72 ABW/CEANO, 7701 Arnold Street, Suite 109, Tinker Air Force Base, OK 73145-9100 (RWM)

Present address of VB: Missouri Department of Conservation, Eagle Bluffs Conservation Area, 6700 West Route K, Columbia, MO 65203

* Correspondent: Vic.Bogosian@mdc.mo.gov
Table 1--Taxa captured per 1,000 units of effort at Tinker Air
Force Base, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, 2007-2008.

                                            Fortuitous    Cover
                                            encounters   boards
Taxon                                          (h)       (check)

Testudines
Apalone spinifera (spiny softshell)            1.8          -
Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)          1.4          -
Pseudemys concinna (river cooter)              4.1          -
Terrapene carolina (three-toed box
turtle)                                        18.3         -
Terrapene ornata (ornate box turtle)           9.1         0.6
Trachemys scripta (red-eared slider)           36.0         -

Squamata

Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead)            0.9          -
Aspidosceles sexlineatus (six-lined
racerunner)                                    35.1        0.6
Coluber constrictor (yellowbelly racer)        0.9          -
Diadophis punctatis (ringneck snake)           5.9        13.3
Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake)              5.5          -
Eumeces fasciatus (five-lined skink)           0.9          -
Hemidactylus turcicus (Mediterannean
gecko)                                         0.9          -
Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie king
snake)                                         2.3         3.3
Lampropeltis getula (speckled king
snake)                                         1.4         0.6
Nerodia rhombifer (broad-banded
watersnake)                                    3.2          -
Opheodris aestivus (rough green
snake)                                         1.8          -
Ophisaurus attenuatus (slender glass
lizard)                                        5.0          -
Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas horned
lizard)                                        38.3         -
Pituophis melanoleucus (bullsnake)             0.5          -
Sceloperus undulatus (fence lizard)            0.9         0.6
Scincella lateralis (ground skink)             5.5        22.2
Storeria dekayi (brown snake)                  0.9         5.6
Tantilla gracilis (flat-headed snake)           -          4.4
Thamnophis proximus (western ribbon
snake)                                         2.3          -
Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)          -          2.2

Anura

Acris crepitans (cricket frog)                 19.6         -
Bufo americanus (American toad)                5.0         5.6
Bufo woodhouseii (Woodhouse's toad)            2.3         0.6
Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains
narrowmouth toad)                              2.7         5.6
Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis (treefrog)         -           -
Pseudacris clarkii (spotted chorus
frog)                                          1.4          -
Pseudacris streckeri (Strecker's chorus
frog)                                          0.5          -
Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus
frog)                                           -           -
Rana catesbiana (bullfrog)                     2.3          -
Rana sphenocephala (leopard frog)              20.5        1.1

Lagomorpha

Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern
cottontail)                                    34.7         -

Rodentia

Castor canadensis (American beaver)            0.9          -
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)             -           -
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)              -           -
Mus musculus (house mouse)                      -           -
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)            0.5          -
Ondatra zibethicus (common
muskrat)                                       0.5          -
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed
deermouse)                                      -          1.7
Peromyscus maniculatus (North
American deermouse)                             -           -
Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous
harvest mouse)                                  -           -
Reithrodontomys montanus (plains
harvest mouse)                                  -          5.6
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)           12.8         -
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)          2.3         0.6

Soricomorpha

Cryptotis parva (North American
least shrew)                                    -           -

Chiroptera

Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat)            0.5          -

Carnivora

Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)          0.9          -
Canis latrans (coyote)                          -           -
Felis catus (domestic cat)                     3.7          -
Lynx rufus (bobcat)                            2.7          -
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)              3.7          -
Procyon lotor (raccoon)                         -           -
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)                         -           -

Cingulata

Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded
armadillo)                                     0.9          -

Didelphimorphia

Didelphis virginiana (Virginia
opossum)                                       3.7          -

Artiodactyla

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed
deer)                                          8.2          -

                                            Havahart
                                             traps     Frog-call
                                             (trap-     surveys
Taxon                                        night)    (survey)

Testudines

Apalone spinifera (spiny softshell)            -           -
Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)          -           -
Pseudemys concinna (river cooter)              -           -
Terrapene carolina (three-toed box
turtle)                                       0.9          -
Terrapene ornata (ornate box turtle)           -           -
Trachemys scripta (red-eared slider)           -           -

Squamata

Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead)            -           -
Aspidosceles sexlineatus (six-lined
racerunner)                                    -           -
Coluber constrictor (yellowbelly racer)        -           -
Diadophis punctatis (ringneck snake)           -           -
Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake)              -           -
Eumeces fasciatus (five-lined skink)           -           -
Hemidactylus turcicus (Mediterannean
gecko)                                         -           -
Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie king
snake)                                         -           -
Lampropeltis getula (speckled king
snake)                                         -           -
Nerodia rhombifer (broad-banded
watersnake)                                    -           -
Opheodris aestivus (rough green
snake)                                         -           -
Ophisaurus attenuatus (slender glass
lizard)                                        -           -
Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas horned
lizard)                                        -           -
Pituophis melanoleucus (bullsnake)             -           -
Sceloperus undulatus (fence lizard)            -           -
Scincella lateralis (ground skink)             -           -
Storeria dekayi (brown snake)                  -           -
Tantilla gracilis (flat-headed snake)          -           -
Thamnophis proximus (western ribbon
snake)                                         -           -
Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)         -           -

Anura

Acris crepitans (cricket frog)                 -        2925.9
Bufo americanus (American toad)                -           -
Bufo woodhouseii (Woodhouse's toad)            -         194.4
Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains
narrowmouth toad)                              -         638.9
Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis (treefrog)        -         379.6
Pseudacris clarkii (spotted chorus
frog)                                          -          9.3
Pseudacris streckeri (Strecker's chorus
frog)                                          -         92.6
Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus
frog)                                          -         213.0
Rana catesbiana (bullfrog)                     -         64.8
Rana sphenocephala (leopard frog)              -         333.3

Lagomorpha

Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern
cottontail)                                    -           -

Rodentia

Castor canadensis (American beaver)            -           -
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)            -           -
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)             -           -
Mus musculus (house mouse)                     -           -
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)            -           -
Ondatra zibethicus (common
muskrat)                                       -           -
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed
deermouse)                                     -           -
Peromyscus maniculatus (North
American deermouse)                            -           -
Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous
harvest mouse)                                 -           -
Reithrodontomys montanus (plains
harvest mouse)                                 -           -
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)           -           -
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)          -           -

Soricomorpha

Cryptotis parva (North American
least shrew)                                   -           -

Chiroptera

Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat)            -           -

Carnivora

Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)          -           -
Canis latrans (coyote)                         -           -
Felis catus (domestic cat)                    0.9          -
Lynx rufus (bobcat)                            -           -
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)             0.9          -
Procyon lotor (raccoon)                       13.0         -
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)                        -           -

Cingulata
Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded
armadillo)                                     -           -

Didelphimorphia
Didelphis virginiana (Virginia
opossum)                                      17.4         -

Artiodactyla
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed
deer)                                          -           -

                                             Hoop     Sherman
                                            traps     traps
                                            (trap-    (trapTaxon
                                            night)    night)

Testudines

Apalone spinifera (spiny softshell)          3.0        -
Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)        22.8       -
Pseudemys concinna (river cooter)             -         -
Terrapene carolina (three-toed box
turtle)                                       -         -
Terrapene ornata (ornate box turtle)          -        0.1
Trachemys scripta (red-eared slider)         26.3       -

Squamata

Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead)           -         -
Aspidosceles sexlineatus (six-lined
racerunner)                                   -         -
Coluber constrictor (yellowbelly racer)       -         -
Diadophis punctatis (ringneck snake)          -         -
Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake)             -         -
Eumeces fasciatus (five-lined skink)          -         -
Hemidactylus turcicus (Mediterannean
gecko)                                        -         -
Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie king
snake)                                        -         -
Lampropeltis getula (speckled king
snake)                                        -         -
Nerodia rhombifer (broad-banded
watersnake)                                   -         -
Opheodris aestivus (rough green
snake)                                        -         -
Ophisaurus attenuatus (slender glass
lizard)                                       -         -
Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas horned
lizard)                                       -         -
Pituophis melanoleucus (bullsnake)            -         -
Sceloperus undulatus (fence lizard)           -         -
Scincella lateralis (ground skink)            -         -
Storeria dekayi (brown snake)                 -         -
Tantilla gracilis (flat-headed snake)         -         -
Thamnophis proximus (western ribbon
snake)                                        -         -
Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)        -         -

Anura

Acris crepitans (cricket frog)                -         -
Bufo americanus (American toad)               -         -
Bufo woodhouseii (Woodhouse's toad)           -         -
Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains
narrowmouth toad)                             -         -
Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis (treefrog)       -         -
Pseudacris clarkii (spotted chorus
frog)                                         -         -
Pseudacris streckeri (Strecker's chorus
frog)                                         -         -
Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus
frog)                                         -         -
Rana catesbiana (bullfrog)                    -         -
Rana sphenocephala (leopard frog)             -         -

Lagomorpha

Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern
cottontail)                                   -         -

Rodentia

Castor canadensis (American beaver)           -         -
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)           -         -
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)            -        0.5
Mus musculus (house mouse)                    -        3.0
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)           -         -
Ondatra zibethicus (common
muskrat)                                      -         -
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed
deermouse)                                    -        4.3
Peromyscus maniculatus (North
American deermouse)                           -        1.6
Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous
harvest mouse)                                -        1.8
Reithrodontomys montanus (plains
harvest mouse)                                -        0.1
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)          -         -
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)         -        21.6

Soricomorpha

Cryptotis parva (North American
least shrew)                                  -         -

Chiroptera

Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat)           -         -

Carnivora

Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)         -         -
Canis latrans (coyote)                        -         -
Felis catus (domestic cat)                    -         -
Lynx rufus (bobcat)                           -         -
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)             -         -
Procyon lotor (raccoon)                       -         -
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)                       -         -

Cingulata

Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded
armadillo)                                    -         -

Didelphimorphia

Didelphis virginiana (Virginia
opossum)                                      -         -

Artiodactyla

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed
deer)                                         -         -

                                             Trail     Pitfall
                                            cameras     traps
                                            (camera-   (trapTaxon
                                             night)     night)

Testudines

Apalone spinifera (spiny softshell)            -          -
Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)          -          -
Pseudemys concinna (river cooter)              -          -
Terrapene carolina (three-toed box
turtle)                                        -          -
Terrapene ornata (ornate box turtle)           -          -
Trachemys scripta (red-eared slider)           -          -

Squamata

Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead)            -          -
Aspidosceles sexlineatus (six-lined
racerunner)                                    -         1.7
Coluber constrictor (yellowbelly racer)        -          -
Diadophis punctatis (ringneck snake)           -          -
Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake)              -          -
Eumeces fasciatus (five-lined skink)           -         0.4
Hemidactylus turcicus (Mediterannean
gecko)                                         -          -
Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie king
snake)                                         -          -
Lampropeltis getula (speckled king
snake)                                         -          -
Nerodia rhombifer (broad-banded
watersnake)                                    -          -
Opheodris aestivus (rough green
snake)                                         -          -
Ophisaurus attenuatus (slender glass
lizard)                                        -          -
Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas horned
lizard)                                        -          -
Pituophis melanoleucus (bullsnake)             -          -
Sceloperus undulatus (fence lizard)            -          -
Scincella lateralis (ground skink)             -          -
Storeria dekayi (brown snake)                  -          -
Tantilla gracilis (flat-headed snake)          -          -
Thamnophis proximus (western ribbon
snake)                                         -          -
Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)         -          -

Anura

Acris crepitans (cricket frog)                 -          -
Bufo americanus (American toad)                -         0.4
Bufo woodhouseii (Woodhouse's toad)            -          -
Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains
narrowmouth toad)                              -        90.8
Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis (treefrog)        -          -
Pseudacris clarkii (spotted chorus
frog)                                          -         2.5
Pseudacris streckeri (Strecker's chorus
frog)                                          -         0.4
Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus
frog)                                          -          -
Rana catesbiana (bullfrog)                     -          -
Rana sphenocephala (leopard frog)              -          -

Lagomorpha

Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern
cottontail)                                    -          -

Rodentia

Castor canadensis (American beaver)            -          -
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)            -         0.8
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)             -          -
Mus musculus (house mouse)                     -          -
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)           0.3         -
Ondatra zibethicus (common
muskrat)                                       -          -
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed
deermouse)                                     -          -
Peromyscus maniculatus (North
American deermouse)                            -          -
Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous
harvest mouse)                                 -          -
Reithrodontomys montanus (plains
harvest mouse)                                 -          -
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)          0.3         -
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)          -          -

Soricomorpha

Cryptotis parva (North American
least shrew)                                   -         0.4

Chiroptera
Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat)            -          -

Carnivora

Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)          -          -
Canis latrans (coyote)                        0.3         -
Felis catus (domestic cat)                    0.1         -
Lynx rufus (bobcat)                           0.1         -
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)             0.1         -
Procyon lotor (raccoon)                       2.5         -
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)                       0.1         -

Cingulata

Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded
armadillo)                                    0.1         -

Didelphimorphia

Didelphis virginiana (Virginia
opossum)                                      1.8         -

Artiodactyla

Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed
deer)                                         0.3         -

                                               Total
                                            captures or
Taxon                                       detections

Testudines

Apalone spinifera (spiny softshell)             10
Chelydra serpentina (snapping turtle)           49
Pseudemys concinna (river cooter)                9
Terrapene carolina (three-toed box
turtle)                                         41
Terrapene ornata (ornate box turtle)            22
Trachemys scripta (red-eared slider)            132

Squamata
Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead)              2
Aspidosceles sexlineatus (six-lined
racerunner)                                     82
Coluber constrictor (yellowbelly racer)          2
Diadophis punctatis (ringneck snake)            37
Elaphe obsoleta (black rat snake)               12
Eumeces fasciatus (five-lined skink)             3
Hemidactylus turcicus (Mediterannean
gecko)                                           2
Lampropeltis calligaster (prairie king
snake)                                          11
Lampropeltis getula (speckled king
snake)                                           4
Nerodia rhombifer (broad-banded
watersnake)                                      7
Opheodris aestivus (rough green
snake)                                           4
Ophisaurus attenuatus (slender glass
lizard)                                         11
Phrynosoma cornutum (Texas horned
lizard)                                         84
Pituophis melanoleucus (bullsnake)               1
Sceloperus undulatus (fence lizard)              3
Scincella lateralis (ground skink)              52
Storeria dekayi (brown snake)                   12
Tantilla gracilis (flat-headed snake)            8
Thamnophis proximus (western ribbon
snake)                                           5
Virginia striatula (rough earth snake)           4

Anura

Acris crepitans (cricket frog)                  359
Bufo americanus (American toad)                 22
Bufo woodhouseii (Woodhouse's toad)             27
Gastrophryne olivacea (Great Plains
narrowmouth toad)                               297
Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis (treefrog)         47
Pseudacris clarkii (spotted chorus
frog)                                           10
Pseudacris streckeri (Strecker's chorus
frog)                                           12
Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus
frog)                                           23
Rana catesbiana (bullfrog)                      12
Rana sphenocephala (leopard frog)               83

Lagomorpha

Sylvilagus floridanus (eastern
cottontail)                                     76

Rodentia

Castor canadensis (American beaver)              2
Microtus ochrogaster (prairie vole)              2
Microtus pinetorum (woodland vole)               4
Mus musculus (house mouse)                      26
Neotoma floridana (eastern woodrat)              7
Ondatra zibethicus (common
muskrat)                                         1
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed
deermouse)                                      14
Peromyscus maniculatus (North
American deermouse)                             46
Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous
harvest mouse)                                  14
Reithrodontomys montanus (plains
harvest mouse)                                  11
Sciurus niger (eastern fox squirrel)            34
Sigmodon hispidus (hispid cotton rat)           198

Soricomorpha

Cryptotis parva (North American
least shrew)                                     1

Chiroptera
Lasiurus borealis (eastern red bat)              1

Carnivora

Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)            2
Canis latrans (coyote)                           5
Felis catus (domestic cat)                      11
Lynx rufus (bobcat)                              7
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)               10
Procyon lotor (raccoon)                         58
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)                          1

Cingulata

Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded
armadillo)                                       3

Didelphimorphia

Didelphis virginiana (Virginia
opossum)                                        61

Artiodactyla
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed
deer)                                           23

Table 2--Shannon-Wiener diversity indices for species captured during
surveys on Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma, 2007-2008.

                                                     Shannon-Wiener
                                                       diversity

                                                       Normal
 Area surveyed                                        All taxa

Green-space areas

Crutcho Creek riparian zone                             2.51
Engineering initiative Group-leased
  training area                                         2.32
Fire-pond area                                          0.94
Glenwood                                                2.36
Golf-course area                                        2.28
Recycling-center area                                   2.70
Wildlife-reserve 1                                      2.71
Wildlife-reserve 2                                      1.62
Wildlife-reserve 3                                      2.89

Unmanaged-industrialized areas

Airfield                                                n/a
Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office area         1.91
Housing area                                            1.61
industrialized areas                                    1.88
Landfill area                                           1.10
Munitions area                                          1.04
Wastewater-treatment plant                              1.88

                                                   Shannon-Wiener
                                                   diversity index

       Area surveyed                                  Indicator
                                                     species (a)

Green-space areas

Crutcho Creek riparian zone                             0.57
Engineering initiative Group-leased
  training area                                         0.65
Fire-pond area                                          0.25
Glenwood                                                0.63
Golf-course area                                        0.51
Recycling-center area                                   1.03
Wildlife-reserve 1                                      0.53
Wildlife-reserve 2                                      0.39
Wildlife-reserve 3                                      1.13

Unmanaged-industrialized areas

Airfield                                                 n/a
Defense Reutilization and Marketing
  Office area                                           0.67
Housing area                                            0.15
industrialized areas                                    0.35
Landfill area                                           0.00
Munitions area                                          0.00
Wastewater-treatment plant                              0.62

                                                   Shannon-Wiener
                                                   diversity index

                                                   Per 1,000 units
                                                      of effort

     Area surveyed                                   All taxa

Green-space areas

Crutcho Creek riparian zone                             0.87
Engineering initiative Group-leased
  training area                                         0.81
Fire-pond area                                          5.05
Glenwood                                                0.84
Golf-course area                                        0.65
Recycling-center area                                   0.83
Wildlife-reserve 1                                      0.66
Wildlife-reserve 2                                      0.33
Wildlife-reserve 3                                      0.35

Unmanaged-industrialized areas

Airfield                                                n/a
Defense Reutilization and Marketing
  Office area                                           2.11
Housing area                                            1.20
industrialized areas                                    n/a
Landfill area                                           0.98
Munitions area                                          n/a
Wastewater-treatment plant                              3.93

                                                    Shannon-Wiener
                                                    diversity index

                                                    Per 1,000 units
                                                       of effort

    Area surveyed                                     Indicator
                                                      species (a)
Green-space areas

Crutcho Creek riparian zone                              0.20
Engineering initiative Group-leased
  training area                                          0.23
Fire-pond area                                           1.33
Glenwood                                                 0.23
Golf-course area                                         0.15
Recycling-center area                                    0.32
Wildlife-reserve 1                                       0.13
Wildlife-reserve 2                                       0.08
Wildlife-reserve 3                                       0.14

Unmanaged-industrialized areas

Airfield                                                 n/a
Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office area          0.74
Housing area                                             0.11
industrialized areas                                     n/a
Landfill area                                            0.00
Munitions area                                           n/a
Wastewater-treatment plant                               1.29
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Author:Bogosian, Victor, III; Hellgren, Eric C.; Moody, Raymond W.
Publication:Southwestern Naturalist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2012
Words:6806
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