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Aspects concerning the technical-urbanist facilities in the urban environment in the post-communist period. Case study: Fetesti municipality.

Introduction

There are 320 cities in Romania, of which 104 are municipalities. The municipality is a city which usually exceeds a certain number of inhabitants and effectuates some urbanization conditions and important economical, social, political or cultural functions (Suditu et al, 2010). There is only one county in Romania which has not got in its componence a city with municipality function--Ilfov county (Ianos and Vlasceanu, 1998).

In the post December 1989 period, Romania's cities have suffered serious dislocation on socio-economical plan, determined by the economical modifications but also by the demographical ones, which appeared at a national level in Romania. The main phenomenon which led to changes in the socio-economical structure of the Romanian cities is the urban rustication, the lack of facilities in many small cities, the lack of industrialization. All these led to changes in the technical-urbanist facilities in the urban environment (Erdeli and Cucu, 2005).

Fetesti municipality is a city which holds around 30000 inhabitants (2012), situated in the South part of Romania, in the Ialomita county, on the left river of Danube (Borcea channel), having as components Fetesti-Gara (Station), Buliga, Vlasca. In spite of the fact that this municipality holds a strategic position, being an important communication point (the railway, the A2 highway, the bridge Fetesti-Cernavoda over Danube), (Bancila and Petiek, 2009), still, the economy is in continuous depreciation, which influences the urbanist facilities of the city (Candea, Bran, 2001).

Technical and Urbanist Facilities in the Fetesti Municipality

The development of the infrastructure must be a priority in elaborating each strategy of local expansion, especially when it is considered to be a constant element, both on a regional and national level. The considerable influence of the development amount in the infrastructure (technical and urbanist, transportation and public services) over the inhabitants level of living and over the economical development claims that the current problems in the municipality to be resolved. The development of the infrastructure in Fetesti municipality has as goals both the improvement of the urban infrastructure efficiency (roads, facilities) and the amelioration of public services (transportation, green spaces, recreation areas) and indirectly, the elimination of obstacles which block the economic, spatial and social development (Ianos, 2000).

1. The distribution network of the potable water

Fetesti municipality disposes nowadays of a distribution network of potable water which serves 95% of its population. In 2012, a quantity of 1127 cm potable water has been distributed, of which 80.6% representing domestic consume. Reported to the number of consumers, 26,4cm of water have been distributed per inhabitant. Between 2002 and 2012, the volume of distributed water has been continuously decreasing, from 1791 thousands cm in 2000, up to 1127 thousands cm in 2012, representing a decline of around 37% in the distributed water volume. The volume of distributed water concerning the domestic consumers aligns itself in the same descendent line, in 2012, when the decrease was of 38.2% in relation to 2000. In order to provide the potable water there has to be mentioned RAJA SA. By the end of 2012, a number of 8190 extensions were registered at the potable water network.

The main issues in providing this service consisted in: Malfunctions between the capacity of water sources and the quantity of water prevailed from it, which leads to the rise of water quantities necessary for the potable water consuming in the domestic and public use; Water losses in the distribution water system, due mostly to the defective street pipes; The street water networks is of 54.5% as opposed to the street plan within the municipality;

Fetesti municipality is associated to ADI Water-Channel RAJA Constanza, founded in 2008 with the purpose to develop projects which concern the infrastructure. The Fetesti municipality City Hall buttoned up the project called Rehabilitation of the water delivery network Fetesti Station District, stage I, which objective is to replace, on a distance of 8725 m, in the old piping water distribution network, cement-asbestos piping and steel with PEHD piping.

2. The sewage system

The city's sewage system is only partially accomplished and serves the central area of the Fetesti Station district--the education unities, the hospital, the public institutions, the buildings area. Total number of customers: 5351 houses, 442 economic agents and the public institutions within the area.

3. The gas distribution network

The present gas distribution network in the Municipality of Fetesti serves only the Fetesti Station district, where there are 3700 derivations. Thus, only around 40% of the municipality population benefits from it. In 2012, the distributed quantity of natural gas to consumers in the Fetesti municipality was of 1840 thousands cm, from which, a number of 1593 thousands cm (87%) was allotted to domestic use. In 2012, a volume of 3.4 times bigger than the previous year was distributed, holding as prime explanation the increase of extension to the gas network. The economic operator who is in charge of the gas alimentation in the municipality is SC GDF SUEZ energy Romania SA. The Fetesti Municipality City Hall expects an implementation of the project called Extension of the natural gas network--Colonicti (Colonizers), in order for the accessibility of the population to this facility of public concern to register a growth. The economic operator who provides the electric energy in the municipality is SC Electrica Dobrogea SA. A number of 95% in the municipality of Fetesti benefits from this service.

4. Public transportation

Local public passenger transportation is operated by Transbus SA, holding as unique shareholder the Local Council of the Fetesti municipality. Local public transportation assures the connection between districts Colonicti, Vlacca, Buliga and Fetesti City to Station district, which represents the central area of the locality and where the economic, social and administrative activity is focused. The public transportation is deployed on 3 routes having a 21 km length (Station-Buliga 10 km, Station-Vlasca 6 km, Station-Colonisti 5 km). Along these routes boarding-descent stops are established, most of them being signaled, but poorly set up and not in an appropriate level. In the beginning of 2012, the transportation operator held in its inventory 15 buses and 2 microbuses. The age of the buses is of 15-25 years, which is more than the proper eight years period of running. The microbuses which are still running have an age of 4-6 years.

The present transportation means do not correspond to the field standards: they are not adapted to public transportation for persons with disabilities; they are not equipped with air conditioning during summer periods; the majority hasn't got a heating system during winter periods; and the transportation conditions are below requirements in the field. The company has its own garage, with various parking spaces for the vehicles, a mechanic workroom for the repairs and maintenance of the vehicles, as well as specialized personnel for the development of the activity.

In 2012, the public transportation company accomplished the transportation for 125,772 passengers/monthly. The same year, around 4800 courses/monthly were achieved. The daily number of courses varies according to the route: Fetesti-Station [right arrow] Buliga 102 courses/daily; Fetesti-Station [right arrow] Colonicti 29 courses/daily; Fetesti-Station [right arrow] Vlacca 29 courses/daily.

5. Markets and commerce facilities

The municipality disposes of four areas allotted to commerce: The agroalimentary market Fetesti Station--with a total surface of 4697 sm (according to the Inventory of the Public Domain in the Fetesti municipality); The agro-alimentary market Fetesti City--with a surface of 2227 sm; Micro market in Banatenilor street--with a surface of 160 sm; Fair Station--with a surface of 705 sm.

The existent markets have a total surface of 7084 sm and dispose of 64 stands, of which 32 for the traders, 24 for the agrarian producers and 8 for the commerce with cheese and dairy products. The markets benefit from canalization, electric current, running water, sanitary system and scales. However, these spaces are confronted with a series of problems, namely: the lack of a schedule to assort the market; the existence of stray dogs in the market; and the lack of special assorted spaces for the commerce of cheese and diary products.

6. Sanitation and recycling services

The sanitation services in Fetesti municipality are assured by the authorized operator SC Urban SA in Ramnicu Valcea. This company carries out the sanitization of public spaces, the collection and transportation of public and absorbed toxic waste. 6319 physical persons and 12 associations and companies have signed a contract with the sanitation firm. SC Urban SA is in charge of the sanitation of a 145025 sm street area, collecting the quantity of 7542 tones of toxic waste in 2012. S.C. Vivani Salubrity SA Slobozia is in charge of the selective collection of recycled waste (made out of PET, plastic, paper, cardboard) from the domestic waste in the urban localities in Ialomita county and has opened bias points in Urziceni and Fetesti, where transfer stations function, which have as activity object the temporary storage of domestic waste collected by the economical agents in the assigned localities. The domestic waste from the transfer station in Fetesti municipality are carried and deposited in the areal Conform Depot in Slobozia which belongs to the economic agent SC Vivani Sanitation SA. The areal Conform Depot for harmless waste is situated in the outside areas of the Slobozia municipality and of the parish Perieti, 2 km N-W from the municipality and has an exploitation period of more than 20 years.

There is an authorized agent in the municipality who is charge of the collection and exploitation of the recycled waste. It is called SC Primera Group SRL. In 2012, this economic agent collected a quantity of 218,16 tones paper and cardboard waste, 121,146 tones PET waste, 984,7 tones film, polyethylene and plastic waste and 1652,31 tones paper waste and exploited 99,6% from the paper and cardboard waste, 100% from the PET waste, 100% from the film waste and 100% from the glass waste. The deployment of the Directive regarding electric and electronic equipment waste had, at a local level, the creation of a collection point conducted by SC Vivani Salubrity SA. The dangerous medical waste from the hospital in Fetesti is eliminated by authorized companies.

7. Public Illumination

The public illumination network has a length of 6580 m, assuring 100% the lighting of the main streets in the municipality. The public illumination network is modernized with a length of 2180 m (33%), the other 4400 m (67%) requiring new posts. In order to eliminate the airy illumination network, the Fetesti Municipality City Hall wants to implement the project called: The development and modernization of the public illumination system, with the help of subterranean network, in the Fetesti-Station district, Fetesti municipality.

8. Green spaces and urban arrangement

In 2012, in Fetesti municipality there were 44.98 hectares of green spaces, representing 13.01 sm per each inhabitant. A 36.1 percent (16.24 hectares) from the green spaces is represented by parks. The municipality holds two parks: the Public Park and the Central Park. The Public Park is situated in the proximity of the Municipal Stadium and lays on a very generous surface of 10 hectares. The Central Park, situated in the most interesting and attractive area, was founded in 1995.

As for the green areas specific facilities in the municipality, one can say that these are in a precarious situation (Andrei, 2007): Parks are not bordered by a fence, but there are other adjacent objectives which are; Banks are old, deteriorated and insufficient; Alleys are 90% made out of ground, without borders and created ad-hoc dependent on the passers-by customs; The lawn is represented by areas of spontaneous and grass vegetation, untaken care of, in an advanced state of degradation from the point of view of the vegetal structure and with numerous unevennesses; The arborescent and arbustive vegetation is composed of small axles and sometimes of fruit trees, shrubs and spontaneous vegetation. The density of vegetal elements is diminished; The irrigation system is missing. The negative effects which are generated by this situation are felt over the lawn and over the arborescent and arbustive vegetation; The recycle bins are made out of sheet metal, most of them broken or non-functional. From this point of view, they are unsufficient in number. For that purpose, the Fetesti Municipality City Hall initiated a series of projects which point to the improvement and modernization of leisure spaces: Rehabilitation and enlargement of the Public Park, in Fetesti municipality; but also Foundation and improvement of the Sun Park.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis over the technical and urbanist facilities in Fetesti municipality emphasizes the following aspects:

Strong points

* The rehabilitation of the water delivery system in the Fetesti Station district;

* The connection to the gas delivery artery Drajna-Fetesti;

* The modernization of the central railway station for passengers;

* The authorities' implication in resolving problems of urbanist equipment;

Weak points

* The reduced number of modernized streets in the city;

* Almost half (62,8km) of the city's streets are made out of ground;

* Insufficient parking spaces;

* Sidewalks and alleys which are not improved and sometimes inexistent in some neighborhoods;

* The antiquity and the fray of the water system;

* The drainage network which covers a restricted area is undersized and in advanced state of fray;

* The non-existence of a cleaning station;

* The gas distribution network available only in Fetesti Station;

* The non-existence of a centralized heating system;

Opportunities

* The possibility to finance urbanist and transport infrastructure projects from irredeemable European and governmental funds;

* The possibility to obtain sums of money for projects that have to do with the infrastructure and urbanist equipment by conveyance of RAJA Constanza Water-Channel Intercommunitary Development Association, to which Fetesti municipality is associated;

Threats

* Potential difficulties in assuring the co-finance of major rehabilitation projects concerning infrastructure and urbanist networks.

Conclusions

In order to improve the quality of life in Fetesti municipality, certain measures have to be imposed: 1. The modernization and the development of the technical and urbanist infrastructure. The age and the fray of the delivery water system, with effects over the potable water quality, as well as the undersized sewage network and its lack in some neighborhoods influence in a bad way the quality of the inhabitants' life in the municipality and detain the development of the local affaires. The growth of the inhabitants' life improvement in Fetesti municipality implies access to quality public facilities for all its inhabitants. 2. The development and modernization of the roads infrastructure. Although Fetesti is favored to have a good accessibility (on the road, on the railway), the technical state of the city's streets does not allow its proper exploitation and influences negatively the quality of life and detains the development of the affaires. 3. The development and modernization of the infrastructure for public transportation. The public transportation presents major deficiencies regarding the infrastructure, which is short: the boarding-descent stations are not totally signaled, many of them are not improved and others are inefficaciously improved, the quality of services rendered being far from corresponding to the field demands. 4. The creation/development/modernization of the leisure infrastructure. The diminished surface of green spaces per inhabitant (as opposed to national and county level), the improper arrangement and endowment of parks as well as the lack of leisure facilities are problems identified within Fetesti municipality. The arrangement of urban green spaces contributes to the amelioration of the city's entire image as well as the inhabitants life conditions. Extending the green spaces surfaces contributes to the alignment to the standards imposed by the European Union concerning improved green surfaces that each inhabitant should have.

Acknowledgement

The present study is part of the doctoral thesis, which is part of the Program "Investing in People"--a project co-financed from the European Social Fund through the Sectoral Operational Program for Human Resources Development 20072013, Priority Axis: 1 "Professional education and training in support of the economic growth and development of the knowledge-based society", the key area of intervention: 1.5 "Doctoral and post-doctoral programs in the support of research", the project's title "Excellence doctoral and post-doctoral programs for training highly qualified human resources for research in the field of Life Sciences, Environment and Earth", project code: POSDRU/159/1.5/S/133391, beneficiary: University of Bucharest.

AURELIA-PETRUTA RADU

aura_radu24@yahoo.com

Doctoral School "Simion Mehedinti,"

University of Bucharest

REFERENCES

Andrei, Madalina-Teodora (2007), Valea Dunarii intre Giurgiu si Braila--studiu de geografie umana si economica. Bucharest: Editura Cartea Universitara.

Bancila, R., and Petyek, E. (2009), "The History of the Romanian Danube Bridges," Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Construction History, Volume 1, May, Cottbus.

Candea, Melinda, and Bran, Florina (2001), Spaful geografic romanese organizare, amenajare, dezvoltare. Bucharest: Editura Economica.

Erdeli, G., and Cucu, V. (2005), Romania--Populate. Acezari umane. Economie. Bucharest: Editura Transversal.

Ianoc, I., and Vlasceanu, Gh. (1998), Oramele Romaniei. Bucharest: Casa Editoriala Odeon.

Ianoc, I. (2000), Sisteme teritoriale. Bucharest: Editura Tehnica.

Suditu, B. et al. (2010), "Urban Sprawl Characteristics and Typologies in Romania," Journal of Studies and Research in Human Geography 4(2): 79-87.
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Title Annotation:Fetesti, Romania
Author:Radu, Aurelia-Petruta
Publication:Geopolitics, History, and International Relations
Article Type:Case study
Geographic Code:4EXRO
Date:Oct 1, 2015
Words:2826
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