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A The aesthetics of many waterborne coatings can be improved by enhancing the flow and leveling of the formulation. Typically, flow and leveling is caused by retraction due to the application technique (such as spray, brush and roller) and surface tension differences, including differential solvent evaporation, thermal gradients, and compositional differences.
Air Products' research has shown that surfactants that confer both low equilibrium and dynamic surface tension ([[Gamma].sub.la]) prevent retraction in coatings, inks and adhesive formulations. The company's Surfynol[R] and EnviroGem[R] AE series surfactants provide excellent surface tension reduction and flow and leveling characteristics without foam generation.