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Artists from afar: company painters in the princely courts of India 1770-1900.

Up until 1770 few European artists had ventured beyond the confines of their own continent. Frans Post, a Dutch landscape artist, had travelled to Brazil in the dosing years of the 17th century and painted poetic scenes of the Portuguese settlements around the coast. But a visual concept of India and its people was largely unknown to the European public until the arrival of numerous painters in the subcontinent in the last 30 years of the 18th century.

The reasons for this sudden change are various. India's legendary riches had long attracted adventurers and traders. But after 1757, a series of wars and diplomatic manoeuvres saw the rapid expansion of the East India Company's power coupled with the arrival of numerous European administrators with significant amounts of surplus cash to pay for luxuries, including portraits. In England, competition amongst artists for patrons was stiff and many talented painters decided to seek their fortunes in India instead. The brief period from 1770 to 1800 saw a remarkable flowering of friendships between Indians and Europeans before the attitudinal and policy shifts towards racial separation made intimacy between them difficult. Many of the paintings that survive from this period echo this close relationship between the colonizing and colonized elite and it can be seen as the halcyon days of Anglo-Indian art.


The Portraits of Tilly Kettle

Tilly Kettle (1735-86) was the first professional portrait painter to go to India from Europe and it was his success in securing commissions from princely rulers that laid the foundation for his followers. Disappointed at having been omitted from the newly formed Royal Academy in London, Kettle decided to try his luck in India. He arrived in Madras in June 1769. Initially he received commissions from Company servants and military officers in Fort St George, but he quickly realized that much larger fees could be extracted from the Nawab of Arcot, Muhammad Ali. Kettle secured a number of commissions for portraits of the prince and his family. Many of these survive, including the fine portrait of the Nawab, standing on a terrace with palm trees beyond (Victoria and Albert Museum, London). He is shown richly dressed in a brocade coat and wearing magnificent pearl necklaces. Recently a superb fragment of a large painting, long thought to have been destroyed, came to light. (1) It shows two of the Nawab's sons--Umdat Al-Umara and his brother Amir Al-Umara, each dressed in sumptuous silk embroidered clothes and wearing magnificent jewels (figure 1). It originally formed part of a monumental painting of Muhammad Ali and his five sons that was commissioned by the Nawab for presentation to the English Governor, Charles Bourchier. Even in its fragmentary form it remains a powerful example of Kettle's capacity to convey the idiosyncrasies of his sitters' faces and personalities. Whether other fragments survive is uncertain. A portrait of the youthful Tipu Sultan (Seringapatam Fort Museum) and three portraits of the Nawab's sons (Fort St George Museum, Chennai) have been incorrectly attributed to other artists but they are each painted in the same polished and elegant style as the Nawab's portrait and can now be given firmly to Kettle.

Two years later, Kettle moved to Calcutta and soon after was summoned by Shuja-ud-daula to Faizabad. Although nominally subject to the Mughal emperor in Delhi, Shuja-ud-daula wielded immense power over Awadh (Oudh), the richest province in India at the time. By 1771 Faizabad was beginning to usurp Delhi in both size and prosperity. No written record of Kettle's year in this city survives but the seven extant portraits of Shuja-ud-daula and his family (2) reveal much and they represent the high point of Kettle's career. They are painted in much the same style as the Madras portraits, with great attention paid to the texture of the clothes and costly jewels. Those of Shuja-ud-daula himself reveal his singular and resolute character--suggesting a rather close relationship between the artist and patron. Perhaps as important was their lasting influence on the Mughal court painters in Faizabad who produced numerous copies and versions in gouache of Kettle's work.

After Kettle's return to London in 1776, he was followed, in quick succession, by a number of portrait painters of varying ability. George Willison (1745-97), a Scottish painter, produced a number of portraits of the Nawab of Arcot that are little more than pale imitations of Kettle's work. George Farington (1752-88), the brother of the famous diarist (3) worked in Murshidabad for the Nawab Mubarak-ud-daula, but all his work done for his patron and similar subjects done for the British Resident, Sir John Hadley D'Oyly, are lost to studies. On the evidence of copies done by Indian artists, his paintings appear to have been highly original images that would have given us an intimate vision of court life in Murshidabad at the time.

Johann Zoffany, Arthur William Devis, and Thomas Hickey

Arguably the most important European painter to visit India, Johann Zoffany (1733-1810) arrived in Madras in August 1783 and Calcutta six weeks later. He had already established his reputation as a painter of the first rank in the courts of Europe. Yet of all painters of the period he is probably the least understood. Surprisingly little of his recorded Indian work has been studied--perhaps 30 per cent--and numerous works continue to be incorrectly attributed to him on scant evidence. In Calcutta he quickly received numerous commissions. Yet, like Tilly Kettle and William Hodges before him, the attraction of Awadh proved irresistible. His first of three visits to Lucknow coincided with that of his principal patron, the Governor General Warren Hastings. Only a handful of paintings and drawings related to these visits seem to have survived. Of these only five paintings and one drawing fall within the scope of this essay.

Immediately on arrival in Lucknow in June 1784, Hastings commissioned Zoffany to paint a portrait of Prince Jawan Bakht, the eldest son of Emperor Shah Alam, who had arrived in the city from Delhi a month earlier (figure 2). This portrait, and another version done for Major General Claude Martin, were long thought to be lost, but the Hastings version has now resurfaced (4) and is certainly amongst the finest single portraits by the artist to survive. It shows the young Prince seated against bolsters, his hands grasping the hilt of a sword. The artist's understanding of the sitter's character--his charm, decency, and above all his vulnerability--are revealed with consummate skill. It is as if the artist could have seen something of the Prince's tragic future and early death. A rare oil sketch (Victoria Memorial, Kolkata) shows the Prince seated on a moonlit terrace. Accompanied by Asaf-ud-daula and Warren Hastings, he is surrounded by numerous courtiers and British officials. The composition admirably displays the ease with which Indians and Europeans met on the friendliest of terms at the time--something that is almost unimaginable within a few years. Shuja-ud-daula had been succeeded as nawab in 1775 by his son Asaf-ud-daula. Greatly and unfairly maligned by European historians, this clever and wily man was responsible for the rebuilding of Lucknow. He was a formidable patron of the arts. Two single portraits of him by Zoffany survive (5) together with Hastings' significant commission "Colonel Mordaunt's Cock-Match" (Tate Gallery, London). This masterpiece, remarkable for the ease with which Zoffany combined so many disparate elements, his grand vision and versatility is the key visual record of the diverse aspects of Indian and European social life in Lucknow in the 1780s. Zoffany's Indian paintings reveal just how far he had travelled as an artist from the severe clarity of his court paintings done in London into an almost mystical world where the soul of the sitter was all-important.


Five months after Zoffany's departure from Calcutta in 1784, Arthur William Devis (1762-1822) arrived in the city on his return from China to England. (6) He stayed in India for 11 years. Most of his work falls outside the compass of this essay--his superb series of paintings entitled Arts and Manufactures of Bengal represent his most enduring and original contribution to British Indian art. But one painting that has aroused more controversy than almost any other from this period, "The Palmer Family" conversation piece, is included here on account of Begam Faiz Baksh's royal connection. (7) At the time that it was acquired by the India Office Library in 1925, it was attributed, by family tradition, to Zoffany, but this was rejected at the time of the Zoffany exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London (January to March 1977) and it was then given to the Italian painter Francesco Renaldi who arrived in Calcutta in August 1786. Later, in the exhibition Encounters--The Meeting of Asia and Europe 1500-1800 at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (September to December 2004) the attribution reverted to Zoffany. Both these attributions are untenable. Renaldi can be dismissed both on stylistic grounds and in that his arrival in India was clearly later than the date of the scene. Zoffany's style differs significantly from that of the only other contender, Devis. Zoffany's figures are characterized by a muscular energy combined with a certain formality and detachment. In his conversation pieces each figure is minutely and precisely delineated. He excelled in the rendering of the texture of cloth and his palette is highly individual. Devis, on the other hand, invested his figures with a serenity and languorous elegance that is far removed from the animated gestures found in most of Zoffany's figures. The faces of Devis's figures are carefully individualized, often contrasting with loosely painted backgrounds. "The Palmer Family" conversation piece is perhaps the most delightful visual evocation of an Anglo-Indian family that exists (figure 3). William Palmers is seen seated looking adoringly at his Muslim wife, Begam Faiz Baksh of the royal house of Delhi, and they are flanked by other members of her family and ayahs. Their two eldest children, William and Mary stand close by and baby Hastings lies in his mother's lap. The occasion was probably just after Hastings' baptism in Calcutta in December 1785 soon after the Palmers' return there from Lucknow. The painting seems to have none of the usual characteristics that we associate with Zoffany. The relaxed elegance of the figures, the sensitivity with which they have each been painted, the intimacy of the scene, the subdued palette, and the poses of the subsidiary figures are all characteristic of Devis. Zoffany was in Lucknow in December 1785. Apart from Thomas Hickey (1741-1824), who was incapable of a conversation piece of this sophistication, Devis was the only other eminent painter in Calcutta at the time. He alone had the talent and abilities to paint such a majestic work. For the first time it can be given with certainty to Devis--himself perhaps the most underrated of all the painters of British India.


Hickey's strength lay in his deft execution of faces and in his ability to capture the subtleties of the character of his sitters. His arrival in Madras from Europe late in 1798 coincided with the preparations for the Fourth Mysore War culminating in the defeat and death of Tipu Sultan at Seringapatam in May 1799. For the next two years Hickey made a series of at least 55 chalk drawings, some done in Madras, others in Seringapatam and yet others in Vellore and Mysore. They included both British officers involved in the campaign and various Indian sitters. The latter included sons of Tipu Sultan (figure 4), various vakils connected with Tipu's court, and a portrait of the young Krishnaraja Wadiyar III, who was installed on the throne of Mysore by the British. They are each brilliantly delineated. Hickey went on to work up 16 of these into oils for the Governor General's house (now Raj Bhavan) in Calcutta. (9)


Painters at the Indian Courts

Robert Home's (1752-1834) long career in India spanned the turn of the 18th-19th centuries. His work has so often been confused with Zoffany's--in itself a testament to his ability--that it has been difficult to judge his true merit and contribution to British Indian art. His most enduring legacy is the work done as court painter to Ghazi-ud-din Haider of Awadh between 1814 and 1827. A fine portrait shows the King of Awadh receiving tribute (Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, on loan to Victoria Memorial, Calcutta). It plunges the viewer into the solemn yet regal world of Lucknow in 1820. Home is renowned not only for painting court pictures. He also designed his patron's crown and regalia, his carriages, boats, and other equipment, almost none of which survives. His album (Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum) provides an invaluable insight into the work he was engaged in.

The decline of Mughal power in India in the 18th century was mirrored not only by the expansion of the East India Company's domains across the subcontinent but also by the extraordinary military successes of the Marathas. Their real authority lay in the hands of the Maratha chiefs--the most powerful of which, by the end of the 18th century, was Mahadaji Scindia. But these chiefs were, theoretically at least, subject to the authority of the Peshwa in Poona. James Wales (1747-95), another Scottish painter, arrived in Bombay in 1791 where, soon after, he met the British Resident at Poona, Sir Charles Warre Malet. Malet, impressed with Wales's obvious ability as a painter, invited the artist to Poona and introduced him to the young Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan and his brilliant minister Nana Fadnavis. Numerous commissions resulted and also paintings of "ladies, cheetahs, elephants and horses". Sadly, little of this work has survived. A fine portrait of the Peshwa and his minister is in the Royal Asiatic Society in London (figure 5). The Peshwa is shown seated on his gaddi or throne of velvet and brocade in the Shaniwarwada Palace durbar hall. He wears simple court dress but his turban is adorned with a fine jewelled sarpech. Another much damaged version of this painting survives in Government House (now Raj Bhavan, Ganeshkhind, Poona) and six other single portraits of the Peshwa and various ministers (10) account for all Wales's work of the court at Poona that is known to studies.

Lesser Known Artists of the 19th Century

In sharp contrast to the period 1770 to 1800, the 19th century saw comparatively few painters of the first rank travelling to India from Europe. Two exceptions, George Chinnery and Edward Lear, each spent extended periods in India but appear to have ignored princely commissions. For all that, a number of interesting portrait painters worked in the subcontinent sometimes for long periods. William Henry Florio Hutchisson (1773-1857) arrived in Calcutta in the autumn of 1824, just before the departure of Chinnery for China, and he stayed in India for 18 years. A few paintings by Hutchisson survive. In 1836 he visited Murshidabad and painted several portraits of the Nawab Nazim Humayun Jah (figure 6). One was sent as a gift by the Nawab to William IV and it in turn was presented in 1930 to Viceregal Lodge (now Rashtrapati Bhavan), New Delhi, where it still hangs. Five other portraits of the Nawab survive in the palace of Murshidabad. They are each surprisingly sensitive portrayals of a vulnerable prince, whose family had been stripped of wealth and power by the British. His paintings confirm that Hutchisson was fully at ease in the Indian environment.


In Europe in the 19th century, the art world was split between sharply opposing factions. The traditionalists took their inspiration from the past and sought an ever greater realism in their painting, through meticulous detail. In stark contrast, the revolutionary modernizers were preoccupied with the delineation of light. They overturned many of the long held principles and techniques of painting, like chiaroscuro, and the great art movement of Impressionism was born. Benjamin Hudson (1823-91) arrived in Calcutta in 1854 and remained in the city for about eight years. A significant number of his portraits survive and show that he was clearly a traditionalist. His portraits of the Maharaja of Burdwan and his family and others of the Sinha family of Paikpara and the Nawab of Murshidabad are each painted in the same precise, almost miniaturist style. Although his technique was faultless, his painting reveals little that was beneath the visible eye. One longs to know more about the elegantly dressed figures, but this was beyond Hudson's powers or perhaps he was just not sufficiently interested!

With the eclipse of the great Maratha princes in the early 19th century and their assimilation into an India dominated by the British, the Sikhs alone remained a potent power in northern India for another quarter century. Emily Eden (1797-1869), the sister of the Governor General, Lord Auckland, is perhaps best known for her written and visual accounts of the court of Ranjit Singh. She undertook a long and arduous journey upcountry with her brother, visiting the Punjab in the winter of 1838, just a few months before Ranjit's death. She made numerous drawings of the Maharaja and members of his court (figure 7). Most of these survive among the 193 drawings by her in the Victoria Memorial, Kolkata. While they provide an invaluable record of the court at that period, their artistic importance falls far short of her reputation. These surviving watercolours are very much amateur works. Back in London, Emily Eden was fortunate to find a brilliant lithographer, J. Dickinson, to work up and greatly improve on her sketches for the magnificent publication Portraits of the Princes and People of India, in 1844. In the same year that Emily Eden arrived in Lahore an enterprising Hungarian painter August Theodor Schoeft (1809-88) arrived in India at the age of 29. A year later he completed full-length portraits of the Nawab of Arcot, Ghulam Muhammad Ghaus, and of his uncle, Prince Azim Jah. After a brief stay in Calcutta, he announced his intention of travelling to the Punjab. He paused in Delhi to paint the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar and two of his sons, Mirza Mughal and Mirza Jawan Bakht. Schoeft arrived in Lahore probably in May or June 1841 and was immediately summoned by the new Maharaja, Sher Singh, who was then at Amritsar. The ruler was so impressed with Schoeft's ability that he and several of the principal members of the court sat for him. Many of these paintings done on the spot seem to be lost, but Schoeft took back with him to Europe his brilliant drawings and ten years later in Vienna worked these up into the fully finished paintings that are now in the Princess Bamba Collection, Lahore Fort. They include his historical tour de force "The Court of Lahore", for which Schoeft relied not just on his drawings but also on his memory and a significant degree of improvisation. Many of the characters included in the composition had already died when Schoeft arrived in Lahore--Ranjit Singh in June 1839; Maharaja Kharak Singh and his son Nau Nihal Singh within a day of each other in November 1840. By the time this grand composition was completed the Punjab had been annexed by the British and other characters in the picture had also died, many in tragic circumstances. In the same collection are other paintings by Schoeft--testimony to his extraordinary ability and imagination. These include "Maharaja Ranjit Singh Listening to the Granth Being Recited near the Golden Temple, Amritsar" and a majestic portrait of "Maharaja Sher Singh Seated on the Golden Throne of Maharaja Ranjit Singh" (figure 8). The last of the Lahore maharajas, and perhaps the most tragic, Maharaja Dalip Singh, travelled to England in 1854, where Queen Victoria elevated him to the rank of a European prince. Almost immediately the Queen arranged for the young Maharaja to sit for her favourite painter, Franz Winterhalter (1805-93). The result (Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II) is probably the most celebrated portrait of an Indian prince. Dressed in a splendid silk costume and wearing magnificent jewels, the young man seems to be living up to the exalted status accorded to him by the Queen. But it singularly failed--perhaps intentionally on this clever artist's part--to reveal the Maharajas real vulnerability or even to glimpse at his long and sad decline.


Post- 1857 Painters

Despite the perceived horrors of the events of 1857 in India, Queen Victoria maintained an interest in the Indian scene that was only second to her interest in the Highlands of Scotland. She sent out to her new "Empire" a number of artists to record for her and for posterity the princes of this far-off place. First of these was Sir Edwin Landseer's 20-year old nephew, George Landseer (1834-78). He spent eight years in India and sent back both landscapes and portraits of some of the princes. His full-length portrait of the Maharaja Tukoji II of Indore (private collection) reveals an artist entirely familiar with the developments of those artists opposed to the rigid formulae of classical painting (figure 9). The freedom of the young Landseer's brush, his vibrant colours, and above all his search for his sitter's inner temperament mark him as one of the most capable yet underrated of Victorian painters.


In the cold weather of 1875, the Prince of Wales made a tour through India. This chiefly entailed visits to the more important princely states. His visit to Jaipur on February 4, 1876 was immortalized in a vast canvas by the Russian painter Vasilii Vasilievich Vereshagin (1842-1904) entitled "The Entry of the Prince of Wales into Jaipur" (Victoria Memorial, Kolkata). It shows a state procession of Mughal magnificence with the future King Edward VII seated in a howdah beside the Maharaja. In the following year Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India at a Durbar presided over by the Viceroy, Lord Lytton. He chose a friend, the well-established London painter, Val Prinsep (1838-1904), to undertake a commission to record this event in another huge painting for presentation to Her Imperial Majesty. The terms of this commission were 5,000 [pounds sterling] with his passage paid. Prinsep spent 14 months in India making numerous portrait sketches of sometimes taciturn and reluctant princes for the final composition "The Imperial Assemblage at Delhi" (Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II). This was completed three and a half years after the original commission and exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1880. The Proclamation Ceremony on New Year's Day 1877 was such a disappointment to the artist that he asked for, and was granted, permission to make substantial alterations to the scene. The result shows the princes sitting round the Viceroy in a semicircle. The real problem was the sheer scale of the painting--27 feet (nearly 9 metres) in length--and the result resembles something of a patchwork quilt. Val Prinsep was an artist of great early promise but who had sadly failed to mature. He was not up to the difficulties posed by the perspective in such a vast composition. More successful are the portrait sketches of the princes, done on the spot. Most of these appear to be lost but a group of 17 and a sketch of the Durbar scene itself survive in the Victoria Memorial, Kolkata. In each, Prinsep sought to convey the intricacies of the minds of his sitters. He admirably captured the utter boredom in the face of the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Mahbub Mi Khan AsafJah VI; the self-importance displayed by the Maharaj Rana of Dholpur, Nihal Singh; and the alertness and fascination for the occasion in the face of a young but unidentified hill state prince.


In 1886, Queen Victoria sent out to India another young Hungarian painter, Rudolf Swoboda (1859-1914) to record for her portraits, not only of the leading princes, but also of numerous minor chieftains and their subjects (figure 10). Swoboda had been almost entirely forgotten until a retrospective exhibition of his portraits from Osborne House, Isle of Wight (Collection of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II) held at the National Gallery, London in 2002. The exhibition revealed a painter of significantly greater ability than any of his contemporaries who travelled to the subcontinent from Europe in that period--with the possible exception of the brilliant but neglected Welsh painter, John Griffiths. His small "Imperial Assemblage--Native Chieftains in Front of the Jumma Musjid on the Occasion of the Viceroy Entering Delhi" (Collection of the Marquess of Lansdowne) is an atmospheric and evocative rendering of the events of 1877, that far surpasses Prinsep's monumental canvas. Swoboda's portraits, many executed on panels and in small scale, have a sense of deep and profound empathy with his sitters. He appears to have engaged with each in order to understand and convey their characters, their foibles, their strengths, and their weaknesses. This collection stands as one of the most important records of the princes of India in the closing years of the 19th century.


It was Lord Curzon's own inspiration to sum up, in the Great Durbar of 1903, the magnificence and splendour which he believed to be implicit in the British Raj and its relationship with the princes. Little did he imagine that within less than half a century the sun would set on this imperial experiment. Mortimer Mempes (1860-1938), a protege of James McNeil Whistler, was summoned by the Viceroy to record this last grand Durbar. Like his predecessors, Mempes travelled extensively in upper India and made numerous small-scale paintings and watercolours of the Viceroy and the princes involved in the Durbar itself. Most of these were published back in England in November 1903 by Mempes himself in a splendid book entitled Durbar. The colour illustrations of these portraits are a testament to the extraordinary ability of this painter in capturing the absolute apogee of British and princely power in India. For 50 years prior to Mempes's arrival in India, photography had posed as a serious rival to portrait painting, and it is remarkable that in these years India had continued to attract so many interesting painters who provided for posterity a visual record of the magnificence of the princely age.


(1.) This painting first surfaced at Christie's, Exploration and Travel with Visions of India, September 21, 2000, lot 215, and subsequently at Sotheby's, Exotica, East meets West 1500-1900, May 25, 2005, lot 72.

(2.) These seven portraits are:

"Shuja-ud-daula with his son Asaf-ud-daula" (Versailles, France);

"Shuja-ud-daula with General Barker" (Victoria Memorial, Kolkata);

"Shuja-ud-daula" (until recently Banqueting House, Chennai, believed to be now in Lucknow State Museum);

"Shuja-ud-daula holding a bow" (Yale, New Haven, USA);

"Shuja-ud-daula, seated, with a hookah" (private collection);

"Shuja-ud-daula with Haider Beg Khan standing on a terrace" (English private collection);

Fragment of a large painting of "Two young sons of Shuja-ud-daula" (French private collection).

(3.) George Farington was the younger brother of the artist and diarist Joseph Farington. Both brothers appear to have been trained by the leading English landscape artist, Richard Wilson.

(4.) This portrait is included in the original invoice from the artist to Warren Hastings dated February 21, 1785. Its title is given as "A Kit cat of the Prince of Delhi". It subsequently hung in Warren Hastings' English house, Daylesford, and remained there until after Mrs Hastings' death in 1837. It passed to her niece, Miss Chapuset, who married Thomas Winter, the Rector of Daylesford, and thence to their daughter. Her estate was sold up in 1919 and the painting was acquired by the bookseller, Francis Edwards. It has since been held in two separate private collections.

(5.) One was given by the Nawab to his servant Francis Baladon Thomas and was purchased in 1906 from his descendants by the India Office, where it remains. The second was given by the Nawab to Sir John Shore (later Lord Teignmouth) in 1797. It was incorrectly attributed to the artist Charles Smith by Mildred Archer (India and British Portraiture, London, Sotheby Park Bernet, 1979, p. 181, pl. 112). It has changed hands a number of times recently and has been correctly re-attributed to Zoffany.

(6.) Arthur William Devis was the 19th child of Arthur Devis (1711-87). He had joined an expedition to China on board The Antelope in September 1782 as official draughtsman. On the return journey the vessel was wrecked on Oroolong, one of the Pelew Islands east of Borneo. Having survived this disaster, Devis elected to return to England via Canton and India. Arriving in Calcutta in November 1784, he changed his mind and remained in India for the next 11 years.

(7.) There seems to be little doubt now that Faiz Baksh was of the royal house of Delhi. This is affirmed by a number of reliable and independent authors (Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor, The Story of My Life, London, Oxford University Press, 1877, notes p. 46; Sir Edmund C. Cox, My Thirty Years in India, London, Mills and Boon, 1909, p. 37; and others). This is further supported by long-held family tradition and 19th-century papers still held by Faiz Baksh's descendants. This royal provenance was questioned by Desmond Young in his work on General Benoit de Boigne, Fountain of the Elephants, London, Collins, 1959, but a recent thorough search through the de Boigne archive in Chambery failed to find evidence to support his conjecture.

(8.) William Palmer's illustrious career in India is well-documented. After serving in St Kitts, West Indies, Palmer arrived in India in 1766. He was Military Secretary to Warren Hastings from 1776 to 1785, Resident at Gwahor from 1787, and at Poona (Pune) from 1798-1801. Thereafter he was made a General and commanded at Monghyr, Bihar. He died at Berhampur, Bengal, May 20, 1816.

(9.) Nine of these have been transferred to the Victoria Memorial, Calcutta and seven to Rashtrapati Bhavan in Delhi. Other related works include a portrait of Daulat Rao Scindia (English private collection) and two small portraits of Hindu vakils at Tipu's court at Seringapatam (another English private collection).

(10.) These comprise two portraits in the India Office Library (Mahadaji Scindia and Bahiro Raghunath Mehendale); two portraits in the Victoria Memorial (Madhu Rao Narayan and Nana Fadnavis); a further portrait of Nana Fadnavis (European private collection); and a portrait of Nur-ul-din Hussain Khan (English private collection).
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Author:Greig, Charles
Publication:Marg, A Magazine of the Arts
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jun 1, 2008
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