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Artist of arcadia: landscape painting in seventeenth-century Italy was radically innovative, but the achievements of the major masters, such as Claude, Domenichino and Poussin, have overshadowed the contribution of other painters. Clovis Whitfield rescues the enchantingly beautiful arcadian landscapes of Francesco Cozza from obscurity.

Francesco Cozza's life was recorded by few biographers, and his works, although many of them are signed, are rarely mentioned in seventeenth-century inventories. The extensive pages devoted to his biography by Lione Pascoli in his Vite (1730-36), repeated by Bernardo de Dominici later in the eighteenth century, are difficult to relate to the landmarks of his long career. His signed works have been key to understanding his development, for which the classicising impact of his association with Domenichino has always been seen as fundamental. Cozza obviously arrived in Rome before Domenichino left for Naples, and also followed him there; but his real workplace was Rome, and he was influenced successively by other painters there, such as Pier Francesco Mola, Sassoferrato and Preti. His figure style remained most attached to the articulate classicism of Antiveduto Grammatica and Antonio Carracci, but he was also drawn to the genre of landscape as made popular by the school of Annibale Carracci.

Cozza made a significant contribution because he not only painted paesi con figure piccole--'landscapes with small figures' illustrating historical themes--in the way that Domenichino had pioneered for such patrons as G.B. Agucchi, but he also created pure landscapes with staffage figures. The small interest that seicento writers had in such a 'decorative' genre--even when it involved the originators of the tradition--has meant that these works have remained in a cultural limbo, attributed to various artists without evidence. These artists range from Domenichino to Grimaldi and from Gaspard Dughet, Claude and Courtois to Locatelli. Those names acknowledge the variety of influences on Cozza in the course of a half century of activity that is but patchily represented by the works that we can now restore to him. Fortunately his classical training meant that he had an idiosyncratic hand in terms of landscape detail as well as figures, and his command of nature was never close enough to disguise his mannerisms.

These mannerisms are in fact well-known from signed works with landscape elements, such as the 1667 Prodigal Son at Burghley House (Figs. 1 and 3) and the well-known paintings of Hagar and Ishmael (Fig. 2). (1) There are also many landscape elements in other paintings, from the early Birth of the Virgin at the Galleria Colonna and The Finding of Moses at Santa Maria in Aquiro, Rome, to the frescoes for the Pamphili family at Valmontone. We see the same trees, escarpments and rustic castelli in the background of The Birth of the Virgin as in the much later The Prodigal Son, and we can moreover detect a type of landscape perspective technique that is used repeatedly in those passages, a technique that rightly is seen as belonging to the tradition of Bolognese landscape painting.

Domenichino was not the only artist representing this genre in Rome in the 1630s, when Cozza was maturing. There were also such painters as Pietro Paolo Bonzi, the 'hunchback' of the Carracci, and G.F. Grimaldi (who claimed to have studied with the Carracci when in fact he arrived in the city in 1626 after they had all gone) and Filippo Lauri, not to mention the French contingent led by Nicolas Poussin and his brother-in-law Gaspard Dughet. Many French patrons were seeking works from the celebrated Carracci, and in satisfying this market many works from the Carracci entourage were represented to unknowing collectors abroad as original Annibales, so it became very difficult even then to know what the Carraccesque landscape really consisted of. Even the works of G.B. Viola, Domenichino's studio assistant, were passed off as paintings by Domenichino and Annibale Carracci. Viola himself, as Malvasia observed in a note that has received insufficient attention, gave up painting whole pictures in order to work at details like foliage, in which we understand his deficiencies in terms of perspective were less obvious. (2)

Achieving a realistic prospect with all the elements in scale was the subject of a lengthy apprenticeship--Passeri says that Domenichino learnt this technique in order to be able to finish his paintings (with the landscape detail) himself, rather than leave it to a specialist. It is clear that Poussin, who studied with Domenichino, learnt the principles of perspective as applied to a landscape setting, because the technique employed--a stage-like arrangement of buildings and natural elements, set out in a box with the staffage figures all reduced to their appropriate scale--is evident in many of his paintings. By contrast, Gaspard had no patience with this technique, and could never satisfactorily either marry a figure subject with a background, or paint a landscape with a conventional perspective, relying instead on an intuitive representation.

Cozza's landscapes employ central perspective, with coulisses ('wings') and repoussoirs (visual counterpoints in the middle distance), to engage the eye and take it from left to right into the background, with an abundance of picturesque detail carefully in scale. Sometimes the figure subject is wholly dominant, in other paintings the figures are within rather than in the foreground, as the various versions of Hagar and Ishmael show. But Cozza also painted landscapes with no history subject, as the various 'landscapes' with no theme recorded in the inventory of his property after his death show. These can be recognised as his work particularly by the notably individual handling of trees and foliage, as well as by the highly-coloured palette, both of which show his debt to Domenichino, Bonzi and Pietro da Cortona.

The dry and verdant branches of the trees, crossed trunks and sprouting mullein-like foliage on a dry and stony ground in the Amsterdam Hagar and Ishmael are a distinctive language. The trunks of the trees criss-cross the canvas in a way that recalls Poussin in his so-called 'Silver Birch' phase, with a dappled light catching the uneven bark. The branches seem to be laid out flat, like fern fronds, while it is the colouring that gives the foliage variety of appearance and depth. The Burghley Prodigal Son has a distinctive skyline of small umbrella pines, cypresses and buildings that resemble the 'Grottaferrata' fortifications in Annibale's Flight into Egypt in the Doria Pamphili Gallery (and Domenichino's later echo of it, the Landscape with a Fortified Building in Sir Denis Mahon's collection), but possess a character all of their own. Altogether, these characteristics are quite personal, and belong as much in passages of pictures that are predominantly devoted to landscape as they do to works that employ landscape as a background feature.

One of the works that shares these characteristics in an extremely charming landscape background is Lucina, Norandino e l'Orco in the Galleria Corsini in Rome (Fig. 5). (3) The rare subject (from Ariosto's Orlando Furioso) (4) must stem from Lanfranco's early commission for a large painting of the subject for Cardinal Scipione Borghese's villa at Frascati, although the compositions are not otherwise related. (5) The gesturing figures of Norandino and Lucina belong precisely to the genre of posed and somewhat stilted expression that is to be found in almost all Cozza's compositions. The carefully studied hands reveal the graphic origin of his designing, confirmed from the few drawings that have survived. (6) This contained preparation is a characteristic of the classically-minded painters around Domenichino, including not only Antonio Carracci--who has a similarly concentrated pursuit of expression-but also Antiveduto Grammatica.

It is not easy to place a work like the Corsini picture in Cozza's career, but the stylistic ingredients that compose such imagery are clear. The waterfall itself, with buildings and two peaks behind and trees in front, is a near quotation from the fresco of Apollo and Midas designed by Domenichino and painted mainly by Viola and Alessandro Fortuna at the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati and now in the National Gallery, London (Fig. 4). Pietro da Cortona too was inspired by such a design in a drawing at Holkham Hall that has been linked to the period (1626/30) of the decorations he did at the Villa Sacchetti at Castelfusano. (8)

It is evident that if the design of Cozza's landscape owes much to Domenichino, the rich colouring is indebted to Pietro da Cortona, and it may well be that the picture in Palazzo Corsini dates from around 1630, shortly after Cozza arrived in Rome. He could perhaps have seen some of the studies that Domenichino made for the Frascati frescoes in the studio, but there were other diligent admirers of the examples of Carraccesque landscape to be seen in Rome and around--notably Grimaldi, who served this fashion in Italy and in France, where Cardinal Mazarin led the vogue for 'Bolognese' landscape painting.

Both Passeri and Pascoli link Cozza's stylistic origins to Domenichino, and the latter even has it that Cozza completed works that Domenichino left unfinished. This was certainly true of one of the pendentives of the Cardinal Virtues (Temperance) in S Carlo ai Catinari, finished by Cozza after the Bolognese painter's departure for Naples in 1630, but Pascoli would have us believe that there were numerous examples of work done under Cozza's direction, some of them retouched by Domenichino himself in person. (9) Other works left unfinished by Domenichino were, according to Pascoli, later finished by him, but this may well be a case of wishful thinking by owners of the canvases. For although the influence of Domenichino is evident in Cozza's work, he possessed an individuality that took him forward, perhaps particularly in the direction of landscape painting, and the paese con figure piccole (what we might now call 'classical landscape'), such as the Landscape with the Prodigal Son at Burghley House.

Another landscape with a story that is clearly by the same hand is Mercury Stealing the Herds of Admetus Guarded by Apollo (Fig. 7), in a private collection, New York. It has an old history in England, where it seems to have been sold in 1825 as by Domenichino. (10) The subject (from Ovid's Metamorphoses, II, 680) was rarely represented, but the fact that it was included in the fresco decoration directed by Domenichino in the Stanza d'Apollo in the Villa Aldobrandini, and now in the National Gallery, would have helped prompt the attribution of this little composition to his hand. It is, however, characteristic of Cozza, both in the figures and in the landscape detail.

This genre of small history subject has much to do with the small canvases and panels painted in Domenichino's manner by Pietro Paolo Bonzi (c. 1576-1636), and with the fashion for landscape painting in the 1630s. This was the milieu of the circle of artists who worked for Cardinal Pier Paolo Crescenzi (1575-1642), (11) and it was quite early in this decade that the group of painters including Claude, Poussin, Both and Swanevelt was called upon to produce paintings of anchorite landscapes (landscapes with hermits), to be shipped to Madrid for the King of Spain's Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.

Another example of this 'Domenichinesque' landscape is the little canvas that was in Dorotheum's sale in Vienna on 3 December 1974 (Fig. 6). This work (present location unknown) is a charming essay in Domenichino's idiom, with a 'Bolognese' castle seen across a pool of water, and staffage figures including a shepherd and diminutive sheep. Both these and the detail of the trees and foliage, and the overall palette, make it certain that this is by Cozza. This is an essay in the kind of landscape Domenichino painted in Les laveuses, the little picture in the Louvre that was once in Annibale Carracci's possession, (12) and the Landscape with Bathers in the Prado. (13) These are paese con figure piccole, a genre that Domenichino essentially invented in his first decade in Rome, and which proved extremely appealing to collectors in Italy and abroad later in the seicento. He himself does not seem to have exploited this form to the full, leaving it to be developed by other painters in the Carracci entourage, such as Antonio Carracci and Pietro Paolo Bonzi.

These characteristics maintain their profile even when the experience of landscape in Cozza's art has been overlaid with other ingredients. This is the case with the charming Landscape with the Ponte di Molo (Fig. 8) that also seems to have come to England in the eighteenth century, brought as a representation of the classical landscape tradition by a Grand Tourist. (14) It was based on an actual view of a bridge near Tivoli called the Ponte di Molo, on the Aniene river. Numerous plein-air drawings of it by Claude Lorrain exist, dating from 1640-45 (Figs. 9 and 10). (15) As we know from Joachim von Sandrart, by the 1630s Claude was already sketching from nature in the Campagna in the company of Poussin and other painters. The results of these expeditions, which extended into the 1640s, can be seen in the famous series of drawings by Claude in pronounced chiaroscuro. A comparable group of nature drawings by Poussin, once in the collection of Pierre Mariette, are today disputed between the hands of Nicolas and Gaspard Poussin. (16) Another group of chiaroscuro drawings has been attributed to Giovanni Domenico Desiderii, on the basis of a letter on the back of a drawing of this same bridge, recorded in 1930 in the collection of S.P. Jaremicz in Russia. (17) It is not completely clear that this letter does in fact identify Desiderii as the draughtsman, but it is clear that a number of artists were interested in these effects in Rome in the 1640s. One drawing apparently signed by Desiderii shows the Ponte di Molo from the same viewpoint as Cozza's painting, with a single figure fishing in the foreground (Fig. 11). (18) Apart from the ample use of chiaroscuro in the foliage, it employs the same shadow to enhance the perception of form in the trees and the foreground figure. It may be that Cozza is in fact the author of this and the associated group of drawings in Russia. (Fig. 12).

Claude made most use of this motif, and the bridge appears, with variations, in a number of his works, showing the degree to which the picturesque was beginning to be appreciated as a genre on its own. However the painting by him that most closely approximates to the view of nature seen in Cozza's Landscape with a Bridge is the View with the Castle of La Crescenza in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (Fig. 15). The sequence of numbers in the Liber Veritatis, the book of drawings (British Museum) that Claude made to record his paintings, suggests a date of around 1648/49 for this work, which also represents a pastoral landscape taken from nature, although it may well be that it was put in the Liber only when it left Claude's possession; it has the appearance of being a few years earlier, perhaps towards 1640. (19) Cozza seems to have been fully conversant with this kind of picture, and his appreciation of the Tivoli countryside seems very close to Claude's. The branches and foliage to the right of the painting, with the roadway seen through, are a painterly equivalent of the chiaroscuro drawings, and Cozza's graphic translation of the outlines of trees is a picturesque employment of light and shade. (20)

Another exquisite instance of Cozza's landscape is the little Landscape with a Shepherd and Stream in a private collection, New York (Fig. 17). This is one of the most delicate of Cozza's paintings in both colouring and balance of design, and it has long been thought to be by Domenichino himself. (21) It is, however, clearly by the same hand as the other landscapes in this group--the trees and escarpments reveal as much, even without the robust colouring of the foreground figures, seen from behind, and the characteristic shepherd piping. It is interesting to see how Cozza is developing the Domenichinesque landscape, using all the devices of landscape perspective to give a structure and coherence to his views. These are pastoral landscapes, with ingredients like the Carraccesque 'Venetian' lagoon landscapes that Annibale introduced to Rome, but the picturesque quality of the staffage figures is enhanced by the experience of effects seen in nature. The closure of the view across the water by the building complex of the watermill is a recollection of Poussin's landscapes towards the middle of the century, such as the buildings in the background of the Temps Calme (J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu), and the figure walking away down the curved path into the woods on the left is a recollection of such figures in earlier Poussins and Gaspards.

At all times in these landscapes we are aware of Cozza's ability to arrange nature in terms of perspective; the figures are carefully proportioned, and the linking devices between the various passages of distance work admirably to give a very sophisticated structure. Like the Landscape with a Bridge, this is not simply a pastoral landscape, a decorative genre--it is almost a historical landscape without a history subject. Cozza had an important role in the transition towards the eighteenth-century classical landscape tradition, which often in the hands of Orizzonte and Locatelli, and beyond, seems to be more of a response to filling a decorator's need. Domenichino continued to be a source of inspiration-the shepherd, so characteristic of Cozza's hand, turns out to be modelled on the shepherd Admetus in the fresco from the Villa Aldobrandini, designed by Domenichino (Fig. 16). The weir's bubbling water is an effect cultivated also by Pietro da Cortona, an instance of the pursuit of transitory impressions from nature, like the reflections in water in Poussin's paintings around 1650.

What appear to be a pair of landscapes by Cozza on a larger scale are the Landscape with Shepherds in Kassel (Fig. 13), until now attributed to Domenichino, and another canvas of the same size and complementary subject, Landscape with Two Shepherds Conversing, in a private collection in London (Fig. 14), and probably previously in France. (22) The figures in these paintings are 'classical', like those of the Landscape with a Bridge, but with an elegiac pose that is reminiscent of Poussin's Arcadian subjects. The compositions are still Domenichinesque. the passages of light and shade, hill and stream, leading to a spire in the distance, could have been seen by Cozza in Mercury stealing the herds of Admetus among the frescoes in the Villa Aldobrandini at Frascati. The trees with their tall trunks and varied foliage are an ideal framework for the views of the Campagna, and the figures placed at various distances from the foreground, like the buildings, trees and hills, give a very satisfying impression of the countryside.

Cozza was well versed in perspective, and left a notebook on the subject by which he set much store, and which is probably to be identified with a manuscript in the Accademia di San Luca. (23) Although it concerns architectural forms, we can assume that Cozza was also practised in the designing of recession as applied to landscape because of the measured control of the features in his settings. It was certainly part of the practice developed by Domenichino when he adopted landscape as a speciality in Annibale Carraci's workshop in Rome, and was one of the features to which Poussin in particular devoted attention. (24)

A more Claudian moment in Cozza's career may perhaps be seen in the pair of classical landscapes that were exhibited in the exhibition Im Licht yon Claude Lorrain at the Haus der Kunst, Munich, in 1983 that are close to the mood and design of Claude's works in the early 1650s. (25) It is the figures in particular that suggest Cozza's authorship, but the definition of the trees and foliage also reveals his handwriting. If this is the case, it may well be that more of Cozza's activity is disguised in works done to compete with Claude in his later Roman years.

Little is known about the patronage that Cozza enjoyed for these works: his name appears in only a few Seicento inventories, and the works that Pascoli tells us were created for specific collectors have not surfaced. Their subjects included themes that invited a landscape setting, such as a pair of pictures for the Padre Generale de Domenicani, of The Woman of Samaria at the Well, and Mary Magdalen in the Desert, or The Martyrdom of St Agabito and St Francis in the Desert receiving the Stigmata for Francesco Fadulfi. (26)

Apparently a member of the Accademia di San Luca in 1634, (27) Cozza was still listed among the academicians in 1650--a recognition that would take a lifetime for Jan Frans van Bloemen to achieve--and he was obviously well received in Rome, particularly with the Contestabile Colonna and the Pamphili family, patronage that was significant of course after Giovanni Battista Pamphili succeeded Urban VIII as Innocent x in 1644. Apart from the frescoes in Palazzo Pamphili in Piazza Navona and in Palazzo Pamphili at Valmontone, only a pair of pictures in the Galleria Doria Pamphili was still listed under his name in the family's collection in 1819, (28) and this seems to be the pair of pastoral landscapes still in the Galleria that appear in E. Safarik's catalogue under 'Monsu Francesco Borgognone' (Francois Simonot, or Simonetti, as he as known in Italy), the brother-in-law of Christian Reder. (29) If these are by Cozza, and they lack even the staffage figures that in particular enable us to recognise his work, it would show that he was well-versed in producing a form of ideal landscape whose function was essentially decorative, anticipating the work of Locatelli. But Andrea de Marchi sets little store by the attributions made in the 1819 list, (30) which was made for the purpose of the fedecommesso (or official list of entail of the collection), and it remains curious why there are so few references to Cozza's works in other early inventories.

Landscape painting enjoyed a great vogue in the seicento, an age of artistic originality in many directions. By comparison, eighteenth-century painters are more hackneyed, whether producing 'classical' landscapes or topographical views. The historical understanding of seicento landscape painting that has its origins in the age of Richard Wilson concentrated on the major hands, from Annibale to Domenichino, Claude and Poussin, whose work was particularly sought after by foreign collectors. Cozza was far from being a mere follower of Domenichino, and his enchanting work gives us a better insight into the kind of landscape that emanated from this tradition. The lowly status of the landscapist's speciality meant that these artists were often taken for granted in their own country, to be celebrated with the great names of Italian landscape painting only when they were bought on the Grand Tour.

Clovis Whitfield is Director of Whitfield Fine Art in London and the author of various studies on seicento landscape painting.

(1) Versions of Hagar and Ishmael can be found in Statens Museum for Konst, Copenhagen, (1664), the Rrjksmuseum, Amsterdam (reproduced here; 1665); and the largest, measuring 114.7 x 139.4 cm, in the collection of the late Sir Brinsley Ford, London.

(2) Notes, apparently by G.F. Grimaldi, among the Malvasia papers published as L. Marzocchi and L Anceschi (eds.), Scritti originali del Conet Carlo Cesare Malvasia spettanti alia sua Felsina Pittrice, Bologna, c. 1980, p. 372: 'e alia frasca si diode a batter solo il paese ...'

(3) Exhibited, as by Antonino Barbalonga Alberti, in the exhibition 'Claasicsmo e natura, La Lezione del Domenichino', Galleria Capitolina, Rome, 1996/97, no. 31. The reference to Barbalonga was first proposed by S. Alloisi in Laboratorio di Restauro 2, exh. cat., Galleria Corsini, Rome, 1988, pp. 62-66. E. Schleier in Giovanni Lanfranco, exh. cat., Parma and Naples, 2001, p. 200, found the attribution to Barbalonga unconvincing and the landscape background of Barbalonga's documented Portrait of Antonio Barberini in S Maria della Concezione, exhibited in the same Galleria Capitolina show in 1996/97, was demonstrably incompatible with this sort of naturalism.

(4) Canto XVII, 26-65.

(5) Now in the Villa Borghese, Rome. See E. Schleier, Giovanni Lanfranco, exh. cat., Parma and Naples, 2001, no. 48.

(6) See studies like the ones in Capodimonte, Naples, illustrated by E. Schleier, 'Inediti di Francesco Cozza', Arte Illustrata, figs. 8 9; also the drawing of Hands published by Francesco Sorgiovanni in his monograph, Francesco Cozza, I'uomo, II pittore, Ardore Calabria, 1996, p. 186.

(7) As already noted by S. Alloisi in Claasicsmo e natura: La Lezione del Domenichino, exh. cat., Galleria Capitolina, Rome, 1996/97, p. 160.

(8) See M. Chiarini, I disegni italiani di paesaggio, Canova Treviso, 1972, p. 39, plate 69.

(9) 'diro, che fece vivente il Domenichino, e celia sua direzione molti quadric, alcuni de quail furon anche da lui ritoccati per diverse persone'. Lione Pascoli, Vite de pittori, scuttorii ed architetti moderni ..., Rome, 1730 36, vol. II, V. Martinelli (ed.), Perugia, 1992, p. 512.

(10) Foster's, London, 16 November 1825, Lot 99a, Domenichino: Mercury and the Herdsman.

(11) The Crescenzi ramify produced more Cardinals than almost any other family; their Roman palazzo, by the Pantheon, housed the Academy of the gentleman-painter Giovanni Battista Crescenzi. Although the latter left for Madrid in 1617 (see M. Gregori, 'Le botteghe romane e l'accademia di Giovanni Battista Crescenzi', in idem, La Natura Morta itahana, exh. cat., Munich and Florence, 2002/2003), the family continued their artistic patronage afterwards.

(12) Musee du Louvre, Paris, no. 318; see S. Loire, Ecole italienne, xviiieme siecle, Paris, 1996, p. 178.

(13) C. Whitfield, in S. Guarino and R Masini, Classicismo e nature, La Lezione di Domenichino, exh. cat., Gallerie Capitoline, Rome, 1996/97, no. 5.

(14) The painting has an eighteenth century English frame that was clearly made for it; in 1885 it was sold in London as part of the estate of Henry George Bohn (1796-1884): Christie's, 19 March 1885, lot 51, as by G. Poussin.

(15) M. Roethlisberger, Claude Lorrain, The Drawings, Los Angeles, 1968, nos. 530 and 531. No, 531, formerly in the Koenigs collection, bears Claude's inscription 'ponte di Molo faict a foro di tivoli'.

(16) A.F. Blunt and J. Shearman, The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin, vol. iv, 1963, nos. G. 1-G. 18. After years of vacillating, Blunt eventually came round to believing this series to be by Poussin; L-A. Prat and R Rosenberg, Nicolas Poussin, Catalogue raisonne des dessins, Milan, 1994, have scattered the drawings from the album that Mariette owned and admired as the work of Nicolas, under various attributions in their catalogue.

(17) See M Dobroklonsky, 'Drawings by Claude's pupil, Giovanni Domenico Desiderii', in Burlington Magazine, vol. LVII (September 1930), p. 109 15.

(18) Ibid., plate la. The few works attributed to Desiderii, on the basis of a letter apparently from him on the back of this example, have not built up into a recognisable corpus of work since Dobroklonsky identified the group of chiaroscuro drawings in Russia in this article (p. 109-115). These have considerable affinities with Cezza as well as with Claude and Poussin around 1640, and it possible these are in fact by the former Desiderii was Claude's garzone or studio assistant; the tenuous state of the knowledge of his work was summarised by M. Roethlisberger, Claude Lorrain: The Drawings, Berkeley, CA, 1968, vol. I, pp. 443-44.

(19) Some of Claude's pictures were only entered in the Liber Veritatis when they were actually sold; the pen and ink medium of the Liber drawing is somewhat different from that of the adjacent entries.

(20) A drawing of the landscape part of the composition, without the figures, was in a sale at Sotheby's Amsterdam, 5 November 2002, lot 87 (chalk and wash, 23.2 x 35.2 cm, attributed to Jacob van der Ulft [1627-89]). This chalk and wash study seems 10 be after the painting, rather than preparatory to it, despite the absence of the staffage.

(21) Oil on canvas, 59 x 73 cm. See C. Beddington (ed.), Peintures Italiennes du xive au xvviie siecle, Galerie Adriano Ribolzi, Monaco, 1998, pp. 32-33.

(22) The Kassel picture measures 122 x 160.5 cm; the picture in London measures 121 x 159.7 cm.

(23) See the pages published by R Sorgiovanni, Francesco Cozza, Ardore, Calabria, 1996, p. 188-97.

(24) See G.P. Bellori, 'The Life of Poussin', Vite dei Pittori, Rome, 1672, p. 412: 'Circa il naturale frequentava I'Accademia del Domenichino, che era dottissima, e venero sempre questo sopra ogn'altro maestro del suo tempo'.

(25) Nos. 90-91, oil on canvas, both 82 x 117 cm.

(26) See See Rosalba Zuccaro (ed.), 'Vita di Francesco Cozza', in Pascoli, op. cit., p. 513.

(27) Pellegrino A. Orlandi, Abecedario pittorico, ad vocem, 1731, p. 262.

(28) See Getty Provenance Index, Inventory of Don Camillo Pamphlj, 12 March 1819, p. 14, no .438, 'Due altri, rappresnetanti paesi, del Cavalier Cozza, con cornice intagliate e dorate, assieme s. 80'.

(29) E. Safarik, La Galleria Doria Pamphilj a Roma, Rome, 1982, nos. 291/92.

(30) Andrea de' Marchi, verbal communication.

ORIGINS OF THE PICTURESQUE: ARTISTS AT THE PONTE DI MOLO

In the 1630s and 1640s, Claude often sketched in the Campagna and his plein-air studies profoundly affected landscape artists in Rome, as the picturesque came to be appreciated as a genre in its own right. A group of drawings by Claude depicts the Ponte di Molo, near Tivoli (below, far left and left). Their influence is clear in

Cozza's study of the subject (above), a painting bought by an Englishman on the Grand Tour, and in drawings (below, far right and right) attributed to Claude's assistant G.D. Desiderii but more probably also by Cozza.
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