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Army language, regional expertise and culture program.

"We have learned many lessons over the last 10 years, but one of the most compelling is that whether you are working among the citizens of a country, or working with their government or Armed Forces-nothing is as important to your long term success as understanding the prevailing culture and values."

--GEN Raymond Odierno, Chief of Staff of the Army, 22 March 2012

"Developing and maintaining a Force that has an understanding of other Cultures and their Languages is Regionally astute and critical to our strategic security requirements when employing Globally Responsive and Regionally Aligned Army Forces. Now more than ever we must be able to understand, communicate, and conduct operations with a variety of partners including host nation militaries and populations to execute our Prevent, Shape, and Win strategic role. The LREC concept creates a sustainable advantage for Regionally Aligned Forces in any combination of indigenous cultures by providing training and educational tools to enhance Professional Military Education, Pre-Deployment, and Functional Training. To do anything less would be to disregard the single most important lesson we have garnered in the last 13 years of war!"

--BG Christopher P. Hughes, Deputy Commanding General, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center

Introduction

In the near term and in future operational environments (OEs) the U.S. Army must have technically and tactically proficient and expeditionary minded leaders who will be able to operate in a joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and multinational (JIIM) environment across unified land operations and with a level of competence to perform assigned tasks in a specific geographic area. To that end, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (CAC) are working together to provide a globally responsive and regionally engaged Army with the language, regional expertise, and culture (LREC) competencies and capabilities that will enhance the operational adaptability of Soldiers, leaders, and units.

The concept is to build LREC competencies and improve how units leverage LREC capabilities to effectively operate in the 21st century OE resulting in:

1. Soldiers, leaders, and units with LREC competencies to prevail in unified land operations with any combination of partners and allies.

2. An Army culture that embraces the value of LREC and requires career long development and sustainment of LREC competencies and capabilities as essential components of individual and unit readiness.

Foundational Concepts

The Strategic Landpower White Paper was published by a combined Army, Marine Corps, SOCOM Strategic Landpower Task Force (SLTF) that stood up in late 2012. The SLTF's objective was to integrate the psychological or "human domain" aspects of conflict into military thinking and planning. The White Paper states that to accomplish all of the 10 primary missions of the U.S. Armed Forces as articulated in the 2012 Defense Planning Guidance, leaders must influence people, "be they government and military leaders or groups within a population, as their core strategic focus." Operations in the human domain provide a unique capability to preclude and deter conflict through shaping operations that leverage partners and populations to enhance local and regional stability." (1)

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 3126.01A, Language and Regional Expertise Capability Identification and Planning, provides the latest guidance for the identification and evaluation of proficiency for foreign language, regional expertise and cultural competencies. (2) The instruction identifies 12 regional expertise and cultural competencies and clusters them into three proficiency levels: core, leader/influence, and regional/technical. The guidance outlines the proficiency standards for four elements within the Army as shown in Figure 1. (3)

The December 2013 Army LREC draft Strategy depicts the means to assess LREC competencies in individuals and capabilities in units to justify resourcing and guide requirements for training, education, and experience in the graphic below.

Soldiers and leaders must possess a sufficient level of cross-cultural and regional competence to effectively accomplish duties at their assigned level, and to have the cognitive, interpersonal, and cultural skills necessary to make sound judgments in these complex environments.

The Centers of Excellence (CoEs)/Schools will leverage the capabilities at their disposal to establish the initial foundational training and education for leaders to be able to competently and confidently lead Soldiers. This includes the introduction and development of a basic awareness in languages, regional expertise, and cross-cultural competence.

Training and Education Approach

TRADOC Pamphlet 525-8-2 affirms the "requirement for Soldiers to possess a broad foundation of learning to better prepare them to meet future challenges across the spectrum of conflict." (4) Two of these challenges are culture and language. In order to build and sustain an Army with the right blend of culture and foreign language capabilities to facilitate unified land operations, we must leverage existing professional military education (PME) programs, organizational and functional training, and continuous lifelong learning capabilities through a combination of education, training and experiential opportunities to attain a level of understanding and expertise, at Full Proficiency Level and Master's Proficiency Level expertise.

As the Army determines how to best continue implementing the Army Culture and Foreign Language Strategy (ACFLS) and future ALREC Strategy, we can continue leveraging the current Leader Development Strategy that serves as a base for our existing instruction within our CoEs and in the growth of our leaders.5 Cross-cultural training and education should build on the foundation of an individual's existing leader attributes which in turn reinforces the core leader competencies of leading others, developing oneself, and achieving results.

For the CoEs and CAC LD&E, the development of cultural and regional awareness and/or understanding at the Basic to Full Proficiency level will be the principal objective. Introduction to a foreign language (basic phrases and elemental proficiency) is a supporting effort. In order to achieve a higher level of cultural understanding, expertise, or language proficiency, individuals will need to leverage other PME, civilian education, and self-development programs.

Taking a descriptive path for implementation, TRADOC and CAC LD&E Schools and Centers will incorporate the following learning outcomes in their education and training programs with terminal and enabling objectives and assessments that can clearly be tracked back to these outcomes:

Outcome 1 (Character). Demonstrate interaction and cross-cultural communication skills in order to effectively engage and understand people within their environments. Demonstrate a level of cultural awareness that includes a positive openness to other people, an understanding of prevailing values, beliefs, behaviors and customs, and a desire to learn more about cultures and language. This includes an introduction to a language that supports current military operations with the intent to promote additional study through self-development at the institution, at home-station or at an academic university.

Outcome 2 (Presence). Demonstrate communication, influence and negotiation skills essential for leaders to effectively operate in a JIIM environment. Leverage the knowledge gained by challenging students to employ skills to deal with ambiguous and complex situations, to regulate one's own behavior, and to use interpersonal abilities to deal with people from one's own or other cultures. This includes an understanding and ability to engage other joint and allied military personnel, and host country indigenous leaders with a moderate level of confidence.

Outcome 3 (Intellect). Demonstrate a familiarization in a geographic region of current operational significance. Leverage critical thinking and cognitive skills through organizing information that supports cultural self-awareness. Depending on level of leader development PME, expand cross-cultural competence skills by gaining an awareness or understanding of a geographic area that highlights the implications of a region's economic, religious, legal, governmental, political and infrastructural features, and of sensitivities regarding gender, race, ethnicity, local observances and local perception of the U.S. and its allies. Apply relevant planning considerations, terms, factors, concepts and geographic information to mission planning and in the conduct of operations. This includes leveraging other TRADOC and DOD schools, partnerships with universities and academia, gaming technology, and opportunities that stress students' ability to concisely and persuasively speak and write, engage in discussions, and employ cognitive reasoning and thinking skills.

CoEs/Schools CFL Strategy Implementation

CAC was assigned the lead in implementing the ACFLS in 2011 within all TRADOC organizations. As part of this implementation, CAC is working to integrate ACFLS/ALRECS learning objectives into existing programs of instruction (POIs) using internal resources/assets at the CoEs and other Army educational institutions using the basic collaborative schema as depicted in Figure 2.

Core lesson plans based on Army Learning Coordination Council approved General Learning Outcomes (GLOs) are provided to Initial Military Training (IMT) Command, Cadet Command, CoEs, Command and General Staff College, Leader Development and Education for Sustained Peace Program, and the U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy for integration into applicable POIs by cohort or other appropriate applications.

Training developers at CoEs and schools further refine resource and curriculum requirements based on specific branch/ military occupational specialty. The CAC LD&E LREC Enterprise Management Office (LRECEMO) along with TRADOC/CAC QA offices provides quality assurance/quality control for integrated plans to ensure standardization and synchronization.

The Army Research Institute (ARI) assists in the implementation with research and as a resource for materials and analytic tools as well as access to and collaboration with others of similar interests. CoE instructors will use a variety of learning-enabled training, education and self-development techniques to teach students attending IMT and PME courses at station. Cultural instruction may be prescriptive, integrated into other training objectives, or as reinforcement through the use of self-paced learning tools or as research for presentations and writing requirements.

Instructional Methodology

Facilitated instruction. Classroom instruction will include instructor-led discussions and facilitated problem-centered exercises to assist students in understanding basic cultural awareness as well as relevant and challenging scenarios that they may encounter in their unit and/or during a deployment. Facilitated learning will focus on initiative, critical thinking and accountability for their actions. Small group instructors will receive cultural training assistance to enable them to better present information, lead discussions, and facilitate problem-centered exercises. The instruction will leverage blending learning resources, augmented by professional reading requirements, self-paced technology-delivered instruction, and research outside the classroom.

Web-enabled instruction, simulations and gaming. The TRADOC Culture Center (TCC), Intelligence CoE, the Marine Corps University, Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC), and Near East and South Asia Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University and others all have a variety of on-line instructional material that is available for instructor use. As other culture and foreign language AVATAR and interactive simulation programs become available, they will be evaluated and leveraged as educational tools to augment classroom, independent study instruction and self-development opportunities.

Role-playing and key leader engagement (KLE) scenarios. Instructors will leverage the knowledge gained by challenging students to employ their interpersonal skills as part of in-class role-playing practical exercises and formal key leader engagement opportunities. The KLE scenarios will require an individual(s) to use an interpreter to engage other coalition military/police members and host country indigenous leaders in order to address a particular problem. Ideally, this engagement should use mock-up facilities and capstone field exercises to reinforce the learning objectives and provide each student with feedback through an after-action review. Both role-playing exercises and the KLEs will result in constructive feedback to the individual.

Academic lectures and seminar panels. Outside speakers and panels offer broader regional perspectives and expertise into the institution. They are crucial to a balanced education and training approach to expand on concepts and provide an alternative to institutional instruction and facilitation.

Leveraging International Student Populations. Where appropriate, U.S. students will receive country and cultural briefs from their fellow international students and assigned liaison officers during the resident courses. Programs such as "Know Your World" assist students in better understanding the culture and geo-political significance of the countries from which their classmates come and further expand the student's awareness of other cultures.

Analytical writing. To address the need to develop critical thinking and improve written communication capabilities in our leaders, analytical papers should be a required assessment of students. Papers should address a cultural or geo- political topic of military operational significance to the U.S.

Professional reading program. A critical component of our leadership development and cultural awareness efforts includes a professional reading program (professional reading list will be located on the LRECEMO web-site).

Culture and Foreign Language Resource Centers are established in some CoE Libraries and need to be established in others. Students need to be provided access to computers, cultural resources, and professional reading material to facilitate research, learning, and language proficiency.

The Army CFLP/LRECEMO website (currently in development) will contain cultural awareness and foreign language resources, DLIFLC resources, information on past lectures, foreign languages guides, and other significant links.

The Army Culture and Foreign Language Resource Center will be established as part of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC) Combined Arms Research Library at Fort Leavenworth.

Course Implementation

Schools and CoEs are expected to implement programs as outlined here.

Branch Captain's Career Course (CCC) (24 weeks). The CAC desired outcome is for branch captains to demonstrate an understanding of culture and the ability to leverage that knowledge in a JIIM environment with a level of competence necessary to serve as staff officers and leaders within a complex environment. An example of the approach for CCC is below:

In support of current and future operational requirements (Regionally Aligned Forces (RAF) concept) captains will be assigned one of the operationally important regions and languages. Captains will learn to apply operational culture to a tactical scenario in that region.

Basic Officer Leader Course (BOLC-B) (18 weeks, 4 days). The desired outcome is for lieutenants to demonstrate a basic awareness of culture, along with the ability to leverage that knowledge in a JIIM environment, with a level of competence necessary to serve within a complex environment. The instructional material for second/first lieutenants will be available on the ALREC website. Officers should access Headstart2 and begin their language training as early as possible. The language instruction will continue progressively as a blend of platform instruction, Headstart2 and other on line resources, as well as web- enabled instruction, simulations and gaming.

Warrant Officer Basic Course (WOBC) (10 weeks). The desired outcome for junior warrant officers is to demonstrate a basic awareness of culture, and the ability to leverage that knowledge as a BCT/division officer.

Warrant Officer Advance Course (WOAC) (33 weeks). The desired outcome for senior warrant officers is to demonstrate a basic understanding of foreign culture, along with the ability to leverage that knowledge as a Corps/Theater officer.

Noncommissioned Officer Academy (4-8 weeks based on MOS). The desired outcome for senior NCOs attending the Senior Leader Course (SLC) is to demonstrate a basic understanding of foreign culture along with the ability to leverage that knowledge as a platoon sergeant and/or first sergeant. The desired outcome for mid-grade NCOs attending the Advanced Leader Course (ALC) is to demonstrate a basic understanding of culture and how to leverage that knowledge as a senior section sergeant and/or platoon sergeant. The instruction is offered through a blended learning approach (programmed instruction, seminars, educational tools and independent study).

Advanced Individual Training (AIT). The desired outcome is for Soldiers to internalize the Army Values and Warrior Ethos, live by our Professional Military Ethic and display empathy towards others.

Intermediate Level Education and LREC

Command General Staff Officer College: CGSOC JPME 1 Common Core contains 40 hours of education supporting and expanding concepts related to cultural considerations for military plans and operations.

GSOC Advanced Operations Course applies cultural analysis in 108 hours of practical exercise in the planning and execution of military operations (JOPP and MDMP).

4 regional studies programs contain 24 hour core courses combined with focused interdepartmental LREC electives.

Foreign language. The goal is to introduce culture and foreign language to students attending PME instruction and provide the opportunity to achieve an elemental language proficiency (Level 0+, memorized proficiency) in a language of military operational significance. All PME students are issued and/or provided basic instruction on the use of Headstart2 or multiplatform tactical language software programs.

DLIFLC also provides a website to facilitate the language training and sustainment proficiency at www.dlifl c.edu/index. html. DLIFLC will continue to support the CGSS with both pre- deployment language familiarization training and professional development language education.

Operational language training. Beginning in 2006 all U.S. Army officers whose assignments following graduation resulted in deployment in support of OIF/OND/OEF were required to take language electives in either Iraqi Dialect, Dari, or Pashto as appropriate. The Iraqi program has ended, while Dari/Pashto continues with reduced enrollment. These are 48 hour courses, taught by DLIFLC instructors during the normal CGSS elective terms.

Strategic language training: In support of the ACFLS and future ALRECS, U.S. officers interested in building a foundation for lifelong learning of selected languages may take 48 or 72 hours of beginning instruction in Chinese, French, Modern Standard Arabic, Spanish, Farsi and Korean. These courses are taught by DLIFLC instructors; they begin during AOC and continue through the elective terms. Additionally, students who already possess proficiency in one of these languages may take directed study electives, earning up to three elective credits. Students with existing proficiency in a language not taught in CGSS may be able to earn elective credit for directed study via distance learning, using DLIFLC instructors located in Monterey, California, or elsewhere. The percentage of ILE students taking language classes during CGSS has increased with every class. More than 30 percent of the students take some form of DLI language instruction during ILE.

Self-Study: Officers desiring to pursue self-study of a foreign language may receive one elective credit by utilizing DLI's Headstart2 online language programs, currently available in 27 languages, with more added annually. DLIFLC continues to develop options for CGSS students (as well as faculty) to maintain and improve their existing capabilities, whether through advanced level resident instruction in the above-mentioned languages or through web-based and distance learning means such as the Global Language Online Support System (GLOSS) learning objects and the Broadband Language Training System (BLTS) for other languages which are not offered in residence.

Incorporation of language into ILE curriculum: As the CGSC develops options for broadening officer development in ILE, there are many ways in which language and culture can be integrated into various programs of study. For example, students who focus on a particular COCOM, region, or country might be required to learn a relevant language as a part of the program. Students who arrive at CGSS with extensive operational and/or language experience in a given theater could be given the chance to deepen and broaden their knowledge base, with language and culture being a significant portion of the curriculum. Certain Masters of Military Art and Science (MMAS) programs could include language courses as a portion of the requirement. DLIFLC will continue to work with CGSC staff and faculty to explore ways to provide language and culture within the framework of PME.

ILE courseware for all venues will ensure that they contain, at minimum, learning objectives that support the following proficiency matrix. See Table 1.

Senior Level Education and Culture

Stage IV PME & JPME II Implementation: Senior Level Education is also governed by the Officer Professional Military Education Policy (OPMEP). GLOs for Senior Officers were developed by Soldier Competency Panel 3 (Culture and JIIM Competence) working under the Army Learning Coordination Council (ALCC) co-chaired by DCG TRADOC and CG CAC. After review and minor editing during the 1-3 May 2012 Army Learning Summit 2012, they were approved for release for final staffing.

GLOs are associated with the competencies and attributes found in TR Pam 525-8-2 under six Army Learning Areas. Among the GLOs for LTCs and COLs are:

* Perform strategic leadership in a multi-cultural, JIIM environment.

* Evaluate cross-cultural competency in synthesizing theater strategies, estimates, and campaign plans employing military power in a unified, joint, multinational and interagency environment.

* Integrate critical culture elements into all levels of military operations across the conflict continuum.

* Assess the implications of a unit's actions and initiate cultural change within a unit to operate effectively within a specific operational environment.

Pre-deployment Training

CFL standards for pre-deployment training (PDT) have been delineated for both Iraq and Afghanistan. CFL PDT resourcing has been provided to DLIFLC and executed through its MTTs, LTDs, and via online CFL training programs (Rapport, Headstart2).

Regionally Aligned Forces (RAF)

In the face of Army wide resourcing challenges, PDT efforts will be focused on providing the most efficient and cost effective means to meet DA directed PDT standards and to assist FORSCOM in the identification and resourcing of PDT for RAF.6 These are U.S. Army units tasked to train and mentor partner nation security forces in support of U.S. National Security Strategy. RAF is the Secretary of the Army and Chief of Staff of the Army's vision for providing combatant commanders with versatile, responsive, and consistently available Army forces. RAF will meet combatant commanders' requirements for units and capabilities to support operational missions, bilateral and multilateral military exercises, and theater security cooperation activities.

Beginning in March 2013, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division (2/1ID), stationed at Fort Riley, Kansas, began supporting the U.S. Africa Command's security cooperation and partnering requirements. 2/1ID was undergoing training at the Combat Training Center before embarking on specialized Language, Regional Expertise and Cultural training. Once training is complete, over the course of this year, teams of Soldiers from the brigade will deploy to multiple African countries to engage in partnering and training events, and to support bilateral and multinational military exercises.

RAF Implementation Concept

The process of implementation of the full RAF concept will take several years. The initial priority was to begin alignment of Corps and Divisions in FY 2013. The Army plans to formally establish the alignment of I Corps to U.S. Pacific Command, III Corps to U.S. Central Command, and XVIII Corps to the Global Response Force. In addition, in fiscal year 2013, Army started to align divisions to U.S. Southern Command, U.S. Northern Command, U.S. European Command, and U.S. Africa Command. For FY 2014, the Army will align brigades to support theater requirements. Planning is currently underway to align brigades to PACOM, EUCOM and AFRICOM.

The CAC LRECEMO

The CAC LRECEMO is assisting FORSCOM and HQDA in determining the required language, regional expertise and culture proficiency requirements for the RAF Soldiers/leaders to function within their cultural operational environment and for the RAF to attain unified land operations competency. The required resources are coordinated with DLIFLC, TCC, UFMCS, HTS, and other LREC stakeholders.

Coordination of the ACFLS/ALRECS implementation is being accomplished through the Army Learning Coordination Council's (ALCC) three-tier process, specifically through the ALCC Soldier Competency Panel 3: Cultural and JIIM Competence. This panel is made up of ACFL and JIIM subject matter experts from TRADOC schools, centers, and colleges. Panel objectives include:

* Ensuring that ACFL learning outcomes are progressive and sequential along each continuum.

* Monitoring alignment of PME courses' terminal learning objectives with the ACFL learning outcomes endorsed by the ALCC.

* Identifying and resolving gaps or redundancies in ACFL training along the career continuums as well as within the operating force.

* Ensuring that learning outcomes are assessed and reported through the ALCC Working Group to commandants and commanders sitting on the ALCC. (7)

The LRECEMO briefed the Prepare Army Forum on 2 November 2011. The TRADOC Commander approved the "Expand the Culture and Foreign language Training" initiative as the way ahead for the ACFLP.8 The brief was based on the implementation concept approved by CAC CG in the CFL Operations Order and Implementation Guidance.9

LREC Enterprise Management Governance and Integration

CAC's LRECEMO will manage the CFL/LREC Enterprise by leveraging, synchronizing, and coordinating with the leads of relevant stakeholders in support of the training, Leadership and Education, and Doctrine support requirements. Our intent is to replicate the ALCC educational governance model for the LREC Management Governance. The LRECEMO LREC Working Group will be created based on ALCC Soldier Competency Panel 3 (Culture and JIIM). One of the major tasks will be to connect the Ends, Means, and Ways to be able to effectively manage and implement the ACFLS/ALRECS. Existing Army governance forums such as Training General Officer Steering Committee (TGOSC), Army Language and Culture Enterprise (ALCE), the Army Learning Coordination Council (ALCC), and Army Leader development Forum (ALDF) need to be fully leveraged to achieve the ACFLS/future ALRECS and National Security Strategy (NSS) objectives for an Army with culturally competent leaders and culturally aware soldiers to prevent, shape, and win within an increasingly complex operational environment.

The Army Training and Leader Development Forum (ATLDF) addresses overarching issues in support of Army requirements/initiatives. The ALCE specifically addresses the holistic assessment of implementation and LREC requirements across the DOTMLPF domain. ALCE derived requirements are subsequently worked through the ALDF or TGOSC as appropriate to address training, leadership and education and materiel issues. The ATLDF also specifically addresses policy issues required to implement the strategy. The ALCC addresses the integration of learning outcomes across all cohorts to ensure sequential and progressive learning in support of Army requirements.

The CAC LD&E LRECEMO and LREC WG can play at least an initial role in support of TRADOC to a fully integrated approach to connect the enterprise in order to span the boundaries between generating and operating capabilities. This is a necessary step until the Army identifies an overarching proponent, which would integrate those capabilities to insure their most effective support of military operations.

"What is culture? Soviet culture, Western culture, Iraqi culture, Afghan culture, military culture, corporate culture, generational culture. Becoming aware of cultural dynamics is a difficult task because culture is based on experiences, values, behaviors, beliefs and norms, as well as collective memories and history."

--Mahir Ibrahimov, MIPB (January March 2011)

Training Source
(Means)
Linkage Across the Army

Basic

* Prescriptive Common Core Curriculum
* DLI online Programs (Hedstart2 & Rapport).
* Leader Development

Full

* Sequential and Progressive PME (Emphasi--Reinforce).
* Selection and Advance Civil Schooling.
* DLI Functional Training.
* SFQC & related courses.

Master

* DLI Functional Training w/ continued sustainment.
* Selection for Advance Civil schooling and
Utilization tours.

Army Career Tracker, Evaluations,
Experience & Self Development

DLIFLCE, LTDSs CTSs

Regional    TRADOC Leader Development &
Cultural    Education for Sustained Peace
Education   (LDESP)

            TRADOC Culture Center


Character/Presence/Intellect (over the course of a career)

Basic to Fully Proficient (over the course of a career)

General Learning Outcomes across Cohorts.

Stage 1 (Recruit-End IMT)

* Incultate cultural self-awareness and appreciate the impact of culture operations. (Presence)

* Recognize the importance of cross-cultural competency. (Character)

* Describe the importance of cross-cultural skills. (Presence)

Stage 2 End of IMT-7th Year

* Implement knowledge of joint force, interagency, & multinational capabilities/limitations, and legal considerations. (Intellect)

* Apply cultural considerations when interpreting environment in planning and executing operations. (Character)

* Demonstrate enhanced cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution skill. (Character)

Stage 3 8th-16th year

* Apply knowledge of joint force, inter agency, & multinational capabilities/limitations, and legal legal considerations in a specific operational environment. (Intellect)

* Distinguish cross-cultural competency in planning and executing operations. (Character)

* Apply enhanced cross-cultural communication and conflict resolution skills. (Presence)

Stage 4 17th year and Beyond

* Perform strategic leadership in a multi-cultural, JIM environment. (Presence)

* Evaluate cross-cultural competency in synthesizing strategies, estimates, and campaign plans employing Unified Partners. (Intellect)

* Integrate critical culture elements into all Unified Land operations. (Intellect)

* Asses the implications of a unit's actions and initiate cultural change to operate effectively with a specific environment. (Intellect)

Learning objectives 1 (character)

* Asses cultural perspectives and values different from one's own; compare differences and sensitivities in order to modify one's behavior, practices and language, and operate in a multi-cultural environment

* cross cultural skills building

* cultural influence and military operations

* ISD briefs "Know Your World"

* Apply cross-cultural communication sills

* Army 360 Cultural Trainer

* Perspective (P)

* Reinforced/Integrated (R/I)

* Professional Development [PD] - [optional

Learning Objectives 2 (Presence)

* Develop communication skill that enable effective cross-cultural persuasion, negotiation, conflict resolution or influence

* Local University media training

* Cross-cultural negotiations

* Apply communication skills during cross-cultural negotiations skills during cross-cultural negotiations

* Role playexercise

* Key Leader Engagement exercise

* Develop confidence in learning and applying language skills

* Introduction to a language through Rapport/Headstart 2 software

* Additional language training

Learning Objective 3 (Intellect)

* Apply culturally relevant terms, Factors, concepts and regional information in the development of mission plans and orders

* Insurgency overview and theory

* Pattern and social network analysis and PE

* COIN IPB and planning

Asses and describe the effect that culture has on military operations specific to countries or regions of operational significance to the US

* SWOT analysis country brief

* Writing requirement: Analytical paper

* Analytical paper presentation/discussion

* CoE CFLP Lecture series

* Professional reading program

Colonel Willoughby is currently serving as the Chief of Staff, USACAC, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. He previously served as the Assistant Deputy Commandant for CGSC and the Commander of Task Force Sinai and Chief of Staff for Multi National Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt."

Dr. Ibrahimov is the LRECEMO Program Manager. He served previously as the Army's Senior Culture and Foreign Language Advisor and is the author of "Invitation to Rain: a Story of the Road Taken toward Freedom," and "Life Looking Death in The Eye," among numerous other publications.

Endnotes

(1.) Strategic Landpower White Paper, 6 May 2013, Army Chief of Staff Gen. Raymond Odierno, Marine Corps Commandant Gen. James Amos and Adm. William McRaven, head of U.S. Special Operations forces. This paper outlines their plans to ensure the nation's investment in its land warfare forces doesn't waver in the face of budget cuts and a national defense strategy that emphasizes the Pacific.

(2.) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJSCI 3126.01A), 31 January 2013. Provides policy and procedural guidance for the identification, planning and sourcing of language, regional expertise, and culture (LREC) capabilities in support of the Department of Defense Strategic Plan for language skills, regional expertise, and cultural capabilities, national decisionmaking, and global military operations.

(3.) While CJCSI 3126.01A standards actually apply just to regional expertise and cultural understanding, this Army Strategy extends the use of those categories to language proficiency. Further language proficiency details by interagency language roundtable levels are found in Annexes A, B, C, and D. (March 2014, Draft LREC Strategy)

(4.) TR Pam 525-8-2, The U.S. Army Learning Concept for 2015, 20 January 2011. Describes the framework for a new Army Learning Model (ALM). The ALM is the operational term for the Continuous Adaptive Learning Model.

(5.) The Army Culture and Foreign Language Strategy, 1 December 2009. The ACFLS provides a holistic strategy for present and future culture and foreign language education and training programs needed to close the gap in capabilities. This strategy links individual leader and Soldier knowledge, skills, and attributes to unit capability to directly enable the execution of assigned missions or tasks.

(6.) Regionally Aligned Forces, STAND-TO, 20 December 2012. Accessed at http://www.army.mil/standto/archive/issue.php?issue=2012-12-20.

(7.) FY 2012 Guidance for ALCC Soldier Competency Panels, 22 January 2012.

(8.) Army Development Program (ALDP), Prepare the Army Forum, 12-1, 2 Nov 2011, signed by Gen Cone, 3 January 2012.

(9.) CAC Culture and Foreign Language Strategy Implementation Guidance, 27 October 2011 and OPORD 11305-003 (CAC Implementation of the Army Culture and Foreign Language Strategy), 2 November 2011.

Table 1

              MAJ

Training      * Competent coordinator and
              collaborator across JIIM
              organizations

              * Elementary language
              proficiency; can initiate and maintain
              conversation

Education     * Displays judgment and agility in planning
              tactical operations in JIIM context

Experience    * Demonstrates mastery of FSO
              and ability to leverage JIIM
              capabilities to achieve operational objectives

Desired       * Confident of cultural, language and
End-state     information skills

              * Competent coordinator and
              collaborator across JIIM
              organizations

              * Elementary language proficiency; can initiate
              and maintain conversation

              LTC

Training      * Competent in coordinating across JIIM entities
              at the national strategic level

              * Elementary language proficiency; can initiat
              and maintain conversation

Education     * Judgment and innovation in application of design
              principles to operational art in JIIM context

              * Develops and maintains insight regarding
              geo-political environment

Experience    * Confident operating in a JIIM environment

Desired       * Expert at applying culture, language and
End-state     information

              * Capable to serve in a JIIM capacity on a TT, S-TT,
              IA, Joint or Multi-National Staff

              * Competent in coordinating across JIIM entities at
              the national strategic level

              * Elementary language proficiency; can initiate and
              maintain conversation
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Author:Willoughby, Monty L.; Ibrahimov, Mahir
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Date:Jul 1, 2014
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