Arguments of Hadith Mutawatir and Hadith Ahad in the Aqeedah.
One major principle of being faithful with al-Sunnat is to accept had ith Mutaw'atir and Ahiad in 'aq'idat. This needs to be emphasised and explained as there exists certain sects who are against it and who do not hold on to this principle. As a result, many texts related to 'aq'idat and syari'at are rejected by them. This has caused many to have gone astray in process of understanding the perfect teachings of Islam.
In relation to this principle, al-Sy-afi'-iy emphasises the fact that Allah has made Prophet Muhammad as the apostle who explains the teachings of Islam, the obligaties of its followers and also to explain the contents of AlQur'an. He further explains that Allah has ordained that it is our duty to abide by his apostle and that we are prohibited from disobeying him and Allah has also explained the advantages of his apostle. Therefore faith towards Allah's apostle must follow faith towards Allah as this relationship is stated in al-Nis'a', verse 171:
Allah says:" so believe in Allah and His apostles. Say not "Trinity" : desist: it will be better for you: for Allah is one Allah. Glory be to Him: (far exalted is He) above having a son." (4:171).
Allah says in Surah al-Nur, verse 62:
"Only those are believers, who believe in Allah and His Messenger. when they are with him on a matter requiring collective action, they do not depart until they have asked for his leave;" (24:62).
The above verse states that Allah created the beginning of the perfection of one's faith towards Allah must be followed with faith towards HIS messengers, Thus if Allah's servants are only faithful to Allah but are not faithful towards HIS Prophet, he is forever deemed as unfaithful until he is faithful towards his Prophet along with his faith towards Allah(al-.Ris'alat 1979: 73).
al-Sy-afi'-iy's statement above clearly shows that one must have faith in Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) by accepting and carrying out all his teachings and to stay away from those that he forbids, which are in his sunnahs be it hadith Mutaw-atir or of hadith -A.h-ad which are clearly known of its isnaad based on the observations done according to the methods or rules agreed and accepted by the scholars of hadiths.
A true muslim is required to accept the teachings brought by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuth) as his acceptance of the Quran. One is not allowed to only accept the teachings in the quran while rejecting the teachings of the Prophet. (p.b.u.h).
In relation to this al-Sy-afi'-iy (1979:19) furthers emphasises that whomever accepts the explanations of religious matters contained in al-Qur'-an and also other matters as explained by Prophet Muhammad in his teachings, must also be accepted. He further explains that as Allah has ordained his servants to be faithful to his messenger and his hukm(Allah's decree) thus those who accepts the explanations brought by Prophet Muhammad must accept the explanations by Allah as HE has ordained man to be faithful to him.
Thus this means that explanations for all religious matters as stated in had-iths of the Prophet must be accepted and practised accordingly. The above statements of al-Sy-afi'-iy clearly shows the principle of accepting all had ith Mutaw'atir and hadith 'Ahiad as strong arguments in aq'idat and syari'at as seen through the disipline of theology.
Result and Discussions
As there are certain groups who reject this principle, it is thus necessary for this principle to be explained and discussed according to the principle of Ahl al-Sunnat Wa al-Jam'a'at as follows: Arguments of Khabar Mutaw-atir
In reference to this discussion, Ibn Qayyim has analysed this issue in detail and has explained that there are two groups of opposing opinions regarding khabar Mutaw-atir. Nevertheless, both groups are of the same opinion that khabar Mutaw-atir creates knowledge. What differs in the opinion of these groups is that whether the knowledge daruriy or nazariy? (n.d: 453).
According to the scholars of.had-ith, knowledge created by the khabar is.dar-ur-iy, that it is accepted with confidence without any doubts and there isn't any need for a detailed analysis of its isnaad and meaning. This group is of the opinion that they have a wide knowledge of the had-ith, as it is their expertise. Thus they would be able to identify and ascertain the position of the hadiths. Thus it is with full confidence they are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw'atir creates daruriy knowledge (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 454).
Meanwhile, those who are in the field of Ilm al-Kaldm which gives less attention to the area of had ith is of the opinion that Mutaw-atir creates na.zar-iy knowledge, which requires attention towards its isnaad and meaning, and also needs to be supplemented with other convincing arguments. Among these two opinions, Ibn Qayyim emphasises that the opinion of the scolars of hadith is more accurate and truthful (n.d: 454).
According to him, the truth of the scholars of.had ith is only known by those who are involved deeply in this field. The scholars of.had ith not only listens to the letters said but they also understand and listens to what is being said. Thus they are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw atir creates dar ur iy knowledge apart from believing with full confidence of the truth of the.hadith. These scholars of hadith are also witnesses towards the truth of the news brought by Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) (n.d: 454).
According to him, those who study the backgrounds of the scholars of.had ith, would clearly see that the scholars of.had ith are the most truthful, honest with intelligent ways of thinking, strong memory,committede to religion and stays away from being untruthful behaviours. These scholars of hadith are also those who work hard to protect the Prophet's sayings and hadiths compared to other groups. Thus what is brought by them creates confident knowledge. (n.d: 455).
Ibn Qayyim also stated that looking at the knowledge of the group of in the field of.had ith, it would be discovered that their knowledge of the matter is lesser. This is proven when Ab-u al-.Hussain al-Ba.sr-iy a reknowned scholar of Mu 'tazilat stated that there is only one had ith which is narrated on seeing Allah that is narrated from Jar-ir. When in actual fact there are almost thirty hadiths which narrated this. This is the reason why the opinions of the scholars of Ilm al-Kalam who do not have indepth knowledge in the field of had ith cannot be acccepted (n.d: 454).
After analysing the arguments presented by Ibn Qayyim, this writer agrees with his opinion above that the scholars of had ith that khabar Mutaw'atir creates daruriy knowledge, and that his opinion which states that the scholars of Ilm al-Kalam which views that khabar Mutaw'atir creates nazariy knowledge, according tho the researcher maybe with the general meaning as this is because among them there are some who are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw'atir is daruriy knowledge.
With reference to this, al--Amid-iy explains that jumh-ur fuqah a' including those from scholars of Ilm al-Kalam of the al-'Asy'a'irat and al-Mu 'tazilat are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw-atir creates daruir'iy knowledge while the al-Ka'b-iy and Ab-u al-Husain al-Ba sr-iy from Mu 'tazilat and also al-Daqq-aq form al-Syafi'-iy mazhab are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw'atir creates nazariy knowledge (n.d., 1: 262).
It must be emphasized here that those who are of the opinion that khabar Mutaw atir is na.zar iy and not daruriy knowledge has influences on the rejection towards part of the teachings in 'aq'idat and syari'at. This because the concept of nazariy knowledge means that the news requires logical evidences that are able to support the contents of khabar Mutaw atir, and if logical evidences are unable to support the contents of the news then it is rejected. This the reason as to why there are groups who reject.had-ith-.had-ith Mutaw-atir which discuss on the attributes of Allah such as- hadiths which explains that Allah "Istiwa ala Arsh" as said by alDhahab-iy (1991:80).
Thus the similar applies to had iths which discusses of the prophets's mukjizat, in which those had iths are of the Mutaw'atir traits, but for the Mu 'tazilat they reject it with the reasion that mukjizat cannot be felt by the human senses.(al-Baghd-ad-iy n.d: 128). The Mu 'tazilat also rules not to accept a had ith Mutaw'atir unless the .had-ith is related by at least twenty narrators at each isnaad level and one of the narrators must be those who are accepted into heaven (al-Baghd-ad-iy n.d:128). This opinion of theirs has brought about many rejections on religious matters relating to 'aq'idat and sy'ari 'at.
In the context of this discussion, it clearly shows that opinions which state that had-ith yang Mutaw-atir creates dar-ur-iy knowledge is more accurate and correct. This opinion indirectly has brought the preservation of the teachings of Islam more complete comprising knowledge and practise either in issues related to 'aq-idat or sy-ari'at.
Khabar 'Ah'ad as Valid Arguments:
On the status/ standing of had ith 'Ahiad a, Ahl al-Sunnat Wa al-Jam'a'at is of the opinion that -hadith Ahad is reliable and valid as arguments in matters of 'aq'idat and syar'i'ai In this matter, Ibn Ab-i al-'Iz stated that .had-ith A.h ad is consensously agreeed of its acceptance by scholars that it createds confident knowledge and also practices thus must be accepted of its truth (1987, 2:501).
Ab-u Muzaffar al-Sam'-an-iy explained that as mentioned by al-Asbah-an-iy that had ith 'Ahiad that is valid comes from Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) and is narrated by perawi who are believable and its isnaad reaches the Prophet and his people accepts it, thus khabar al-ahaad therefore must surely create knowledge. According to him also, this is the general opinion of the scholars of had ith and the ulama who are credible in upholding the al-Sunnat (1990, 2:215).
In proving that khabar al-ahaad are the arguments in matters of religion,, al-Bukh-ar-iy has made in-depth discussion of this in his valid book by writing a complete chapter on this matter. In relation to Ibn.Hajar when explaining the first chapter presented by-Bukh-ar-iy stated that the chapter presented by al-Bukh-ar-iy shows that its is acceptable to beramal and applying it as valid with had ith 'Ahiad thus becomes valid arguments. According to him al-Bukh-ar-iy placed this chapter in his valid book with the intention of rejecting the opinions that states had ith 'Ahad which is narrated by only one individual (at each level of isnaad) cannot be used as arguments, and indirectly also rejects the opinions which requires that hadith 'Ahad must be narrated by four or more people at each level for it to be accepted (1986, 13:246).
Al-Bukh-ar-iy (1997) has brought in many arguments which support his opinion that hadith 'Ahiad are valid arguments arguments, and among them are as follows :
i. Ibn Umar r.a:
Ibn 'Umar reported: As the people were engaged in the morning prayer a man came to them and said: It has been revealed to file Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) during the night and he has been directed to turn towards the Ka'ba. So turn towards it. Their faces were towards Syria and they turned round towards Ka'ba (Book 95: Chapter 1).
Had ith shows that the companions were praying towards Syria during the early parts of the prayer and changed direction towards Ka'aba when the news was conveyed by someone (Ibn Hajar 1986, 13:245).
ii. Al-Bar-a' Ibn '-Azib r.a :
Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported: I said prayer with the Apostle (may peace be upon him) turning towards Bait-ulMaqdis for sixteen months till this verse of Surah Baqara wis revealed:" And wherever you are turn your faces towards it" (ii. 144). This verse was revealed when the Apostle (may peace be upon him) had said prayer. A person amongst his people passed by the people of Ansar as they were engaged in prayer. He narrated to them (this command of Allah) and they turned their faces towards the Ka'ba". (Book 95: Chapter 1).
It is reported by Ibn Hajar (1986, 13:245), that rajih, the name of the man who delivered the news of the change of kibla during prayers is not known, but the companions of the Ansar accepted the news brought by him.
iii. Anas Ibn M'alik r.a reported:
Anas ibn Malik said, "I was serving wine to Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and Abu Talha al-Ansari and Umayy ibn Kab. The wine had been prepared from crushed ripe dates and dried dates. Someone came to them and said, 'Wine has been made haram.' Abu Talha ordered me to go and take the jugs and break them. I stood up and went to a mortar of ours and I struck them with the bottom of it until they broke". (Book 95: Chapter 1).
As reported by Ibn Hajar (1986, 13:245) the above hadith are strong arguments of the acceptance of khabar al-ahaad as the companions accepts the changes of hukm and matters in which originally accepted until they were told that it has been forbidden and they accepted with the news that were delivered.
On observing the above had ith it generally involves the acceptance of khabar al-ahaad in matters of syar i'at, and al-Bukh-ar-iy also brought had ith khabar al-ahaad which explains it as a debate in matters of 'aq idat, and this can be seen in book 95 of khabar 'Ahiad, reported from Ab-u Jamrat, he said:
"I used to sit with Ibn 'Abbas and he made me sit on his sitting place. He requested me to stay with him in order that he might give me a share from his property. So I stayed with him for two months. Once he told (me) that when the delegation of the tribe of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet, the Prophet asked them, "Who are the people (i.e. you)? (Or) who are the delegate?" They replied, "We are from the tribe of Rabi'a." Then the Prophet said to them, "Welcome! O people (or O delegation of 'Abdul Qais)! Neither will you have disgrace nor will you regret." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! We cannot come to you except in the sacred month and there is the infidel tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) so that we may inform our people whom we have left behind (at home), and that we may enter Paradise (by acting on them)." Then they asked about drinks (what is legal and what is illegal). The Prophet ordered them to do four things and forbade them from four things. He ordered them to believe in Allah Alone and asked them, "Do you know what is meant by believing in Allah Alone?" They replied, "Allah and His Apostle know better." Thereupon the Prophet said, "It means: 1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle. 2. To offer prayers perfectly 3. To pay the Zakat (obligatory charity) 4. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan. 5. And to pay Al-Khumus (one fifth of the booty to be given in Allah's Cause). Then he forbade them four things, The Prophet further said (to them): "Memorize them (these instructions) and convey them to the people whom you have left behind." (Book 95: Chapter 5).
This hadith among others explains summons of delivering the words of Prophet Muhammad(pbuth) involves every individuals who hears his words among the group, and if the responsibility of delivery those teachings are not made compulsory he would not have urged them to deliver it (Ibn.Hajar 1986, 13:245). The focus in the had ith is the commandment of being subservient to Allah and his Prophets; to conduct prayers, give zakat (tithe), fasting and many others, of which they are required to deliver the message to their people regarding the matter which also includes matters of 'aq'idat and syari'at. Al-Bukh-ar-iy brings had ith in the book of Akhb'ar al-'A h'ad as reliable arguments as proof that khabar al-ahaad is accepted as a reliable argument in matters of syar'i'at and also accepted as a reliable argument in matters of 'aq'idat. Even though alBukh- ar-iy did not state this clearly, further observations on the concept of feqh al-Bukh-ar-iy in his book shows him to state thus so. In general, the explanation from al-Bukh-ar-iy clearly shows that had ith 'Ahad is accepted as a reliable argument in Islam regarding matters of 'aq'idat and syari'at.
Not only al-Bukh-ar-iy, but al-Sy-afi'-iy also accepts khabar al-ahaad as valid arguments..In a study by Mohd Radzi Othman on the controversy of al-Sy-afi'-iy on had ith 'Ahiad by refering to writings such as al-Ris' alat, Othman (1996:103) explains that al-Sy-afi'-iy has successfully provided various arguments from al-Qur'an, al-Had ith and ijm'a' to proove that had ith 'Ahiad are reliable arguments in matters pertaining to religion with certain boundaries that are :
a. When the narrators are thiqat (thrustworthy).
b. Known for the truth of his news.
c. Understands what he tells of.
d. Aware that something may happen to the extent of which may change the meaning of the word had ith.
e. The narrators must narrate the had ith the way in which he hears it and not just only its explanation.
f. If the had ith is narrated through memorisation, the narrator thus mus memorise it and must clearly state it in his writing.
g. If there are other members of had ith who narrate the same had ith it should be the same.
h. Protected from mudallis narrators, narrators who narrate had ith-had ith from which he did not hear it from and its narration is different from those that are narrated from the Prophet by those who are thiqat.
i. Each narrator must have all of the above requirements and also those of before him continously (isnaad) until Prophet Muhammad or the sahbats.
Ibn Qayyim (n.d:455) has also made an in-depth discussion on the matters of khabar al-ahaad. His discussion of this topic are also his arguments in rejecting the opinions of the groups who are against which states that had ith-had ith 'Ah'ad cannot be applied as arguments in matters of 'aq'idat.
According to him applying khabar al-ahaads as arguments or not does not depend on the observation towards its isnaad and the had ith's meaning. It is evaluated based on certain methods which has been accepted of its validity among the scholars of had ith. If it is found that the isnaad and meaning of the had ith fullfill the method to be accepted as arguments thus the had ith is accepted to be practices, on the other hand the had ith does not fulfill the requirements stated thus thehadith is not accepted as valid arguments (n.d:455).
In relation to this, news khabar which can be made arguments and created valid knowledge are as follows:
a. News Khabar which its truths are convincing, which is al-Qur "an that comes directly from Allah and all matters that are conveyed by Prophet Muhammad himself.
b. News that are conveyed by a person near the Prophet and the Prophet himselfs attestifies to the news, as in the news said when near him that Allah places HIS fingers on the sky, places HIS fingers on earth, places HIS fingers on others, places HIS fingers on top of the tress, of which he laughs of the news and attestifies of it.. There are also news which were told by his companions regarding matters which are not accepted from the Prophet but the Prophet attestifies the news as in the incident of the meeting of Dajj'al as told by Tami-m al-Dar-iy to the Prophet, and the Prophet after his dawn prayers sits on the mimbar and tells the story to his companions of what he heard from Tami-m al-D-ar-iy and further attestifies to it.
c. News hear by one of the Prophet's companions. The companion then narrates it to the rest of the Companions and accepted the news without any questions. It is rarely that they do not accept news that is convey but they try to accertain that the news actually does come from the Prophet himself (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 456).
Not one among the companions and the scholars among the fabi'ln, t'abi' al-Tabi "in feels suspicious or unsure of news that is received from the Prophet's companions even though the news is in the form of khabar ' Ahad. He further explains that in the context of matters of 'aq'idatthe Prophet's companions accepts the news with full confidence without any question as in the explanation of seeing Allah., Allah said of calling his deciples on doomsday can be heard, Allah coming down to the earth's sky.. In this matterthose who hear the news from those who are truthful and fair would definitely believe it immediately without any doubt whatsoever (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 456-457).
He further explains that in matters related to legistation there are times when the companions insists on other explanation to ensure that the news conveyed does actually come from the Prophet himself, but this rarely happens.. In actual fact, news which are related to 'aq'idat are not at all questioned of its truth and are accepted with full confidence without any doubts to what is conveyed by the other companions.. This is only fully known by those who are involved in an in-depth mannet in the field of had ith (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 457).
Had ith 'Ahiad wich is narrated by one or two narrators in each tabaqat creates knowledge that is dar'ur iy according to the opinion of M-alik as mentioned by Ibn Khar-az Mind-ad in his book Us'ul al-Feqh. A hmad Ibn Hanbal in discussing hadith which mentions of seeing Allah stated that the news is true and creates knowledge confident knowledge (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 457). Al-Q-ad-iy Ab-u Ya'l-a further explains that valid khabar al-ahaad and its isnaad does not have any flaws (khil'af) in its narration and the scholars of had ith are agreeable in accepting it, thus khabar al-ahaad obligates knowledge and it is valid. But the scholars of had ith are not in concensus in accepting in for their mazhab khabar al-ahaad also creates knowledge. He also explains that while Ab-u Ish-aq al-Sy-ir-az-iy explains that khabar al-ahaad makes it compulsory that the knowledge and practice either practices by all or some scholars, and this is also the opinion of al-Sy-afi'-iy in al-Ris'alat (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 458).
According to him also, the practice of rejecting hadith 'Ahiad which are known of is validity is the practice of the al-Mu'tazilat, al-Jahmiyyat, al-R'afidat, al-Khaw'ar'ij and also the practice of some of the Usu uliyyin and Fuqah'a', as it is their character to deny the ijm'a ' of the companions, t'abi 'in and other Islamic scholars in accepting khabar al-ahaad which gives the required knowledge (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 457).
According to his further explanation, some ahli usul are of the opinion that when ijm'a' practices upon a certain khabar al-ahaad thus the news is Mutaw'atir. There are also opinions that when khabar al-ahaad is heared by some scholars and are agreed by them it then becomes Mutaw-atir (n.d: 461).
Some of the followers of A.hmad Ibn.Hanbal and a few others are of the opinion that thoses who disobeyhadith 'Ah'ad are kafirun and this opinion is also agreed on by Ish-aq Ibn R-ahawaih. In this matter, he explains that scholars are in disagreement towards those who disobey. In this matter he also explains that, the scholars differ in opinion regarding those who not apply khabar al-ahaad in the same manner in which they differ in opinion regarding those who are against ijm'a', those who do not acceot the validity of khabar alahaad by saying that the narrators are mistaken or the new were untruthful or that those who are maksum did not say as such or believes that the hadith was recinded because when one has the objective of ijtih'ad or to find the truth thus he is not defined as kafirun or fasiq. As such the incident among the companions like 'Umar t who rejected hadith F-atimat Binti Qais regarding matters nafkah of wives who were divorced with three talaq and also '-Aisyat who rejected hadith Ibn 'Umar in matters of the deceased who are tortmented because his family members cry loudly upon his death (n.d: 461-462).
Ibn Qayyim (n.d:464)is also of the opinion with that of Ibn Taymiyyat in this matter which among others explained that any khabar al-ahaad which are consensously accepted by the ummah to be practice it and ummah accepts its truth as such as the news from 'Umar Ibn al-Khatt-ab t that each deeds with intention, thus this news creates confident knowledge among the jumh'ur Muhammad then and now. He further explains, that salaf scholars accepts it, and it is also accepted by those khalaf from the four, in which this matter is mentioned in their writings like al-Sarkasiy, Ab-u Bakr al-R-az-iy from al-Hanafiyyat, Ab-u H-amid, Ab-u Tayy-ib and Abu Ish-aq from al-Sy-afi'-iyat, Ibn Khaw-az Mind-ad and also those from al-M-alikiyyat, and also Ab-u Ya'l-a, Ibn
Ab-i M-us-a, Ab-i al-Khatt-ab apart from those from al-Han-abilat, while those from scholars of Ilm al-Kalam who also accepts it are Ab-u Is.h-aq al-Isfir-ay-in-iy, Ibn F-urak and Ab-u Is.h-aq al-Niz-am. According to Ibn Taymiyyat, only a few who questions the above opinion who among them are Ibn al-B-aqil-an-iy and his followers i Ab-u al-Ma'-al-iy, al-Ghaz-ali-y and Ibn 'Aqil (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 464).
Ibn Taymiyyat further explains, Ibn Sal-ah is among those who are of the opinion that khabar al-ahaad creates confident knowledge and all scholars of had ith are also of the same opinion as Ibn Sal-ah and it is this principle that is ijm'a' as upheld by scholars of hadith. According to him also, most of the hadith-hadith from al-Bukh-ar-iy and Muslim fall into the category of news which are agreed and accepted by ummah and creates confident knowledge as stated by Ibn.Sal-a.h (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 464-465).
In this matter. Ibn Taymiyyat further explains that the opinion of scholars of Ilm al-Kalam and us'uliyy'in are not accepted as ijm'a' is only taken into account from the group who knows his field and scope without taking into account the opinion of those who do not know the field as it is the method of hukum ijm a' in matters of hukm(legislation) only opinions of scholars who are really experts in their field are taken into account without taking in the opinion of those who are not experts in the field., thus the same concept also applies in the context of ijm a' regarding a particular.had ith whether it is valid or not must be taken from scholars of expert in the field and has in-depth knowledge without any involvement of those who are not knowledgeable in the area. (Ibn Qayyim n.d: 465-466).
Ibn Taymiyyat further explains, this situation is similar with the position of had ith Mutaw'atir, in which those who know of it can be divided into two groups, those of the general group and those of the specific groups, those who are scholars of ulamak.had ith whose knowledge of it are in-depth(who are well-versed in the field) they would be able to identify and detech if a particular.had ith as Mutaw atir which cannot be detected by others.For them, khabar Mutaw'atir creates confident knowledge without the need of discussing it. While those of the al-Jahmiyyat, al-Mu 'tazilat and also those from scholars of Ilm al-Kalam he explains, to them khabar Mutaw'atir does not create confident knowledge And it is because of this that in matters related to faith. And therefore, in matters related to faith thatThus in matters related to the faith of the mukmins are able to 'see' Allah during kiamat(Day of Judgement), according to al-Jahmiyyat, the Prophet did not state as such and also the Prophet did not state so, as also with the case of had ith regarding syafaat which takes out the mukmins from hell for the al-Mu 'tazilat and al-Khaw'arij they are of the opinion that the Prophet did not state as such. In conclusion, he states that for the scholars of had ith they are well aware of the fact that there are many had iths which are reliable and valid which creates confident knowledge which talks on matters of faith. On the other hand,there are other groups who are not of the same opinion (Ibn Qayyim n.d:466).
The discussion clearly shows that hadith Mutawatir and 'Ahiad which are valid according to People of the hadiths or Ahli Sunnah has resulted in convincing knowledge in matters of 'aq'idat. This principle is the ijma' of scolars of hadiths. While there are others such as al-Muktazilah, al-Jahmiyah and other scholars of Ilm al-Kalam that are of the opinion that hadith Mutawatir does not provide convincing knowledge in matters of aqidah. They also reject on the arguments of hadith Ahad in on aqeedah despite the fact that those hadiths are valid. This gives certain implications towards aqeedah as they reject many matters related to aqeedah. Ibn Taymiyyah argued that khabar wahid can be certain knowledge depending on the situation, for example a distressed person saying that his father died. Also, he said that the hadith found in Bukhari and Muslim constitute certain knowledge since the ummah has agreed on them.
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(1) Aminudin Basir, @ Ahmad, (2) Mohd Radzi Othman, (3) Mohd Radzi Othman, (4) Azwira Abdul Aziz, (5) Mohamad Sabri Haron
(1) Azwira Abdul Aziz & Mohamad Sabri Haron
(2) Center for General Studies and Associate Fellow of West Asian Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
(3) School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang.
(4) Center for General Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
(5) Center for General Studies and Associate Fellow of West Asian Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
Corresponding Author: Aminudin Basir @ Ahmad, Senior Lecturer in Center for General Studies and Associate Fellow in Institute of West Asian Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article|
|Author:||Basir, Aminudin; Othman, Radzi; Aziz, Azwira Abdul; Haron, Mohamad Sabri|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2012|
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