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Approaching "lost love" theme in two culturally different poems: A cognitive linguistic analysis.

1. INTRODUCTION

Poetic discourse poses and promotes a cascade of intriguingly perverted regular cognitive principles especially with the profoundly judicious use of stylistic devices and marvelous esthetic imagery. Among various poetic themes, "Lost love" is a cornerstone in the architecture of poetic domains. All lamentations for a lost beloved and expression of the inwardly severe heartache are associated with the depiction of the outstanding natural beauty and natural hazards. Poets viewed the sense of personal competence against the powerful arms of tragic fates. Most of them grouse; blaming the barbed wire of their fate and fortune and accuse their beloved of stony-heartedness and invulnerability. Moreover, the majority of poets are relieved by evoking pleasant memories from their past and spelling how nostalgic they are in regard with such perfect memories.

This study cognitively approaches the "lost love" theme, hereafter referred to as "conceptual domain", in two English and Arabic poems. The Arabic poem, Nagi's "Burning Flute", is chronologically modern with romantic inclination, while the English poem, Shelley's "When the Lamp is Shattered', is chronologically and poetically romantic (Cf Appendix A). Basically, the employed linguistic tools are Trier's semantic field theory, to detect the conceptual similarities between the two poems, and semantic mapping to visualize the contrastive cross-cultural conceptualization of "lost love". Charts and illustrations are used in the practical discussion toward a better delineation of the details. The study addresses the following questions:

1. Can figures of speech be poetically different and conceptually similar?

2. What are the poetic and linguistic similarities and differences in the conceptualization of "Lost Love" in the two poems?

3. What are the most frequently used semantic fields in the two poems?

4. How far can the contrastive semantic map represent cross-cultural conceptualization of "Lost Love"?

5. Can semantic fields be criteria to judge the linguistic richness of a poem?

2. LITERATURE UNDERPINNING:

The recent approach to literary interpretation has revolutionarily changed. The attention is no longer centralized on literary esthetics. Imagery and figures of speech have been cognitively analyzed offering a deeper level of understanding and providing more enlightening interpretations to the reader. Holyoak (1982) has stated that "an essential point to notice is that the initial phase of literary interpretation is essentially the reverse of analogical problem-solving. In the case of problem-solving, the person faces an inadequately understood target problem, and must notice and retrieve a known base analog in order to develop a solution to the target. In the literary case, the idealized reader fully understands the text base, but must notice a covert target topic and then use the text base to generate an analogical interpretation." This conceptualization has paved the way toward applying the linguistic tools on the literary texts in order to generate such analogical interpretations.

Stressing the significance of linguistics to literature, Shen (1988) in his review "stylistics, objectivity and convention" has concluded that the linguistic facts, in many stylistic analyses, serve to contribute or give rise to the literary interpretation in question, functioning in varying degrees as 'independent evidence' of the involved impressions or themes which emerge from the writer's verbal choices.

Speaking of metaphors, Steen (1989) has suggested that many metaphors in literary texts require a general discourse theory of metaphor for empirically bridging the theoretical and methodological gap. Cognitive psychology and other disciplines, on the one hand, have not extensively concerned with discourse differences such as literature versus non-literature. Literary theory, on the other hand, has recently begun to develop an empirical awareness.

Moreover, Blasko (1999) has highlighted the connotation of a variety of studies that investigated stages of interpretation. The full depth, characteristics and richness of these studies have theoretically deemed to influence comprehension. Results would be confirmed with divergence tasks, measuring different aspects of metaphor understanding to define the outer limit of comprehension and to compare different types of stimuli.

3. BACKGROUND:

3.1 Likeness relations in Arabic and English

Comparison is both a mental process and a figurative device depending on the similarities and differences between two items. Likeness relations in literature are based on this mental process of comparison. Such relations take different poetic realizations; similes and metaphors among others

3.1.1 Metaphors

Arabic metaphors are based on the likeness relationship between two items; source and target domains, yet one of them is typically omitted (Almaany). According to Al- Suyuti (2005), a metaphor is borrowing a certain word well-known for a specific thing, for another word which is not known for it. The purpose of metaphor is revealing what is hidden. Moreover, it is not only a rhetorical figure of speech. It can be a device of clarification as well. Al-Tahanawi (1996) has highlighted the controversial debate over metaphors; others consider it a "linguistic" figure of speech while others believe that it is a "conceptual" figure of speech. Al-Jurjani (1991) emphasized that the more the similarities are implied, the more eloquent is the metaphor. Thence, eloquence arises from stimulating the mind to think and search for such hidden similarities. Metaphors are therefore conceptual by nature.

In a similar vein, English metaphors are traditionally viewed as "a figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another". It implies a comparison between two items, and is regarded as the "basic figure in poetry" Penguin Dictionary (1998). Longman Dictionary (2010) expounds that Metaphors are semantically and culturally loaded. Cognitive linguistics, however, proposes a broader understanding of metaphors. Lakoff & Johnson (2003), suggest that metaphors are not only used in poetic language, they are used in our everyday life. They defined a metaphor as "understanding one thing in terms of another", reflecting our experience of the world. That is to say, metaphors are our experiences and concepts about the world. So, regardless of the poetic use of metaphors, our "conceptual system is metaphorical by nature". Lakoff & Johnson (2003) added that personification, which conceptualizes human experience with nonhumans in relation to "human motivations, characteristics, and activities", is "the most obvious ontological metaphors".

Therefore, the two languages study both the figurative use of metaphors and their conceptual function as well. This study adopts the broader linguistic sense of metaphors since every metaphor retains a concept, perception and cognition. To highlight this cognition, metaphors are analyzed into their key elements; the source and target domains. These domains are further analyzed and subcategorized, according to the semantic fields they belong to.

3.1.2 Simile

Simile relations are typically conceptualized in both Arabic and English. Penguin Dictionary (1998) elaborates "the function of similes is to clarify and enhance an image" by explicitly comparing two things. It differs from metaphors in its uses of explicit comparison word such as "as" or "like". It is extensively employed in prose and verse. In Arabic, the idea of explicitly comparing two items using a likeness word is one of the simile relations. Arabic uses different forms of similes and more comparison words than English; verbs, nouns, phrases, and particles. Similes are not merely figurative of speech in Arabic; they are basic explanation tools used in dictionaries (Helal 2005). The only figurative trope is the implied Similes. It is a complex imagery where one or two implicit metaphors are rationally loaded within an explicit simile.

3.1.3 Metonyms

On the one hand, an Arabic metonym is a word or a phrase used figuratively to convey an associative meaning other than its basic literal meaning. Every metonym has a certain implicature deduced by the listener. The basic difference between Arabic metaphors and metonyms is that the latter is based on likeness. Al-Jurjani (1991) has clarified that metonyms are based on understanding the concept not the mere words used. It draws upon an already established concept in the mind. A metonym recalls a previous cognition in the mind conceptually, not linguistically.

Toward understanding this section, let's pose the following example": [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] kaei0rou ra:ma:del keder / is a metonym of hospitality and generosity. Literally, it denotes the abundant amount of ashes and debris of charcoal, using in grilling or cocking, upon serving a banquet. The larger the amount of ashes, the greater is the catered food in the banquet which is a clue of generosity. Etymologically and historically, fire was the only available source for cooking. This is, more or less, obsolete now except for the barbecue banquets. It recently connotes an additional lavish gesture. Lexically, the textual analysis of the phrase does not indicate any hospitality. However, it is now well-established both conceptually and pragmatically.

On the other hand, English Metonymy is "A figure of speech in which the name of an attribute or a thing is substituted for the thing itself' Penguin Dictionary (1998). Longman Dictionary (2010) defines it as the use of "an associated word" to refer to something. The two definitions irritate that the metonymic word and the real concept are related. That is to say using a word from a semantic field is to refer to another word whichbelong to the same or a similar semantic filed. It somehow resembles the symbolism relation in using a "refer to" relationship. Lakoff & Johnson (2003) have indicated that metonyms are cognitively established "referential devices". They do serve the same function of metaphors; understanding enhancement. However, their primary function is drawing the attention to the "referred to" aspects. Adel (2014) uses a cognitive linguistic definition of metonyms; "indirect reference or reference shift, in which a linguistic sign refers not (only) to its default concept A, but to another concept B, within a single semantic domain."

In a nutshell, Arabic and English metonyms are linguistically and conceptually different. Arabic metonym depends on the deduced implicature, while the English one is based on the referential relationship. This difference is more crystallized in the two languages' realization of the synecdoche.

3.1.4 Synecdoche:

Deignan (2005) stated that a synecdoche using "part of an entity to stand for the whole entity". This "stand for" relationship inspired many linguists to consider it a subtype of metonymy (Lakoff & Johnson2003, Adel 2014). Lakoff & Johnson asserted that the so-called synecdoche is a special kind of metonyms; as it is based on the "refer to/stand for" relation. It is well established in the cognition system; part-whole formula is a basic concept in painting, portrayal, language, etc. It is conceptually and universally constructed that face stands for a person. Adel (2014) supported their point clarifying that body parts are widely figuratively used. Synecdoche in this sense is conceptualized in Arabic poetics too. This part-stands-for-a-whole relation is one of many relations of a literary trope called "[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]"/ masgasz moirsal/. Body parts are the typical of such relation in Arabic as well. However, it cannot be related to Arabic metonymy by any means; for the different conceptualization and realization of the term "metonymy". Using synecdoche, if appropriate, helps writers achieve brevity and gives otherwise common ideas and objects deeper meanings and thus draw readers' attention creatively.

3.1.5 Symbolism

In Arabic literature, a symbol is "an abstract or concrete word refers to a meaning varies according to both the writer's intention and the reader's perception" Abdelnour (1979). That is to say, the symbolic meaning is mutually negotiated between the writer and the reader. Ahmed (1978) has focused the light on the difference between symbolism and reference; symbolism refers to an unfixed meaning, while reference points to a specific well defined one. The literary definition of a symbol does not differ from the literal one, which is the implicit reference to something. Symbolism is a rhetoric strategy enables writers to indirectly address a concept and involve the reader in the writing process.

The traditional viewpoint of a symbol in English points out that the meaning of the sign/symbol is "conventional" in the language Routledge Dictionary (2006). Based on the English definition on a metonymy, Lakoff & Johnson (2003) regarded "cultural and religious symbolism" as "special cases of metonyms". Such symbols reflect the perception and cognition of the real world offering a better understanding of religion and culture. They are as cognitively structured as other metonyms and metaphors. Thus, Penguin dictionary refers to the probable universality of a symbol without ignoring the specificity of some private symbols in a language.

3.2 Semantic fields

Semantic field is a linguistic method of grouping words according to the conceptual domain they belong too. Trier introduced the concept in 1931 following a "holistic systematic" method to study words as

part of a larger semantic system. Consequently the meaning of a word is dependent on the other words forming this system. The three tenets of the semantic field theory are: the meaning of a word in a certain lexical domain depends on the meaning of other neighboring words, a lexical field of words portrays the same picture in the reality without "gaps", and the semantic change of a word affects the semantics of whole lexical field it belongs to Longman Dictionary (2010). Words in the same semantic field are linguistically related (out of the semantic relations; synonymy, hyponymy, etc.) and conceptually related (as they represent the human cognition of the world).

3.3 Semantic mapping

One of the most intriguing and intermittently popular components of the grammatical models is "semantic mapping". Semantic maps are also called 'implicational' or 'conceptual'. Croft (2001) preferred to designate them 'spaces'. Since semantic maps only show the relative closeness or distance of relations, not the exact nature of the relations within semantic space. So semantic maps cannot replace cognitive-semantic analyses, but they can supplement them and constrain them in various ways. According to Tomasello (2014), semantic maps function to (1) allows the representation of cross-linguistic similarities and differences. (2) provide objective evidence for which meanings or functions are perceived as similar by speakers. (3) play an important tool for diachrony, in particular grammaticalization studies by showing that some changes presuppose others and (4) summarize the synchronic relationships between different grammatical meanings

4. APPLICATION AND DISCUSSION:

4.1 Data

The researchers analyze two Arabic and English poems belonging to different poetic eras, but sharing a number of poetic and linguistic features. The Arabic poem "Burning Flute" appeared in Ebraheme Nagi's first poetic collection. The collection is centered on the "Lost love" theme. The poetic persona, which is projected by Nagi, is that of a heart-broken man longing for his beloved. So, the overall tone is gloomy and depressed. Similarly, Shelley's " When The Lamp is Shattered' is epitomical of his finest romantic lyrics. The poetic persona is, too, a broken-heart man who is bewailing his lost love. The destitute tone is so pessimistic. The overwhelming mood is vulnerability. The overall picturesque is so comparable.

4.1.1 Ebraheme Nagi

Ebraheme Nagi was an Egyptian poet, essayist and author, born in Cairo in 1898. His father, a well-cultured physician, encouraged him to read and appreciate literary works since he was a child. Nagi started composing poetry at the age of 12. He joined the faculty of medicine, commenting on this period "I used to practice medicine as an art and to compose poetry as a science; abide by rules of logic and clarity". His first poetic collection was "Behind the fog". It was not well-received by critics; he stopped writing for a while. He was a member of "Apollo's society"; which included a group of great poets all over the Arab world and was known for its romantic inclination. Nagi is best known for his poem "The Ruins". He described his poetry as "the window through which I see life, eternity, and what behind eternity. It is the air I breathe and the medicine I use to heal my soul wounds". (Khaleel 2003 and Daouat-alhaq 2012).

He has composed "Burning Flute" at the inception of his poetic experience. In this poem, he is immersed in the darkness of his loneliness and depression, complaining of his mistress who has abandoned him. Motivated by his anguished woe passion, he creates masterpieces of music and poetry. His poetic creations immortalize both his grieve and innovation. They are both a consolation and evocation of his lost love memories. Nagi reveals his sadness and torment to his burning flute, which symbolizes his agonized heart and tormenting thoughts. The flute turns his sadness into beautiful, but grieved, melodies. Both Nagi and the flute exploit their poetic and music innovation, pleading the absent mistress, until her beautiful shadow appears. Once he passionately approaches it, his daydream collapses, and he realizes that he is still alone in the darkness listening only to the echo of his grievous thoughts. Nagi's poem deals abundantly and essentially with the ideal romantic covenants of passion where he laments upon his unfulfilled love oath. The inherent veracity of his deep feelings toward her mistress was evocative enough to inspire these lines to flow in such a powerful expression of love, regret and grief at the end of a relationship. Unexpectedly, he is not mad at her and his daydreams are so much craving to their reunion.

4.1.2 Percy Bysshe Shelley

According to O'Neill (2009), the greatness of the poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1821) does not essentially reside in his capacity to articulate his strong libertarian beliefs. Shelley's importance and achievement as a poet derive from the way in which he tests, dramatizes, anatomizes, and enacts the processes involved in belief or, indeed, doubt. He turns out, surprisingly given the terms of his reputation as a poet hurrying always to exalt principles of liberty, love, and equality. Shelley is a poet of emotional and conceptual extremes conveyed inverse of great distinction, force, and subtlety. He is a poet of desire, of the longing for change, for 'some world far from ours', who writes compellingly about all that thwarts desire. He is to his fingertips a poet of crisscrossing perspectives; if his poetry 'enlarges the circumference of the imaginationby replenishing it with thoughts of ever new delight. Classical to his major works are Ozymandias, Ode to the West Wind, To a Skylark, Queen Mab,Alastor, The Revolt of Islam, Adonais, and Prometheus Unbound'(1820).

Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote "When The Lamp is Shattered" at the height of his poetic pinnacle, in the last year of his short life, after he was exiled to Italy. Shelley was immersed within a unilateral undisclosed relationship with a married woman, Jane Williams, to whom he addressed most of his best romantic poems including, controversially, this poem. "When The Lamp is Shattered' incepts with a catalog of images that predicts the expiry of his poetic creativity: the ruin he suffered by the loss of his love towards the glamorous and beautiful Jane. The poet has, then, become like a shattered lamp; stripped of his genius like the dispersing clouds do to the magnificent rainbow, fragmented like a broken lute that is incapable of producing sweet tones to revive memories of past memories. Accordingly, the gloomy tones are only played. Grief infiltrated deep down in his heart because of this enigmatically eloping world. Disappointment and lovelorn inflamed the poet to render a panorama of his best agonized imagery that go hand in hand with the deep meaning in such unparalleled poetic lines.

4.2 Methodology

Each poem is separately analyzed at the poetic level and at the cognitive linguistic level. First, the poetic images of metaphors, similes, metonyms, synecdoche and symbolism are extracted and analyzed into their source and target domains. Second, the source and target domains are linguistically categorized according to their semantic fields. Finally, a contrastive cross-cultural semantic map is drawn depicting the "Lost Love" conceptual domain for revealing the similarities and differences between the two poems.

The key linguistic tools of analysis are Trier's Semantic field theory and semantic mapping. The researchers were challenged by some words which were difficult to classify; they can belong to two different semantic fields. In such cases, the literal meaning determined the most appropriate semantic field. Monolingual Arabic and English dictionaries were consulted to systematically figure out the basic meaning elements of each word, and thus to accurately select the proper semantic field. The literary devices detected are metaphors, similes, metonyms, synecdoche and symbolism, whether explicit or implicit. All literary relations are viewed as "something stands for/is similar to something else". This enables the researchers to divide each figurative speech into source and target domains.

Because prosody and lexical terms would be affected by the human translation either superiorly or inferiorly, the two poems were, toward mitigating this liable effect, inter-semiotically retranslated into a sketch (appendix B). The similarity between the two poems is depicted at large.

Nagi makes an extensive use of both metaphors and symbols in his poem. His metaphors vary targeting emotions, music, destruction and darkness, which are basic elements of his picturesque of "Lost Love". The strong metaphor of "wal lailou yayla [lit: night covers]" expressively reflect the overall grievous mode of the poem and the psychological state of the poetic personae he projects. Night is likened to a dress which covers the whole body, as night conceals nature and its beauty. Sadness covers his heart in the same way, he feels lost in the darkness of night and sadness. Darkness symbolizes his loneliness and sadness, and corresponds to the other symbols of destruction and powerful nature. Nagi depicts nature as a powerful monster tormenting him. The elements of nature; fire and wind "enairou touyele fihi [lit: fire delves into it] "wari:hou taed'ru: aelbaqa:je" [lit: wind blows the remnants away]", are cruelly burning his heart and blowing its ashes away. The natural elements are icons of torment and suffering. The body parts synecdoche is the most common in Arabic and English; specially eyes and lips, which usually refers to the Beauty of the Beloved woman. "TDsaajjroS aedaem*Y la'nYn [lit: convert tears into a melody]" and ""a*YloS aefi*rY na:jY [make poetry a flute]" cannot be categorized into a certain Arabic figure of speech. The implicit comparison, however, is not to be ignored. Even music is associated with sadness and tears. It is a way to express one's inner feelings and thoughts. The extended metaphor personifying the flute as a sad person is central to the poem. It reflects the art and music appreciation of "Apollo's society". It portrays Nagi's autism with music and poetry. The flute stands for him with its sad, but captivating melodies, just like the poet's sad poems. Both convert their sadness into innovative masterpieces of melodies and words.

4.4 Poetic and semantic field analysis of Shelley's "When the Lamp is Shattered"

Similarly, Philip (2002) confirms that Shelley recruited comprehensively metaphors and simile in this poem. His catalog of metaphors expresses the extent of his bereavement. It starts with the "shattered lamp/broken lute and rainbow" that implicitly describe the speaker's lovelorn state of desolate poetic imagination. The second stanza continues to utilize creative simile of such a state, like cramped ancient apartment in a ruined monastery or like the doleful sea-wind and crashing waves that hit the death knell for a drowned sailor. The third and fourth stanzas delineate a central personification metaphor where it personifies love as a nesting eagle that bemoans the frailty of the heart's affection, it denotes the possession by a strong emotional attachment. The explicit similes of storm and sun integrate with pervasive eagle metaphor to crystalize the wintry embitterment of the poet with his lost love.

To contrast, Nagi has invested his grief to flame up his poetic muse. Shelley resorted to isolate himself and allow his ecstatic poetry to get tarnished secondary to the same agony. Overall, music has sympathized through burning; either the burnt musical device or the burning melodies. Nature has been ironically amalgamated constituently through a cloudy moonless sky, strong gusts of wind blowing, mocking sun and hauling jet darkness that wrapped the bereaved lover. Body parts quivered; the heartily beats have been compromised, lips trembled and mumbled with no more love accents, and spirits got lost (Cf figure 1). Both poems develop their organic consistency through accurately selected words and imagery. Eventually, Nagi's poem was sealed by an eluding daydream that, upon vanishing, harvested no more than wishes. Shelly concluded up, pessimistically, using a similar gloomy image: the destruction image he started with plus more darker texture. That is to say, "lost love/ lovers" can speak the same language regardless of their genealogy.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

4.5. Semantic mapping of the "Lost love" conceptual domain in Nagi's and Shelley's poems

The following diagram maps the recruited sematic fields in both Nagi's and shelley's poems

4.6 Statistical findings:

By calculating the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (R), which measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables, of the two frequent semantic fields for both Nagi and Shelly ,the value of R was 0.56. Conducting the same test on the logarithms of the given values rendered a score of 0.51. Both values show a moderate positive correlation, which means there is a tendency for high similarity between Nagi's usages of semantic fields to go hand in hand with Shelley's. Initially, the test was performed using the same sorting of superordinates in figures 1 (alphabetical). Rationally, sorting the same set according to the most frequent or least frequent yielded the same result (no value difference).

CONCLUSION:

This study has analyzed the conceptual domain of "Lost love" in two Arabic and English poems. It adopts the cognitive linguistic approach to explore the simile, metaphors, symbolism, metonyms and synecdoche. It relies on Trier's semantic field theory in the linguistic analysis of the mentioned poetic devices. It draws a contrastive semantic map of the two poems based on the poetic and linguistic analysis.

The two poems share the same conceptual domain of "Lost Love". While Nagi depends poetically symbolizing nature and music, Shelley extensively uses similes comparing his grieve and pessimism to natural and musical elements. The two poets, however, conceptually use very similar semantic fields of; nature, destruction, emotion, time, music and words. They differ in the incidence of usage and in the poetic forms they employ. The contrastive semantic map illustrates the relative semantic richness of Shelley's poem in terms of the used lexes under the semantic fields. The semantic fields are statistically correlated, which suggests the universal cross-cultural cognition of this conceptual domain.

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

The study examines the validity of the mentioned methodology in cross-cultural analysis poetic conceptual domains. However, it has certain limitations. First, the analyzed data are two poems, so the results cannot be generalized. Second, the study poetically focuses on five figures of speech the most frequent in the two poems, and draws upon their semantic mapping. More comprehensive analyses of all the figurative devices are required, especially for longer poems. A larger scale of "corpus analysis" is recommended to draw a more representative picture of any conceptual domain in a given poetic era.

Appendix A

1. Nagi's poem and its translation
Appendix-A

Line             Translation                   Transcription (IPA)

           How often, my love, had          kem mereten jae haebi:bi:
       Nights got people overwhelmed?    wel lailou yay[??]e aelbera:je
          While I, alone, wandered;         ?hi: mou waehdi waeme fi
       No moaners, through the murk,      aed'ela:mi:[??]aekin souwaeja
                    did.

5        From tears, I craft a tone,       c:s'aijrou aedaem?e lahnen
          And make poetry a flute.        we ?g? elou ae[??]i?re naeje
           Would've been the ruin             we joulabi: hat'a:man
         Of my grieved soul that I          ?[??]?eltahou bi gouwaeje
                   sparked
          Fire is gutting it more;            ena:rou touyela fihi

10     The wind scatters the remnant.     weri:hou taed'ru: aelbeqa:je
          How sad the flute's under      mae ?t? es en nai bain elmoune
          The flanks of hopes an'               we bain elmenaeja
                ultimate fate
          It plays sadly and sings;       ke[??]du: we jefdu: hazi:nen
         Repeating my very grumble;           marge:?n [??]aekwaeje

15        Pleading whose passion is       mast'ege:?tefan men t'ewaine
           heartily folded so well         ?aela haewaehou et'ewa: je
           As yet to cast a shade;           haete jaelouh xaejaelan
         From my boyhood, I knew it,         ?aeriftehou fi s'iba:je
          Approaching me and so did         jaednou ?laie we taednou

20     My lips that the mouth kissed.     men [??]eyrihi [??]aefetaeje
        It's when my dream vanished,        ?ide bihimli: telae[??]e
         my eyes drove fully alert;          we estaiqaed't ?ainaeje
          I have carefully checked:        we rouhtou ?s'yi: we ?s'yi:
           Nil but my echo to get!           lam ?lfi ?ile s'eda;je

Line             Translation                       Text

           How often, my love, had        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
       Nights got people overwhelmed?     [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
          While I, alone, wandered;       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

       No moaners, through the murk,      [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                    did.                         IN ASCII]

5        From tears, I craft a tone,      [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

          And make poetry a flute.        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

           Would've been the ruin         [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

         Of my grieved soul that I        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                   sparked                       IN ASCII]
          Fire is gutting it more;        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

10     The wind scatters the remnant.     [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
          How sad the flute's under       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
          The flanks of hopes an'         [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                ultimate fate                    IN ASCII]
          It plays sadly and sings;       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
         Repeating my very grumble;       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

15        Pleading whose passion is       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
           heartily folded so well        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
           As yet to cast a shade;        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
         From my boyhood, I knew it,      [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
          Approaching me and so did       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]

20     My lips that the mouth kissed.     [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
        It's when my dream vanished,      [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
         my eyes drove fully alert;       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
          I have carefully checked:       [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
           Nil but my echo to get!        [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
                                                 IN ASCII]
Line             Translation

           How often, my love, had        l
       Nights got people overwhelmed?     2
          While I, alone, wandered;       3
       No moaners, through the murk,      4
                    did.

5        From tears, I craft a tone,      5
          And make poetry a flute.        6
           Would've been the ruin         7
         Of my grieved soul that I        8
                   sparked
          Fire is gutting it more;        9

10     The wind scatters the remnant.    10
          How sad the flute's under      11
          The flanks of hopes an'        12
                ultimate fate
          It plays sadly and sings;      13
         Repeating my very grumble;      14

15        Pleading whose passion is      15
           heartily folded so well       16
           As yet to cast a shade;       17
         From my boyhood, I knew it,     18
          Approaching me and so did      19

20     My lips that the mouth kissed.    20
        It's when my dream vanished,     21
         my eyes drove fully alert;      22
          I have carefully checked:      23
           Nil but my echo to get!       24


2. Shelley's Poem: "When The Lamp is Shattered"
   When the lamp is shattered
   The light in the dust lies dead -
   When the cloud is scattered,
   The rainbow's glory is shed.

5  When the lute is broken,
   Sweet tones are remembered not;
   When the lips have spoken,
   Loved accents are soon forgot.

   As music and splendor
10 Survive not the lamp and the lute
   The heart's echoes render
   No song when the spirit is mute -
   No song but sad dirges,
   Like the wind through a ruined cell,
   Or the mournful surges
   That ring the dead seaman's knell

15 When hearts have one mingled,
   Love first leaves the well-built nest;
   The weak one is singled

20 To endure what it once possessed.
   O Love! who bewailest
   The frailty of all things here,
   Why choose you the frailest
   For your cradle, your home, and your bier/

25 Its passions will rock thee,
   As the storms rock the ravens on high;
   Bright reason will mock thee,
   Like the sun from a wintry sky.
   From thy nest every rafter

30 Will rot, and thine eagle home
   Leave thee naked to laughter,
   When leaves fall and cold winds come


Appendix B: A sketch portraying the two poems

Modified IPA Chart

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Appendix C: IPA Arabic chart

CONSONANTS

/b/bank--/d/do + AmE/t/better, pretty--/dz/judge--/f/ food--/g/gold--h/hot--/k/class--

/l/Long--/l/Level--/m/master--/n/ no--/n/ Sing, long--/p/ put-/r/with trilling Italian grazie

--/s/ sit - /l/ shoe--/t/ tank--/tl/ tree--/0/think - /d/there--/v/love/w/wife--/j/You--

VOWELS:

/ae/ bad--/i/ need--/i/ win--/a/father--/c/ all--/u/ ooze--/e/ get--/u/ book--/n/hot

(BrE)--/A/run--/e/ about--/3/ Bird--/er/ Better--/ai/ ice--/ie/ear--/ou/below--/ci/

boy--/au/ now--/3e/air---/aier/tire--/auar//flower--/euer/employer

SPECIAL SOUNDS AND SYMBOLS:

/?/ Glottal stop (Voiceless). you can hear it in trying the word battle without /t/ ba?le

/h/ Epiglottal Pharyngeal Fricative (Voiceless) as in Finnish tahti and Portuguese marca.

/s[??]/ Emphatic dental (Voiceless) Heavier than /s/sound in subway

/d[??]/ Heavier than /d/ sound in duck and mud

/t[??]/ Emphatic dental shop (voiceles) Heavier than the/t/ sound in but and cut

/d[??]/ Emphatic dental Fricative(voiced) Heavier than the /d/ sound in mother.

/[??]/ Epiglottal-Pharyngeal Fricative/approximant (Voiced) as in Danish ravn, Dutch rad and Portuguese armando

/v/ Velar Fricative (Voiced) As in the /R/ sound in the French word jour, chauffeur and soir

/q/ Uvular stop (voiceless) Heavier than the /k/ sound in cut

/x/ Velar Fricative (Voiceless) as in the scot word loch and German auch

Bibliography

Andel Nour, J. (1984). Literary lexicon (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-"elm.

Adel, A. (2014): Metonymy in the semantic field of verbal communication: A corpus-based analysis of WORD. Journal of pragmatics (67). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ahmed, F. Symbol and symbolism in contemporary poetry(m Arabic). Cairo: Dar Al-M'ariff

Al-Jurjani, A. (1991). Secrets of Rhetorics(in Arabic scrutinized Abu Fiher, Mahmoud Shaker. Cairo: Khanjji bookstore.

Al-Suyuti, J. (2005). Proficiency in the science of the Koran(in Arabic), scrutinized by: Quranic Studies Centre. Medina: King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran.

Al-Tahanawi,M.(96) Al-Kashaf: an encyclopedia of artistic and scientific terminology (Silsilat mawsu'aat al-mustalahat al-'arabia wa-alislamiyah) (in Arabic). Ajam, R (ed), Al-Khalidi, A. (Arabic translator), Volume (1), Beirut: Librarie du Liban.

Blasko, D. (1999). Only The Tip of The Iceberg" Who Understands What About Metaphor? Journal of Pragmatics (31) 675-1683

Burwick, F., Goslee, N.M & Hoeveler, D.I. (2012). The Encyclopedia of Romantic Literature. New Jersy: Wiley-Blackwell

Bussmann, H. (2006): Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. Trauth, G. & Kazzazi, K (eds and translators). Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Croft, W. (2001). Radical construction grammar: syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cuddon, J. A. (1998): The Penguin Dictionary of literary terms and literary theory. London: The Penguin Group.

Dan Shen (1988): Stylistics, objectivity, and convention. Poetics (17) 221 -238

Daouat-alhaq (2012). Ebraheme Nagi: The man and the poet, (in Arabic)Rights tribune. Volumes (133-134) Morocco : The Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs.

Deignan, Alice, 2005. Metaphor and Corpus Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Helal,A.H. (2005). Variants of simile in Ebn Mnzour's "lessanel-Arab" "Arabs linguistic lexion" (in Arabic) Cairo: the study of rhetorical analysis. Arab electronic library books

Jason, Ph. &Irons-Georges, T. (2002): Masterplots II. Pasadena, CA: Salem,

Khaleel, K.A. (2003). Encyclopedia of the creators of the twentieth century. (in Arabic) Volume (3). Beirut: Arab Institute for Research and Publishing.

Lakoff, G. & Johnsen, M. (2003): Metaphors we live by. London: The university of Chicago press.

Leader, Z. & O'Neill, M. (2009): The Major Works (Oxford World's Classics): Percy Bysshe Shelley. Oxford: Oxford.

Richards, j. & Schmidt, R. (2010): Longman Dictionary of language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. 4th Ed. Edinburgh: Pearson.

STEEN, G. (1989): Metaphor And Literary Comprehension: Towards a Discourse Theory of Metaphor in Literature * Poetics 18 (1989) 113-141.

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BACEM A. ESSAM

ESRA MOUSTAFA

literaryartrans@gmail.com
4.3 Poetic and semantic field analysis of Nagi's "Burning Flute"

                                       domain       Semantic
Figure of speech            Type      Source         field

elailou yav[??]e (L2)      Metaphor     Dress         Cloth
[lit. night covers

aed'ela:m(L4)              Symbol     Darkness      Darkness
[lit. murk]

aedaem?e lahnen (L5)     Implicit      Tears        Emotions
[lit craft tears          likeness
into tone]

aefi?re naeja (L6)       Implicit      Poetry        Words
[cf.  L6, Appendix A]     likeness

joulabi: hat'amon         Metaphor    Answerer       Human
(L7)
[cf.  L7, Appendix A]

hat'a:man(L2)              Symbol      Ruins      Destruction
[lit. ruin]

?[??]eltahou bi           Metaphor      Fire         Nature
gouwaeja (L8)
[lit. I sparked
inwardly]

ana.r (L9)               Symbolism      Fire         Nature
[lit. fire]

eri:hou taed'ru: (L10)   Symbolism      Wind         Nature
[lit. wind scatters]

aelbeqa:je (L2)          Symbolism    Remnants    Destruction
[lit. remnants]

mae ?t?es (Lll)          Extended      Person        Human
enai/je[??]du:/(Lll)      Metaphor
marge:: ?n (L14)
mast'e?tefen (LI 5)
[Cf L11-15]

t'ewaine ?aele            Metaphor      Book         Words
haewaehou (LI 5-16)
[cf L15-16]

[??]eyrihi (L20)         Synecdoche     Lips       Body parts
[lit. her mouth]

[??]aefetaeje (L20)      Synecdoche     Lips       Body parts
[lit. my lips]

?ainaeja (L22)           Synecdoche     Eyes       Body parts
[lit. my eyes]

s'eda:je(L24)            Symbolism      Echo         Sound
[lit. night echo]

                           Target      Semantic
Figure of speech           domain        field

elailou ya[??]e (L2)       Night       Darkness
[lit. night covers

aed'ela:m(L4)            Loneliness    Emotions
[lit. murk]

aedaem?e lahnenn (L5)      Melody        Music
[lit craft tears
into tone]

aefi?re naeja (L6)         Flute         Music
[cf.  L6, Appendix A]

joulabi: hat'amon          Ruins      Destruction
(L7)
[cf.  L7, Appendix A]

hat'a:man(L2)             Memories       Time
[lit. ruin]

?[??]eltahou bi          Sentiment     Emotions
gouwaeja (L8)
[lit. I sparked
inwardly]

ana.r (L9)               Sentiment     Emotions
[lit. fire]

eri:hou taed'ru: (L10)      Days         Time
[lit. wind scatters]

aelbeqa:je (L2)           Memories     Past time
[lit. remnants]

mae ?t?es (Lll)            Flute         Music
enai/je[??]du:/(Lll)
marge:: ?n (L14)
mast'e?tefen (LI 5)
[Cf L11-15]

t'ewaine ?aele             Heart      Body parts
haewaehou (LI 5-16)
[cf L15-16]

[??]eyrihi (L20)          Beloved        Human
[lit. her mouth]

[??]aefetaeje (L20)        Lover         Human
[lit. my lips]

?ainaeja (L22)             Lover         Human
[lit. my eyes]

s'eda:je(L24)             Memories     Past time
[lit. night echo]

The Arabic words are transcribed in APA (Cf. Appendix C)

Figure of speech               Type            Source domain

lamp                     Implicit Metaphor          Lamp
Dead Light               Implicit Metaphor         Light
Light lies dead           Personification          Light
The dust                     Metonymy               Dust
Scattering cloud         Implicit Metaphor         Cloud
[Infiltrated] rainbow    Implicit Metaphor        Rainbow
Broken lute              Implicit Metaphor          Lute
Speaking lips               Synecdoche              Lips
Remembered tones             Symbolism              Tone
Music survives not        Personification          Music
Splendor survives not     Personification         Splendor
Echoes of the heart         Metonymy               Echo
Heart                       Synecdoche             Heart
No songs                     Metonymy              Songs
Mute spirit               Personification          Spirit
but sad dirges Like           Simile             Sad dirges
   the wind through
   a ruined cell,
Sad dirges                   Metonymy              Dirges

Dead seaman 's knell         Metonymy              Knell
O love!                   Personification          Person
cradle, home, bier            Symbols        cradle, home, bier
passions will rock            Simile            Passion Thee
   thee, As the
   storms rock the
   ravens
Bright reason will            Simile            Reason Thee
   mock thee, Like the
   sun from a wintry
   sky
Leaves fall                   Symbol               Leaves
Wintry sky                   Metaphor               Sky

Cold Wind                     Symbol             Cold wind

Figure of speech         Semantic field      Target domain

lamp                        Light         poetic creativity
Dead Light                    Nature            Lost love
Light lies dead           Illumination        Dead person
The dust                  Destruction         Termination
Scattering cloud             Nature       Robbing his poetics
[Infiltrated] rainbow        Nature          Palin poetry
Broken lute                  Music          Lovelorn state
Speaking lips              Body part             Human
Remembered tones             Sound           Halcyon days
Music survives not        Music/sound            Human
Splendor survives not       Emotions             Human
Echoes of the heart         Sound          Unilateral love
Heart                      Body parts            Human
No songs                     Sound          Lovelorn state
Mute spirit                Body part             Human
but sad dirges Like          Sound               Wind
   the wind through
   a ruined cell,
Sad dirges                   Sound          Melancholy and
                                             embitterment.
Dead seaman 's knell         Sound             Mortality
O love!                      Human               Love
cradle, home, bier           Place            life stages
passions will rock       Emotions Human      Storms Ravens
   thee, As the
   storms rock the
   ravens
Bright reason will       Thinking Human     Sun Wintry sky
   mock thee, Like the
   sun from a wintry
   sky
Leaves fall                  Nature               End
Wintry sky                   nature        Heartily wintry
                                             embitterment
Cold Wind                    Nature              Fear

Figure of speech           Semantic

lamp                         words
Dead Light                  Emotions
Light lies dead              human
The dust                  Destruction
Scattering cloud          Destruction
[Infiltrated] rainbow        Words
Broken lute                 emotions
Speaking lips                Human
Remembered tones              Time
Music survives not           Human
Splendor survives not        Human
Echoes of the heart        Emotions
Heart                        Human
No songs                    Emotions
Mute spirit                  Human
but sad dirges Like          nature
   the wind through
   a ruined cell,
Sad dirges                  Emotions

Dead seaman 's knell      Destruction
O love!                     Emotions
cradle, home, bier            time
passions will rock        Nature Birds
   thee, As the
   storms rock the
   ravens
Bright reason will           Nature
   mock thee, Like the       Nature
   sun from a wintry
   sky
Leaves fall                   Time
Wintry sky                  Emotions

Cold Wind                   Emotions

Echo                Sound                Sound      Lute- music song-
Music (melody-                                        tones--knell-
flute-sing)                                          echoes- dirges

Fire                Nature               Nature       Cloud--dust-
Wind                                                  rainbow- sky-
                                                       Storms- Sun

Dress               Cloth                Cloth             N/A

Loneliness--       Emotions    Lost     Emotions     Love- Passions-
ars--sentiment                 Love                 mocking splendor

Book- poetry        Words                Words           Poetry
heart- lips--     Body parts           Body parts     heart- lips
eyes                                                    --spirit

Night             Darkness-            Darkness-       Lamp-light
                    Light                Light         Remembered-
                                                     survive-bewail
Memories             Time                            survive-bewail
Days

Ruins              Destruc-             Destruc-     Broken- dead--
Remnants             tion                 tion      ruined- shattered

Lover              Human/                Human/       Human--Eagle
Beloved             anmal                animal
Answerer
Sad person

N/A               Location/            Location/      Cradle-home--
                    stages               Stages        bier-nest.
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Author:Essam, Bacem A.; Moustafa, Esra
Publication:Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics
Article Type:Critical essay
Date:Jan 1, 2015
Words:6823
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