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Appraisals of Bangladeshi medicinal plants used by folk medicine practitioners in the prevention and management of malignant neoplastic diseases.

1. Introduction

Cancer is defined as an abnormal growth of cells caused by multiple changes in gene expression leading to deregulated balance of cell proliferation and cell death. Cancer is those tumors [1] that have developed the ability to invade the surrounding normal tissues. Cancers are caused by exogenous chemical, physical, or biological carcinogens in humans and the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are often multifactorial and complex. Different factors may act by different mechanisms and at different stages of tumor development [2]. A cancerous cell is traveling throughout the body using the blood or lymph systems, destroying healthy tissue in a process called invasion, and that cell manages to make new blood vessels to feed itself in a process called angiogenesis. Tumors may activate angiogenic inhibitors (angiostatin and endostatin) that can modulate angiogenesis at both the primary site and downstream sites of metastasis [3, 4], when a tumor successfully spreads to other parts of the body using the blood or lymph systems known as metastasis.

Cancer is a leading cause of death in the western world. In the United States and a number of European countries, cancer is the second leading destroyer after cardiovascular diseases [5]. Cancer can occur at any age and the average age at the time of diagnosis for cancer is 67 years, and about 76% of all cancers are diagnosed at the age of 55 or older. Although cancer is relatively rare in children, it is the second leading cause of death in children ages of 1-14. In this age, leukemia is the most common cause of death. The overall death rates due to cancer have almost tripled since 1930 for men and gone up over 50% for women [6]. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 84 million people will die of cancer between 2005 and 2015 around the world. In 2007, there were 7.9 million deaths from cancer, around 13 percent of all deaths.

1.1. Cancer Epidemiology in Bangladesh. The National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital (NICRH) started a cancer registry in 2005 for the first time in Bangladesh along with the World Health Organization (WHO). This report covers three years from 2005 to 2007. Data were collected from 24,847 cancer patients who appeared in the NICRH for the first time [7]. Among them, 10,847 (57.6%) were males. Lung cancer was the leading cancer (17.3%), followed by cancers of breast (12.3%), lymph nodes and lymphatics (8.4%), and cervix (8.4%) for sexes combined in all ages. In males' lung (25.5%) and in females breast (25.6%) and cervical (21.5%) cancers were predominant. In children aged 14 years or younger, lymphoma, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, leukemia, and kidney cancers were most prevalent. Lung cancer in males and cervical and breast cancer in females constitute 38% of all cancers in Bangladesh [7]. According to the WHO data published in April 2011, oral cancer deaths in Bangladesh reached 11,562 or 1.21% of total deaths. The age adjusted death rate is 12.52 per 100,000 of population ranking Bangladesh 4 in the world. There are more than one million (10 lakh) cancer patients in Bangladesh while approximately 200,000 new patients, mostly women, are added every year creating a social burden on the country [8, 9].

Various plants have been used against cancer and tumor in traditional medicine system of Bangladesh since many years. Traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines [10]. Traditional medicine is practiced in Bangladesh by folk medicine practitioners, also known as Kabirajes who utilize various formulations of medicinal plants in most of their preparations. We have observed that the Kabirajes of various districts and areas use diverse varieties of plants for the treatment of schizophrenia and psychotic problems [11], cardiovascular problems [12], eye infections [13], snakebite [14], diabetes [15], gastrointestinal disorders [16, 17], HIV/AIDS related infections [18], rheumatoid arthritis [19], cattle diseases [20], and so on.

It was objective of the present study to conduct a randomized ethnopharmacological survey to learn more about the medicinal plants used by folk medicine practitioners of Bangladesh for the treatment of cancer and also to do comprehensive study on several published articles attributed to the in vivo or in vitro anticancer properties of these species. The anticipation was that the medicinal plants used by the Kabirajes can prove to be a useful source for further scientific studies leading to discovering more efficacious antineoplastic drugs.

2. Methodology

2.1. Geographical Location of the Survey Area. The present randomized surveys were carried out between October 2013 and March 2014, among the Kabirajes of three districts of Bangladesh, namely, Jessore, Khulna, and Narail. Jessore district geographically is in the southwestern region of Bangladesh. It is located at 23[degrees]10'0" North, 89[degrees]13'0" East, bordered by Khulna and Satkhira district to the south, India to the west, Magura and Narail district to the east, and Jhenaidah district to the north. Khulna and Narail district geographically coordinate at 22[degrees]48'0" North, 89[degrees]33'0" and 23[degrees] 10'0" North, 89[degrees]30'0" East, respectively. These three districts (Figure 1) are a part of Khulna division.

The surveys were conducted with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method [21, 22]. A total of 5 Kabirajes (36-60 years) were interviewed during the surveys. Kabirajes were asked whether they know about cancer and whether they treat the cancer on a regular basis. Kabirajes were selected based on their confirmatory answer to both questions. The Kabirajes mentioned the plants with which they treated cancer and took the interviewers to spots from where they collected the plants. All interviews were conducted in the Bangla language. The plants were shown along with providing of local names and the parts used. Plant specimens were collected and dried in the field and later brought back to Dhaka for complete identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Nomenclature of the identified species was documented from the plant list database [http://www.theplantlist.org/].

3. Results

A total of 20 plant species were obtained from the Kabirajes of the three districts surveyed. The results are summarized in Table 1. These plant species are wild and belonged to 17 families. The Acanthaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Fabaceae family contributed two plants each; the rest of the families contributed one plant each. Whole plant as well as plant parts like leaves, barks, roots, fruits, and seeds was used for preparing medicine. Leaves constituted the major plant part used, forming 40.6% of total uses. Roots, fruits, and seeds each constituted accordingly 15.6%, 12.5%, and 9.4% of total uses. The other plant parts (whole plant, stem, bark, flower, and tuber) mentioned constituted, respectively, 9.4 and 3.1% of total uses (Figure 2).

3.1. Types of Cancer. Among developed countries, the incidence and mortality rates for various cancers are almost the same. Lung cancer is the most common cancer among men in both developing and developed countries of the world and breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Annually, the global death rate for cancer is estimated to be more than 6 million people and over 22 million individuals have been diagnosed with cancer worldwide [23]. Table 2 has listed the types of cancer.

4. Discussion

Many developing countries have intensified their efforts in documenting the ethnomedical data and scientific literature on medicinal plants. In 2000, natural product derivatives were involved in 14 of the top 35 drugs based on worldwide sales [24]. Cancer chemoprevention with phytochemical compounds is a developing plot [25]. Medicinal plants have been used for cancer treatment in many countries of the world from a prolonged period of time [26,27] and the treatment or prevention is attributed to their safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability as well; natural plant derivatives claimed extensive scientific screening and clinical experiments for the development of anticancer drugs [28]. Over 3000 plants species have been reported to have anticancer properties [29] and about 35000 plant samples from 20 countries have been collected and around 114,000 extracts were screened against tumor systems used as a primary screen [30]. Clinically active antineoplastic agents should be able to prolong the survival and decrease the leukocyte count of blood of tumor-bearing animals [31]. Examples of some well-known plant-derived antineoplastic lead compounds along with their specific mechanism of actions are summarized in Table 3.

4.1. Appraisement of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants Used by the Folk Medicine Practitioners for Antineoplastic Properties. Secondary metabolites are compounds belonging to varied chemical groups that exert biological activities both on human and animal cells. Products of secondary metabolites are the main phytochemical constituents with various pharmaceutical properties serving either as protective agents against various pathogens or growth regulatory molecules. These physiological functions are the effects on cancer cells or tumor development inhibition. Plant-derived commercial anticancer drugs (vinblastine and vincristine from Catharanthus roseus) are still produced by isolation from growing plants [32]. In Table 4, we have listed some reported plantderived chemical compounds from the antineoplastic plants used by the Bangladeshi folk health practitioners in the treatment of cancer.

4.2. Abelmoschus moschatus (Musk Mallow). Hydroalcoholic seed and leaf extracts of Abelmoschus moschatus exhibited antiproliferative activity against colorectal adenocarcinoma and retinoblastoma human cancer cell lines [33].

4.3. Acanthus ilicifolius (Holly Mangrove). The ethanol leaves' extract of the plant was found [34] to be cytotoxic towards lung fibroblast cells in MTT assay. Another study [35] reported that the plant extract has been shown to prevent DNA alterations in a transplantable Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma-bearing murine model and in enlargement of the survival of the animals against the proliferation of ascites tumor. Ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of A. ilicifolius has a potential cytotoxic activity on HeLa cell and KB cell lines by comet assay [36]. Active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower play a role in killing Artemia salina nauplii and can be considered as potential cytotoxic agents as well as future candidate for cancer therapy [37].

4.4. Aristolochia indica (Indian Birthwort). The cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of the chloroform extracts of Aristolochia indica were assessed in human breast cancer cell line by MTT assay using taxol as standard and showed pronounced anticancer activity against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell line [38, 39]. Aristoloside compound was reported to inhibit carcinogenesis [40]. Aristolochic acid was reported to possess various biological activities including antiadenocarcinoma, antineoplastic [41], and antitumor activities [42].

4.5. Borassus flabellifer (Asian Palmyra Palm). Dammarane triterpenoid 1, isolated from Borassus flabellifer seed coat, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] and showed good antiproliferative activity against pancreatic cancer cell line. Apoptosis inducing activity was confirmed based on increased sub-G0 phase cell population in cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated levels of cytochrome c, nuclear morphological changes, and DNA fragmentation in MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells [43]. B. flabellifer seed coat extracts were screened in another study [44] for their possible anticancer activity on growth of the HeLa cells and these preliminary studies indicated that even the lower concentrations of plant extract showed significant antiproliferative activity.

4.6. Blumea lacera (Blumea). There is an in vitro study [45] that showed that Blumea lacera exhibited broad spectrum antileukemic activity against K562, L1210, P3HR1, and U937 leukemia cells. Methanolic extract of B. lacera leaves has also showed cytotoxic activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line, human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, and human breast ductal carcinoma cell line [46].

4.7. Cannabis sativa (Hemp). The interest in anticarcinogenic properties of cannabinoids was renewed after the discovery of the endocannabinoid system [47]. The administration of A9THC, A8-THC, and cannabinol inhibited the growth of Lewis lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro as well as in vivo after oral administration in mice [48]. Antitumorigenic mechanisms of cannabinoids are showing their ability to interfere with tumor neovascularization, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis [49]. The mechanism of cannabinoids' anticancer action depends on the ability of their agents to stimulate autophagy-mediated apoptotic cancer cell death; thus, cannabinoid action helps in cancer cell death, impairs tumor angiogenesis, and blocks invasion and metastasis [50] and cannabinoids are currently also being tested as anticancer agents in phase I/II clinical studies [51].

4.8. Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin). Methanol extract of Cucurbita maxima aerial parts has been performed against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma model in mice by Saha et al. [52] for the antitumor activity and the results revealed that C. maxima possesses significant anticancer activity which may be due to its cytotoxicity and antioxidant properties. Lasparaginase is an antineoplastic agent, identified from fruit of C. maxima, used for treatment of a type of cancer that is acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [53] as well as being experimentally used as an anticancer agent in human patients [54, 55].

4.9. Dillenia indica (Elephant Apple). Leaf powder of Dillenia indica is given in treatment of breast cancer [56]. The methanolic extract of D. indica has been found to have significant antileukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60, and K562 [57]. Methanolic extracts of betulinic acid were prepared from the D. indica fruits inducing apoptosis in HT-29 cells via mitochondrial dependent pathway and proving to be a potential therapeutic agent for colon cancer [58].

4.10. Dioscorea bulbifera (Air Potato). Petroleum ether fraction of the plant showed potential effects against HepA with microstructure abnormality of HepA cells surface [59]. Immune system modulation might be related to antitumor effects of D. bulbifera rhizome, as reported in S180 and H22 tumor cells bearing mice [60].

4.11. Emilia sonchifolia (Lilac Tasselflower). The aqueous and methanolic extracts of the leaves of Emilia sonchifolia gradually exhibit antitumor activities [61]. The n-hexane extract of E. sonchifolia has anticancer effect and is rich in terpenoids [62] and terpenoids were evaluated for their potential antineoplastic activity in various human cancer cell lines such as gastric, pancreatic, and colon carcinomas [63].

4.12. Erythrina variegata (Tiger's Claw). Steroid derived from the stem bark and the leaves of Erythrina variegata showed anticancer activity against in vitro breast cancer cell T47D [64]. Alkaloids (10, 11-dioxoerythratidine and crystagallin A) extracted from the leaves and stem bark of E. variegata plant strongly stated in vitro anticancer activity against breast cancer T47D cell lines in vitro using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay [65].

4.13. Hygrophila auriculata (Marsh Barbel). The effect of H. auriculata on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats [66]. The aqueous seed extract from H. auriculata displayed selective cancer cell cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 0.22 mg [mL.sup.-1] against colon cancer cells [67]. In vitro study of H. auriculata extracts has reported antitumor and NFkB inhibition [68]. Ahmad et al. reported antitumor activity from plant extract against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wister rats [69].

4.14. Moringa oleifera (Drumstick Tree). A hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera study revealed possible chemopreventive potential against chemical carcinogenesis [70]. Different leaf extracts of M. oleifera produced significant cytotoxic effects on human multiple myeloma cultured cell lines [71]. A study [72] showed that leaves extract of M. oleifera can significantly obstruct the growth of cultured human pancreatic carcinoma cells by inhibiting the NF-[kappa]B signaling pathway. Most of the anticancer studies of M. oleifera have not focused on the molecular basis of the tumor-suppressive activity but strongly suggested that it could potentially be a supreme anticancer candidate specific to cancer cells [73, 74].

4.15. Nymphaea nouchali (Blue Water Lily). The methanolic extract of Nymphaea nouchali roots has showed inhibitory activity towards tumor promoter in the Raji cells [75].

4.16. Persicaria hydropiper (Water Pepper). In vitro antiproliferative activity of Polygonum hydropiper (synonymy) extracts was evaluated against cervix epithelial adenocarcinoma, skin epidermoid carcinoma, and breast epithelial adenocarcinoma cells and the results confirmed substantial cell growth inhibitory activity against one or more cell lines [76].

4.17. Trichosanthes kirilowii (Chinese Cucumber). A triterpenoid compound named cucurbitacin B isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii showed the potent inhibitory activity against HIF-1 activation induced by hypoxia in various human cancer cell lines. In vivo studies confirmed the inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin B on the expression of HIF-1[alpha] proteins, leading to a decrease growth of HeLa cells in a xenograft tumor model [77]. Cucurbitacin D isolated from the plant has also been shown to suppress proliferation of HT29 human colon cancer cells [78] and the compound could be potent therapeutic agent for breast cancer by blocking tumor cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis through suppression of STAT3 activity [79] and it could also induce apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells [80].

5. Conclusions

Among twenty plant species, four of the species used by folk medicine practitioners have no strong published data regarding anticancer or cytotoxic activities. These 4 species are C. inerme, M. paniculata, S. sesban, and V. officinalis. From just a brief survey of the literature, it appears that the rest of the sixteen plants used by the Kabirajes in three districts of Bangladesh present considerable potential in the treatment of cancer. Further scientific studies need to be conducted on these plants towards discovery of lead compounds, which can lead to formulation of new drugs for the prevention and management of malignant neoplastic diseases with giving less or no side effects.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7832120

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Acknowledgment

The authors wish to thank all the medicine practitioners for providing useful information regarding cancer treatment.

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Md. Nur Kabidul Azam, (1) Md. Mizanur Rahman, (1) Samanta Biswas, (2) and Md. Nasir Ahmed (1)

(1) Ethnobotany & Ethnomedicine Division, TechB Herbal Solution, Kushtia 7040, Bangladesh

(2) Medical Collegefor Women & Hospital (MCW&H), Uttara Model Town, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh

Correspondence should be addressed to Md. Nasir Ahmed; nasir.ahmedbd@hotmail.com

Received 21 September 2015; Revised 1 December 2015; Accepted 20 December 2015

Academic Editor: Johnson Stanslas

Caption: Figure 1: (a) Map of Bangladesh showing survey area with square shade: (b) Khulna district, (c) Jessore District, and (d) Narail District.
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by the folk medicine practitioners in
three districts of Bangladesh for prevention and management of
malignancy in cancer.

Serial   Botanic name                               Family name
number

1        Acanthus ilicifolius L.                    Acanthaceae
2        Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach.) Heine    Acanthaceae
3        Borassus flabellifer L.                    Arecaceae
4        Aristolochia indica L.                     Aristolochiaceae
5        Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex DC.         Asteraceae
6        Cannabis sativa L.                         Cannabaceae
7        Blumea lacera (Burm. f.) DC.               Compositae
8        Trichosanthes kirilowii (Maxim.) Kuntze    Cucurbitaceae
9        Cucurbita maxima Duchesne                  Cucurbitaceae
10       Dillenia indica L.                         Dilleniaceae
11       Dioscorea bulbifera L.                     Dioscoreaceae
12       Erythrina variegata L.                     Fabaceae
13       Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.                 Fabaceae
14       Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.               Malvaceae
15       Moringa oleifera Lam.                      Moringaceae
16       Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.                 Nymphaeaceae
17       Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre        Polygonaceae
18       Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack               Rutaceae
19       Veronica officinalis L.                    Scrophulariaceae
20       Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn.           Verbenaceae

Serial   Vernacular name   Part(s) utilized
number

1        Harjora           Leaf
2        Makhna            Leaf
3        Tal               Root, fruit
4        Ichamul           Leaf
5        Shadhi            Whole plant
6        Bhang             Leaf, root
7        Kukurshunga       Leaf
8        Lotaakal          Whole plant
9        Kumra             Leaf, stem, and fruit
10       Chalta            Leaf, fruit
11       Lota-bori         Root, fruit
12       Mandar gach       Leaf
13       Dhoinche          Leaf, bark, flower, and seed
14       Lota koshturi     Leaf, seed
15       Shajna            Leaf
16       Shapla            Tuber, root
17       Bishalo-pata      Leaf, seed
18       Kamini gach       Leaf
19       Chapta-pata       Whole plant
20       Jongli jui        Root

Table 2: List of cancer types [23].

Lung cancer         Breast cancer
Colorectal cancer   Liver cancer
Pancreatic cancer   Cancers of the female reproductive
                      tract (cervical cancer, endometrial
                      cancer, and ovarian cancer)
Prostate cancer     Urinary bladder cancer
Lymphoma            Leukemia
Skin cancer         Cancer of the central nervous system

Table 3: List of some plant-derived antineoplastic lead compounds
currently in use and currently in clinical trials [81, 82].

                        Source of           Specific mechanism of
                        plant               actions of the lead
                                            compounds

Antineoplastic lead compounds currently in use

    Vinblastine,        Catharanthus        Bind to the microtubulin
      Vincristine         roseus              site in the [beta]
                                              -subunit and disrupt
                                              the assembly of
                                              microtubules in
                                              mitosis [83]
    Taxol               Taxus brevifolia    Binds to the taxane site
                                              as a microtubule
                                              stabilizer and
                                              interfering with the
                                              normal breakdown of
                                              microtubules during
                                              cell division [84]
    Etoposide           Podophyllum         Binds to tubulin and
                          peltatum            interferes with the
                                              formation of spindles
                                              in mitosis [85]
    Camptothecin,       Camptotheca         Arrest the cell cycle at
      irinotecan,         acuminata           the S-phase by
      and topotecan                           inhibiting the activity
                                              of topoisomerase I,
                                              leading to the
                                              inhibition of DNA
                                              replication and
                                              transcription [86, 87]

Antineoplastic lead compounds currently in clinical trials

    Homoharringtonine   Harringtonia        Inhibits protein synthesis
                          cephalotaxus        and blocking cell-cycle
                                              progression [88],
                                              promotes apoptosis, and
                                              inhibits protein
                                              synthesis at the
                                              ribosomal level [89, 90]
    Curcumin            Curcuma longa       Induces apoptosis and
                                              inhibits the
                                              proliferation of a
                                              variety of malignant
                                              cells and is involved
                                              in the regulation of
                                              combined signaling
                                              pathways at multiple
                                              levels by acting on
                                              various targets
                                              including modulation
                                              of gene transcription
                                              factors (NFkB, p53,
                                              and AP-1), growth
                                              factors and their
                                              receptors (PDGF, EGF,
                                              and VEGF), cell
                                              surface adhesion
                                              molecules (E-cadherin,
                                              [beta]-cadenin), and
                                              protein kinases (CDKs,
                                              EGFR, PKC, and p38
                                              MAPK) [91, 92]
    Resveratrol         Vitis vinifera,     Inhibits the growth of
                          Morus alba,         cancer cells and
                          and Arachis         induces apoptosis by
                          hypogaea            acting at multiple
                                              cellular targets,
                                              including activation
                                              of p53, inhibiting 10
                                              otulins, 10 genases,
                                              and cytochrome P450
                                              enzymes, and
                                              activating
                                              AMP-activated kinase
                                              (AMPK) [93-95]
    Flavopiridol        Amoora rohituka     Exhibits apoptosis
                                              induction [96],
                                              inhibits the activity
                                              of cyclin-dependent
                                              kinases (CDKs) by
                                              competing with ATP at
                                              their nucleotide
                                              binding sites, and
                                              causes cell cycle
                                              arrest at either
                                              the G1 or
                                              G1/M phases [97]

Table 4: List of reported phytochemicals from Bangladeshi
antineoplastic plants used by folk medicine practitioners.

Serial   Plant source               Phytochemical constituents
number

1        Abelmoschus moschatus      Uridine (1-[(3R,4S,5R)-3,
                                      4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)
                                      oxolan-2-yl] pyrimidine-2,
                                      -4-dione), n-tridecane,
                                      isopentyl 2-methyl butanoate,
                                      and decanal
2        Acanthus ilicifolius       Flavonoids, glycosides, saponins,
                                      steroids, and tannins; lupeol,
                                      [alpha]-amyrin, olcanolic acid
                                      and ursolic acids; saponin and
                                      triterpenoid saponin; steroids
                                      (stigmasterol, campesterol, and
                                      sitosterol); alkaloids
                                      (acanthicifoline and
                                      benzoxazinium); and phenolics
                                      (acanfolioside, ilicifolioside,
                                      acteoside, verbascoside, and
                                      apigenin)
3        Aristolochia indica        Aristolochic acid, flavonoids,
                                      tannins, glycosides, phenol,
                                      and saponins
4        Blumea lacera              Thymoquinol dimethyl,
                                      [beta]-caryophyllene,
                                      a-humulene,
                                      and E-[beta]-farnesene;
                                      5-hydroxy-3,6,7,37,
                                      47-pentamethoxy flavone,
                                      5,3',4'-trihydroxy flavone
5        Borassus flabellifer       Dammarane triterpenoid;
                                      resorcinol, phenol, pentanoic
                                      acid, glycerin, 10-undecenyl
                                      ester, octadecanoic acid,
                                      and n-hexadecanoic acid
6        Cannabis sativa            Cannabinoids; [DELTA]9-THC,
                                      [DELTA]8-THC
7        Clerodendrum inerme        Neoclerodane diterpenoids
                                      (inermes A, B and 14,
                                      15-dihydro-15[beta]
                                      -methoxy-3-epicar
                                      yoptin), megastigmane
                                      glycosides, and iridoid
                                      glycoside
8        Cucurbita maxima           Carbohydrates, alkaloids,
                                      glycosides, tannins,
                                      flavonoids, and saponins
                                      steroids; L-asparaginase;
                                      glutamic acid, calcium,
                                      and resin; and
                                      [beta]-carotene,
                                      lycopene, and lutein
9        Dillenia indica            Dihydroisorhamnetin, dillenetin;
                                      tannin, betunaldehyde,
                                      betulinic acid, rhamnetin,
                                      dihydroisorhamnetin, lupeol,
                                      myricetin, naringenin,
                                      quercetin and kaempferol
                                      glucoside, and stigmasterol
10       Dioscorea bulbifera        Kaempferol-3, 5-dimethyl ether,
                                      caryatin, (L)-catechin,
                                      myricetin, quercetin-3-O-galac
                                      topyranoside, myricetin-3-O-gala
                                      ctopyranoside, myricetin
                                      -3-O-glucopyranoside, and
                                      diosbulbin B
11       Emilia sonchifolia         Beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol,
                                      palmitic acid, and honey acid
12       Erythrina variegata        Lectin, isoflavones, alkaloids,
                                      flavonoids, pterocarpans,
                                      triterpenes, steroids,
                                      alkyl transferulates, proteins,
                                      lecithin, 10,11-dioxoe
                                      rythratidine, and
                                      crystagallin A
13       Elygrophila auriculata     Flavonoids and polyphenols;
                                      apigenin 7-O-glucuronide
                                      alkaloids (asteracanthine
                                      and asteracanthicine);
                                      triterpenes (lupeol,
                                      hydrocarbon, hentriacontane,
                                      13 otulin, luteolin, and
                                      luteolin-7-O-rutinoside);
                                      aliphatic esters (25-oxo
                                      -hentriacontyl acetate,
                                      methyl 8-nhexyltetraco
                                      sanoate); and sterols
                                      (stigmasterol)
14       Moringa oleifera           Flavonoid pigments (kaempferol,
                                      rhamnetin, isoquercitrin,
                                      and kaempferitrin), glycoside
                                      compounds, glucosinolates,
                                      and isothiocyanates;
                                      beta-sitosterol, glycerol-l
                                      -(9-octadecanoate), S-O-lb'
                                      -O-oleoyl-beta-D-glucop
                                      yranosyl), beta-sitosterol,
                                      and beta-sitosterol-3-O
                                      -beta-D-glucopyranoside
15       Murraya paniculata         Coumarins (7-methoxy-8
                                      -(3-methyl-2- oxobutoxy)
                                      -2H-chromen-2-one,
                                      umbelliferone, and scopolin);
                                      indole alkaloids (murrayacarine
                                      and murrayaculatine)
16       Nymphaea nouchali          Protein, carbohydrate, reducing
                                      sugar, glycosides, phenol,
                                      tannin, flavones, saponin,
                                      steroid, alkaloid,
                                      anthraquinone, quinone,
                                      and lectin
17       Persicaria hydropiper      Apigenin-7-O-glucoside,
                                      catechin, epicatechin,
                                      hyperin, isoquercitrin,
                                      kaempferol, kaempferol
                                      rutinoside, quercitrin,
                                      persicarin, rhamnetin,
                                      polygonic acid, polygodial
                                      acetal
18       Sesbania sesban            Oleanolic acid,
                                      stigmastane-5.24(28)-diene
                                      -3[beta]-0-[beta]
                                      -D-galactopyranoside,
                                      galactomannan, phenols,
                                      flavonoids and anthocyanins,
                                      and saponin
19       Trichosanthes kirilowii    Cucurbitacin B, cucurbitacin D,
                                      4',6-dihydroxy-4
                                      -methoxyisoaurone
20       Veronica officinalis       Terpenes, esters, steroids
                                      (sterols and sterenes),
                                      p-hydroxyphenyl ethyl alcohol,
                                      maltol, and loliolide.
                                      [beta]-sitosterol;
                                      [alpha]-linolenic
                                      and linoleic acid; and iridoid
                                      glucoside

Serial   Plant source                Reference
number

1        Abelmoschus moschatus        [98,99]
2        Acanthus ilicifolius        [100-104]
3        Aristolochia indica          [38,105]
4        Blumea lacera                [46,106]
5        Borassus flabellifer         [43,107]
6        Cannabis sativa              [48,108]
7        Clerodendrum inerme         [109,110]
8        Cucurbita maxima           [53,111-113]
9        Dillenia indica             [114,115]
10       Dioscorea bulbifera           [116]
11       Emilia sonchifolia            [117]
12       Erythrina variegata        [65,118-120]
13       Elygrophila auriculata      [121-126]
14       Moringa oleifera            [127,128]
15       Murraya paniculata          [129-132]
16       Nymphaea nouchali           [133,134]
17       Persicaria hydropiper         [135]
18       Sesbania sesban             [136-138]
19       Trichosanthes kirilowii    [77,139,140]
20       Veronica officinalis        [141,142]

Figure 2: Percentage of plant parts used by the traditional
medicine practitioners in the prevention and management of cancer.

Whole plant,      9.40%
Stein,            3.10%
Other,            9.30%
Leaf,            40.60%
Root,            15.60%
Fruit,           12.50%
Seed,             9.40%
Bark,             3.10%
Tuber,            3.10%
Flower,           3.10%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Azam, Md. Nur Kabidul; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Biswas, Samanta; Ahmed, Md. Nasir
Publication:International Scholarly Research Notices
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:8730
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