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Application of principal analysis component and mobility of heavy metals in mine settling ponds nickel laterites, Konawe North, Southeast Sulawesi.

INTRODUCTION

Environmental geochemical studies include aspects of the chemical composition of the sediment layer deposition, chemical process cycles, the reaction changes the composition of rocks and soil, which is influenced by factors controller.

Settling ponds are land discharges the material reservoir and surface water flow caused by mining activities. Settling ponds very important role in the production of its main mining geochemical monitoring of the transport of heavy metals, the other reason that the transport properties of heavy metals impaired mobility mechanism which is influenced by the flow of ground water and surface water.

Systematics of the application of the open pit lateritic nickel deposit made on limonite or saprolite layer, causing impaired mobility in the compound or element geochemistry of laterites. Nickel laterite mining products will cause the correlation distribution of heavy metals and geochemical aspects of the environment in settling ponds. Heavy metals are elements with high molecular weight and generally toxic to plants and animals, including the human body (Notodarmojo, 2005). Heavy metal accumulation is an element or a compound formed from the nickel ore mining process may consist of the waste material rock and laterite soil. This waste material is undermined, resulting in dissolution of clay and silt size which subsequently undergo a process of erosion followed the water activity. Stream erosion as a medium-sized transport the waste material delivers a very smooth which is connected to the settling ponds. Study the distribution of metals Cr, Fe, Mn and Co performed on settling ponds (settling pond)-dimensional cube with a relatively flat contour in order to facilitate the flow of water in and out. Administratively, location research went Motui Regional District of North Konawe Sawa Southeast Sulawesi (Figure 1).

Methods:

Correlation parameters laterite heavy metals Cr, Fe, Mn, Co and laterisasi closely related to ultramafic rocks, it is easy for the assay data processing and properties of an element geochemistry. This of course requires a statistical determination of multicollinearity of independent variables, and factor analysis can be used to minimize multicollinearity with data processing techniques principal component analysis method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Mineralogy:

Petrographic:

The results of petrographic observations (IQ-B1, IQ-B2, B3-IQ, IQ-B4) shows the mineral content, as follows: olivine (20%-35%), pyroxene (5%-20%), Minerals opaque (5%), a mass basis (40%-70%), the name: peridotite (Figure 2).

Mineragraphy:

Results of analyzes on samples polished slice of fresh ultramafic rocks are known mineral hematite (Fe2O3), chromite (Fe2Cr2O4), Magnetite (Fe3O4) and serpentine (Mg6Si4OJ0 (OH)8) (Figure 3).

Distribution of Heavy Metal:

Settling ponds is container sourced accumulation of heavy metals in surface runoff and seepage wall. This will result in differences in the distribution of values in each settling ponds are made in series to follow the contour.

* Validation Data:

Test Data Ni, Fe, Co, Cr by the method of Bartlett's test of spericity known is 82.507, with 6 degrees of freedom, and p = value (sig) of 0.000. then there is a correlation metals Ni, Fe, Co and Cr and ultramafic rocks and settling ponds.

* Mobility in Laterisasi:

Analysis of the transformation matrix components in the sample laterisasi ultramafic rocks as follows: Ni (0.596), Fe (0.568), Co (0.879) and Cr (0.963). This value indicates the location of the Ni has a different axis (component 1) compared to Fe, Co and Cr component 2 lies in the similarities and differences of these metals are interpreted relatively slow mobility of Ni in ultramafic rocks laterisasi than Fe, Co, Cr relatively faster (Figure 4) . Transformation matrix component analysis performed on sediment samples laterite shows the value of mobility following elements: Ni (0.769), Fe (0.843), Co (0.841) and Cr (1.0). This value indicates that Ni, Fe, Co and Cr situated on the same axis and away from each other. This condition indicates that the mobility that occurs in laterite sediments influenced by surface water and ground water (Figure 5).

* Mobility in Swimming Precipitation:

The phenomenon of Fe and Cr chart pattern became stronger relative constant, as a common element of mobility and transport mechanisms that can form chemical compounds. This process occurs in phases interpreted clay mineral deposits found so that the composition Fe as Fe [(OH).sub.3] and ferrochrome (Fe[Cr.sub.2][O.sub.3]). While Ni and Co have the same graphic pattern is relatively flat as a common trait constant mobility of heavy metals in the settling ponds (Figures 6 and 7).

Ni communality value (0.109), Fe (0.944), Cr (0.920) and Co (918), indicates that the change of Ni laterisasi ultramafic rocks and settling ponds (settling pond) is relatively weak compared to Fe, Co, Cr relatively strong. Eigen values Ni (2.892) and the loading factor (72.289%) was interpreted as a strong influential metal is affected by the wall settling ponds (Appendix map).

Conclusion:

Ni mobility is relatively slow compared to Fe, Co, Cr on laterisasi rock peridotite. Communality values, eigen values and factor mobility properties indicate that the concentrations of Fe, Cr influenced by surface water and ground water form a ferrochrome which occurred earlier than Ni, Co in settling ponds. Metal concentrations are also influenced by the wall that leads to accumulation of settling ponds there are formed locally.

APPENDIX

ANNEX MAP

REFERENCES

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[2] Brookins, DG., 1988. Eh-pH Diagrams for Geochemistry, Springer, New York, pp: 176.

[3] Dube, A., T. Zbytniewski, KC. Buszewski, 2001. Adsorption and Migration of Heavy Metals in Soil, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10(1).

[4] Notodarmojo, S., 2005. Pencemaran Tanah dan Air Tanah, Penerbit ITB

[5] Sarkar, D., R. Datta, R. Hannigan, 2007. Developments in Environemntal Science, V.5, Hannigan Robyn, 2007, Chapter 1:What goes comes around: Today's environmental geochemistry, Published by Elsevier Ltd, ISSN:1474-8177 DOI:10.1016.S1474-8177(07)05001-2.

[6] Simandjuntak, TO., Surono, Sukido, 1993. Peta Geologi Lembar Kolaka, Sulawesi, Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi, Bandung.

[7] Smith, KS., 2007. Strategis to Predict Metal Mobility in Surface mining Environments, The Geological Society of America Review Engineering geology.v.XVII.

[8] Vivo, DB., HE. Belkin, Lima, 2008. Environmental Geochemistry, Site Characterization Data Analysis and case Histories.

Adi Tonggiroh

Geochemistry LBE, Geology Engineering Hasanuddin University

Corresponding Author: Adi Tonggiroh, Geochemistry LBE, Geology Engineering Hasanuddin University

E-mail: adi_tonggiroh@yahoo.co.id
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Author:Tonggiroh, Adi
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Nov 1, 2014
Words:1059
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