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Application of Bradford's law of Scattering to the Literature of Microbiology in India.

1. Introduction

The subject Microbiology is the field of biological science that studies the microscopic organisms, for example, bacteria, viruses, archaea, prions, algae, fungi, and protozoa. These microorganisms are together known as 'microbes' (Microbiology, n.d.). The microbes are responsible for biodegradation/bio deterioration, nutrient cycling, food spoilage, climate change, the origin and resistor of disease, and biotechnology (Microbiology Society, n.d.). Microbiology research has always been predominant area of research in India, because it is vital to consulting several contemporary global objectives and challenges, such as upholding the safety of food, water, and energy for a healthy population on the inhabitable earth (Lal, 2012).

As a subject microbiology is growing due to the vast research enduring in various facades in the world (Gillen and Oliver, 2012). Following to this, there is a radical growth of research output through numerous formats such as journal articles, conference papers, books, research reports and so on. Every arena of research has limited journals (core journals) where researchers desire to publish their research paper. Bibliometric techniques are useful in determining various scientific indicators, assessment of scientific productivity, procuring of journals to the libraries and projecting the latent of a field (Kattimani, 2012). In this paper, an effort is made to disclose the research tendencies in Microbiology and to recognize the core journals in the subject by applying the Bradford's Law of Scattering.

2. Objectives

The objectives of the present study are to:

* prepare the rank list of most productive journals in Microbiology research publications

* examine the relative growth rate and doubling time

* estimate the future growth

* identify the core journals by applying the Bradford's Law

3. Methodology

Required data for the study has been gathered from Web of Science database. The database has been searched with the keyword as 'Microbiology' in the 'Title' for the period 2002-2016 and 25,744 articles published in 328 journals with bibliographic details were downloaded for analysis.

4. Results

4.1 Growth of articles

Table 1 shows the year-wise distribution of articles. It is perceived from Table 1 that the highest number of 2,602 (10.11%) articles are published in the year 2016, followed by 2,567 (9.97%) in 2014 and 2,520 (9.79%) in 2015. Though the number of papers published each year is not steady but excluding for the few years the research output in Microbiology is dependably increasing.

4.2 Relative Growth Rate and Doubling Time

The RGR is the increase in number of articles/pages/reports/patents per unit of time. This definition is taken from study of growth analysis of individual plants and successfully applied in the field of Botany (Hunt, 1978) which in turn had its origin form the study of the rate of interest in the financial investments by Blackman (1919). The mean Relative Growth Rate (R) can be calculated form the following equation.

1 - [2.sup.R]=([Log.sub.e][W.sub.2]--[Log.sub.e][W.sub.1])/(T2 - T1)

where,

1 - 2R = Mean relative growth rate over the specific period of interval

LogeW1 = log of initial number of articles

LogeW2 = log of final number of articles after a specific period of interval

T2 - T1 = Unit difference between the initial time and the final time

[aa.sup.-1] = average number of articles

The RGR for articles is hereby calculated as below.

1 - 2R (aa--1 year--1) can represent the mean RGR per unit of articles per unit of year over a specific period of interval.

2002= [Log.sub.e](1326)- [Log.sub.e] (650)/2003-2002 = 7.19-6.48/1 = 0.71/1

2003 = 0.71

2003 [Log.sub.e](2025)- [Log.sub.e] (1326)/2004-2003 = 7.61-7.19/1 = 0.42/1

2004 = 0.42

Likewise, the relative growth rate for other years is also calculated (Table 2). The mean relative growth rate is 0.24.

Doubling Time (DT)

There is a correspondence between the RGR and the DT. If the total number of research articles of a scientific field twofold during the study period, then the difference between the log numbers at the beginning year and end of the study period must be log number 2. Here, if we use natural logarithm the changed value is 0.693. Thus, the doubling time can be calculated by using the formula:

Doubling time (DT) = 0.693/R

Therefore,

Doubling time for articles:

Dt (a) = 0.693/1 - 2R(aa--1 year--1)

2003= 0.693/0.71 = 0.98

2004 = 0.693/0.42 = 1.65

In the same way, doubling time for other years is also calculated. The mean doubling time is 3.23.

4.3 Time series analysis

A time series is a series of data points listed or graphed in time order. The time series is a sequence taken at consecutive equally spread out points in time. Therefore, it is a sequence of discrete-time data. Time series analysis comprises methods for analyzing time series data to extract meaningful statistics and other characteristics of the data. Time series forecasting is the use of a model to predict future values based on previously observed values. In this study time series analysis is applied to forecast the growth of Microbiology literature in India.

To arrive at assessments for future growth, Straight line equation is applied under the Time series analysis.

Straight line equation is Yc= a+ bx, since [summation]x = 0

a = [summation]Y/N = 45834/ 15 = 3055.6 b= XXY/[summation]x2 = 45834/280= 163.69

Estimated literature in 2025 is, when X = 2025-2008 = 17

= 3055.6+163.69*17 = 5,838.33

From the above results, it is found that there is an increasing trend of research literature in the future years. Therefore, the corollary of the study is Microbiology research literature is growing in India.

4.4 Top Ranked Journals

The ranked list of journals chosen by the authors during the period 2002-2016 is shown in Table 4. The journals are arranged in descending order of article count. The journal with highest number of articles ranked number one and series continued so on. The criteria used for ranking is quantitative. The 25,744 articles are scattered over 328 journals. Bio-resource Technology Journal has emerged as the most preferred journal among the researchers of Microbiology with 1,610 (6.25%) articles followed by Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology with 1,019 (3.95%) articles and World journal of Microbiology Biotechnology with 746 (2.89%) articles.

The top ranked journals list indicates that among the top 30 journals 13 journals are from USA and 8 journals from England sharing first and second place respectively. India shares 3 journals among the top 30 journals.

4.5 Bradford's Law of Scattering

Bradford's Law of Scattering is a bibliometric law formulated by Samuel Clement Bradford and coined by BC Vickery. Samuel Clement Bradford, a chemist and chief librarian at the Landon Science Museum, has made a statistical analysis of two geophysics bibliographies, the Current Bibliography of Applied Geophysics (1992-1931) and the Quarterly Bibliography of Lubrication (1931-1933). Bradford Law of scattering is used as a tool to study the output of journals. Bradford's Law of Scattering states the quantitative connection between journals in this law the journals are arranged in descending order of productivity and divided into equal zones. Where the number of periodicals is distributed in the nucleus and succeeding zones, these zones will be 1: n: n2, where n is a multiplier (Bradford, 1948). Hence, considering this expression into the present study, the total 25,744 articles are divided into three groups as presented in Table 6.

It is clear from Table 6 that the first zone (core journals) contained 13 journals with 8,418 (32.70%) articles. The second zone (allied journals) contained 41 journals with 8,741 (33.95%) articles. The third zone (alien journals) contained 274 journals with 8585 (33.35%) articles. The summary of division of zones is as below.

The Bradford's algebraic interpretation of the law is 1: n: n2 The connection of each zone in this study is 13:41:274. Here, 13 is the number of journals in the nucleus zone and mean Bradford's multiplier is the 4.91.

Hence,

13: 13*4.91: 13*(4.91) (2)

13: 63.83: 313.4053 > 390.2353

Percentage of Error = 390.2353-328/328 x 100 = 18.97%

The Percentage of error is high (18.97%) and therefore Bradford's law does not fit to the above data.

4.6 Application of Leimkuhler model

In this study both Bradford's law as well as Leimkuhler models are tested to verify the scattering of literature on Microbiology (Leimkuhler, 1967). Leimkuhler developed a model based on Bradford's verbal formulation as shown below:

R(r)= a log (1+br)

Where, r = 1,2,3....

Egghe explained the Leimkhuler model as (Egghe, 1990):

a = [Y.sub.0] / log k

b = k - 1/[r.sub.0]

here [r.sub.0]--is the number of sources in the first Bradford group

[Y.sub.0]--the number of items in every Bradford group (all these group of items being of equal sizes), and

k--the Bradford multiplier

R(r) is the cumulative number of items produced by the sources of rank 1,2,3.... r a and b are constants appearing in the law of Leimkuhler (Leimkuhler, 1980). Egghe (1990) has shown the mathematical formula for calculating the Bradford Multiplier k as

k= [([e.sup.y] [y.sub.m]).sup.l/p

Where y is Euler's number ([e.sup.y=1.781])

e = 2.718 (constant)

p = 3

If the sources are ranked in decreasing order of productivity, then [y.sub.m] is the number of items in the most productivity sources.

[r.sub.o] = number of journals in Bradford's first zone

T = Total number of journals in Bradford zone

k = [(1.781*Ym).sup.1/p] = [(1.781*1610).sup.1/3] = 14.17

Yo = A/P = 25744/3 = 8581.33

[r.sub.o] =T (k-1)/([k.sup.p]-1) = 3 28 (14.17-1)/ ([14.17.sup.3]-1)

= 1.52

[r.sub.1]= [r.sub.0]*k = 1.52*14.17 = 21.53

[r.sub.2] = [r.sub.0]*[k.sup.2] = 1.52*(14.17) (2)= 305.19

a = Yo/logk = 8581.33/log 14.17 = 7453.21

b = k-1/[r.sub.o] = 14.17-1/1.52 = 8.66

The findings are shown in Table 7

From Table 7, the number of journals in the nucleus is found to be 1.52 and k=12.31

Hence, 1.52: 1.52*14.17: 1.52*[(14.17).sup.2]

1.52: 21.53: 305.19> 328.24

Percentage of error = 328.24-328/328 X100 = 0.073%

Hence, it can be noted from the above calculations that the percentage of error is very negligible and Bradford's law of scattering fits very well in the present data set for Bradford multiplier k=14.17. It can also be noted from table 7 that the three zones are not exactly the 1/3rd of total citations.

4.7 Graphical Formulation

The graphical approach was developed by Brookes, which tries to verify the Verbal formulation of Bradford's Law (Brookes, 1969). The figure 1 presents the logarithmic plot of the cumulative number of journals on the horizontal (x) axis and the cumulative number of articles on the vertical (y) axis. If the distribution confirms Bradford's law it will display three characters

(i) a rapid rise at the beginning

(ii) a strong linear relation between two variables and

(iii) a 'droop' at the tail end indicating incompleteness of the bibliography.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Figure 1 shows Bradford's curve with a Groos droop, where the journals are plotted against their productivity. It can be clearly estimated from the graph that less number of journals are cited highly and the maximum number of journals remained uncited.

Conclusion

Bradford's law of scattering is a bibliometric law which helps to select the core journals in a research field. The present study attempted to apply Bradford's law of scattering to the Microbiology literature in India for the period from 2002 to 2016. Web of Science core collection retrieved 25,744 articles distributed in 328 journals. The Journal distribution pattern of Microbiology literature does not fit Bradford's distribution i.e. 1: n: [n.sup.2]. Bradford's law of scattering states that articles in each zone should be equal which does not witness in the present study. The percentage of deviation and percentage of error are also high. Further, Leimkuhler model is applied to verify Bradford's law. It is found that percentage of error found to be negligible (0.073%) and therefore law finds valid to the data set. Graphical formulation of law is drawn and it proved all the three characteristics.

This study shall be helpful to the libraries to procure the accurate and best literature in the form of books and journals in the given research area. The study will also be useful to the researchers who are working in the field of microbiology.

References

(1.) Blackman, V. H. (1919). The Compound interest law and plant growth. Annals of Botany, 33, 353-360.

(2.) Bradford, S. C. (1948). Documentation. London: Crosby Lockwood and Sons.

(3.) Brookes, Bertram C. (1969). Bradford's law and Bibliography of Science. Nature, 224(5223), 953-956.

[1.] Egghe, Leo. (1990). Application of the theory of Bradford's law to the calculation of Leimukhler's law and to completion of bibliographies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 41(7),469-192.

[2.] Gillen, A., & Oliver, D. (2012). Antony van Leeuwenhoek Creation "Magnified" Through His Magnificent Microscopes. Retrieved from https://answersingenesis.org/creationscientists profiles/antony-vanleeuwenhoeks-microscopescreation-magnified.

[3.] Hunt, R. (1978). Plant Growth Analysis: London: Edward Arnold.

[4.] Kattimani, P. S. (2012). Indian contributions in the field of emotional intelligence (1999-2003): A Scientometrics study. International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, 2(3), 196-200.

[5.] Lal, Rup. (2012). State of Microbiology in India. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 52(2), 113-113.

[6.] Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F. (1967). The Bradford distribution. Journal of Documentation, 23(3), 197-207.

[7.] Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F. (1980). An exact formulation of Bradford's law. Journal of Documentation, 25(1), 278-292.

[8.] Microbiology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2016, from http://www.nature.com/subjects/microbiology

Miss. Gouri N. Gourikeremath

Research Scholar

Department of Studies in Library and Information Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State, INDIA

E-mail: nggouri@gmail.com

Mr. Rudramuni Hiremath

Research Scholar

Department of Studies in Library and Information Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State, INDIA

E-mail: rudramunihiremath246@gmail.com

Dr. B. D. Kumbar

Professor

Department of Studies in Library and Information Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State, INDIA

Dr. Gururaj S. Hadagali

Assistant Professor

Department of Studies in Library and Information Science, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka State, INDIA

Caption: Figure 1. Bradford plot for Journals Distribution
Table 1-Year-wise Distribution of articles

Year    Papers   Percentage of 25,744

2002     676             2.63
2003     699             2.72
2004     726             2.82
2005     898             3.49
2006    1,062            4.13
2007    1,246            4.84
2008    1,791            6.96
2009    1,890            7.34
2010    1,983            7.70
2011    2,350            9.13
2012    2,337            9.08
2013    2,397            9.31
2014    2,567            9.97
2015    2,520            9.79
2016    2,602           10.11
Total   25,744           100

Table 2 Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Doubling Time (DT) of
publication

                 Cumulative   [Log.sub.e]   [Log.sub.e]
Year    Papers     total       [W.sub.1]     [W.sub.2]     RGR

2002     676        676           --           6.52         --
2003     699        1375         6.52          7.23        0.71
2004     726        2101         7.23          7.65        0.42
2005     898        2999         7.65          8.01        0.36
2006    1,062       4061         8.01          8.31        0.3
2007    1,246       5307         8.31          8.58        0.27
2008    1,791       7098         8.58          8.87        0.29
2009    1,890       8988         8.87          9.10        0.23
2010    1,983      10971         9.10          9.30        0.2
2011    2,350      13321         9.30          9.50        0.2
2012    2,337      15658         9.50          9.66        0.16
2013    2,397      18055         9.66          9.80        0.14
2014    2,567      20622         9.80          9.93        0.13
2015    2,520      23142         9.93          10.05       0.12
2016    2,602      25744         10.05         10.16       0.11
Total   25,744                                             Mean
                                                          (0.24)

Year      DT     X    [X.sup.2]    XY

2002      --     -7      49       -4732
2003     0.98    -6      36       -4194
2004     1.65    -5      25       -3630
2005     1.93    -4      16       -3592
2006     2.31    -3       9       -3186
2007     2.57    -2       4       -2492
2008     2.39    -1       1       -1791
2009     3.01    0        0         0
2010     3.46    1        1       1983
2011     3.47    2        4       4700
2012     4.33    3        9       7011
2013     4.95    4       16       9588
2014     5.33    5       25       12835
2015     5.77    6       36       15120
2016     6.30    7       49       18214
Total    Mean            280      45834
        (3.23)

Table 3 Time series analysis of Microbiology Research

S. No.   Year   Papers(Y)   X    [chi square]    XY

1        2002      676      -7        49        -4732
2        2003      699      -6        36        -4194
3        2004      726      -5        25        -3630
4        2005      898      -4        16        -3592
5        2006     1,062     -3        9         -3186
6        2007     1,246     -2        4         -2492
7        2008     1,791     -1        1         -1791

8        2009     1,890     0         0           0
9        2010     1,983     1         1         1983
10       2011     2,350     2         4         4700
11       2012     2,337     3         9         7011
12       2013     2,397     4         16        9588
13       2014     2,567     5         25        12835
14       2015     2,520     6         36        15120
15       2016     2,602     7         49        18214
                 25,744              280        45834

Table. 4. Top Ranked Journals

Sl.no      Journal         Country       Publisher     Articles  Rank

1        Bio-resource      England     Elsevier SCI    1,610      1
          Technology                        Ltd

2          Applied           USA       Humana Press    1,019      2
         Biochemistry                      Inc.
             and
        Biotechnology

3       World journal        USA         Springer      746        3
              of
         Microbiology
        Biotechnology

4         Journal of        India      Dr. M N Khan    677        4
           Pure and
           Applied
         Microbiology

5          Research         India        Research      620        5
          Journal of                    Journal of
        Biotechnology                  Biotechnology

6           Indian          India        National      609        6
          Journal of                   Institute of
        Biotechnology                     Science
                                      Communication-
                                          NISCAIR

7          African         Nigeria       Academic      531        7
          Journal of                     Journals
        Biotechnology

8           Biomed           USA          Hindawi      503        8
           Research                     Publishing
        International                   Corporation

9          Process         England       Elsevier      471        9
         Biochemistry                   Science Ltd

10          Indian           USA         Springer      467        10
          Journal of
         Microbiology

11        3 Biotech          USA         Springer      405        11
12      International      England      Society for    388        12
          Journal of                      General
          Systematic                   Microbiology
             and
         Evolutionary
         Microbiology

13        Plant Cell     Netherlands     Springer      372        13
          Tissue and
        Organ Culture

14         Applied           USA         Springer      356        14
         Microbiology
             and
        Biotechnology

15         Current           USA         Springer      331        15
         Microbiology

16        Biosensors       England       Elsevier      306        16
        Bioelectronics                   Advanced
                                        Technology

17        Journal of         USA      Wiley-Blackwell  305        17
            Basic
         Microbiology

18        Journal of       England      Society for    288        18
           Medical                        General
         Microbiology                  Microbiology

19        Journal of         USA      Wiley-Blackwell  287        19
           Chemical
          Technology
             and
        Biotechnology

20        Journal of         USA         American      275        20
           Clinical                     Society for
         Microbiology                  Microbiology

21        Annals of          USA         Springer      275        20
         Microbiology

22      Antimicrobial        USA         American      271        21
          Agents and                    Society for
         Chemotherapy                  Microbiology

23      Biotechnology    Netherlands     Springer      258        22
           Letters

24       Biochemical     Netherland      Elsevier      252        23
         Engineering                      science
           journal

25        Journal of     Netherland      Elsevier      244        24
        Biotechnology                     science

26         Biomass         England       Pergamon-     244        24
          Bioenergy                      Elsevier
                                        Science Ltd

27        Journal of         USA      Wiley-Blackwell  238        25
           Applied
         Microbiology

28       Frontiers in    Switzerland  Frontiers Media  238        25
         Microbiology

29       BMC Genomics      England    Biomed Central   233        26
                                            Ltd

30      International      England       Elsevier      232        27
       Biodeterioration                   Science
        Biodegradation

Table 5: Distribution of journals

Rank    No. of    Cumulative     Log of
       journals     no. of     Cumulative
                   journals      no. of
                                Journals

1         1           1           0.00
2         1           2           0.69
3         1           3           1.10
4         1           4           1.39
5         1           5           1.61
6         1           6           1.79
7         1           7           1.95
8         1           8           2.08
9         1           9           2.20
10        1           10          2.30
11        1           11          2.40
12        1           12          2.49
13        1           13          2.57
14        1           14          2.64
15        1           15          2.71
16        1           16          2.77
17        1           17          2.83
18        1           18          2.89
19        1           19          2.94
20        2           21          3.04
21        1           22          3.09
22        1           23          3.14
23        1           24          3.18
24        2           26          3.26
25        2           28          3.33
26        1           29          3.37
27        1           30          3.40
28        1           31          3.43
29        1           32          3.47
30        1           33          3.50
31        1           34          3.53
32        1           35          3.56
33        1           36          3.58
34        1           37          3.61
35        1           38          3.64
36        1           39          3.66
37        1           40          3.69
38        1           41          3.71
39        1           42          3.74
40        1           43          3.76
41        1           44          3.78
42        1           45          3.81
43        1           46          3.83
44        1           47          3.85
45        1           48          3.87
46        1           49          3.89
47        1           50          3.91
48        2           52          3.95
49        2           54          3.99
50        1           55          4.01
51        1           56          4.03
52        2           58          4.06
53        1           59          4.08
54        1           60          4.09
55        1           61          4.11
56        2           63          4.14
57        1           64          4.16
58        1           65          4.17
59        2           67          4.21
60        1           68          4.22
61        2           70          4.25
62        2           72          4.28
63        1           73          4.29
64        1           74          4.30
65        1           75          4.32
66        1           76          4.33
67        1           77          4.34
68        1           78          4.36
69        1           79          4.37
70        1           80          4.38
71        1           81          4.39
72        1           82          4.41
73        2           84          4.43
74        2           86          4.45
75        2           88          4.48
76        4           92          4.52
77        2           94          4.54
78        1           95          4.55
79        1           96          4.56
80        2           98          4.59
81        3          101          4.62
82        4          105          4.65
83        1          106          4.66
84        5          111          4.71
85        2          113          4.73
86        2          115          4.75
87        2          117          4.76
88        3          120          4.79
89        2          122          4.80
90        2          124          4.82
91        2          126          4.84
92        3          129          4.86
93        2          131          4.88
94        2          133          4.89
95        2          135          4.91
96        1          136          4.91
97        2          138          4.93
98        3          141          4.95
99        2          143          4.96
100       3          146          4.98
101       1          147          4.99
102       2          149          5.00
103       5          154          5.04
104       2          156          5.05
105       1          157          5.06
106       3          160          5.08
107       2          162          5.09
108       2          164          5.10
109       5          169          5.13
110       1          170          5.14
111       5          175          5.17
112       5          180          5.19
113       3          183          5.21
114       2          185          5.22
115       2          187          5.23
116       2          189          5.24
117       5          194          5.27
118       7          201          5.30
119       6          207          5.33
120       5          212          5.36
121       4          216          5.38
122       3          219          5.39
123       7          226          5.42
124       4          230          5.44
125       2          232          5.45
126       7          239          5.48
127       9          248          5.51
128       2          250          5.52
129       8          258          5.55
130       8          266          5.58
131       11         277          5.62
132       10         287          5.66
133       41         328          5.79

Rank    No. of     Total No. of   Cumulative
       citations    citations       No. of
                                  Citations

1        1610          1610          1610
2        1019          1019          2629
3         746          746           3375
4         677          677           4052
5         620          620           4672
6         609          609           5281
7         531          531           5812
8         503          503           6315
9         471          471           6786
10        467          467           7253
11        405          405           7658
12        388          388           8046
13        372          372           8418
14        356          356           8774
15        331          331           9105
16        306          306           9411
17        305          305           9716
18        288          288          10004
19        287          287          10291
20        275          550          10841
21        271          271          11112
22        258          258          11370
23        252          252          11622
24        244          488          12110
25        238          476          12586
26        233          233          12819
27        232          232          13051
28        210          210          13261
29        208          208          13469
30        207          207          13676
31        198          198          13874
32        197          197          14071
33        191          191          14262
34        190          190          14452
35        188          188          14640
36        186          186          14826
37        184          184          15010
38        180          180          15190
39        177          177          15367
40        166          166          15533
41        165          165          15698
42        158          158          15856
43        156          156          16012
44        151          151          16163
45        149          149          16312
46        143          143          16455
47        142          142          16597
48        141          282          16879
49        140          280          17159
50        131          131          17290
51        130          130          17420
52        126          252          17672
53        122          122          17794
54        121          121          17915
55        119          119          18034
56        112          224          18258
57        110          110          18368
58        109          109          18477
59        108          216          18693
60        107          107          18800
61        104          208          19008
62        103          206          19214
63        102          102          19316
64        101          101          19417
65        100          100          19517
66        99            99          19616
67        95            95          19711
68        94            94          19805
69        91            91          19896
70        88            88          19984
71        84            84          20068
72        81            81          20149
73        80           160          20309
74        79           158          20467
75        78           156          20623
76        72           288          20911
77        71           142          21053
78        68            68          21121
79        67            67          21188
80        66           132          21320
81        65           195          21515
82        62           248          21763
83        61            61          21824
84        60           300          22124
85        59           118          22242
86        57           114          22356
87        56           112          22468
88        55           165          22633
89        54           108          22741
90        51           102          22843
91        50           100          22943
92        45           135          23078
93        44            88          23166
94        43            86          23252
95        42            84          23336
96        41            41          23377
97        39            78          23455
98        38           114          23569
99        37            74          23643
100       36           108          23751
101       35            35          23786
102       34            68          23854
103       33           165          24019
104       32            64          24083
105       31            31          24114
106       29            87          24201
107       28            56          24257
108       27            54          24311
109       26           130          24441
110       24            24          24465
111       23           115          24580
112       22           110          24690
113       21            63          24753
114       20            40          24793
115       19            38          24831
116       18            36          24867
117       17            85          24952
118       16           112          25064
119       15            90          25154
120       14            70          25224
121       13            52          25276
122       12            36          25312
123       11            77          25389
124       10            40          25429
125        9            18          25447
126        8            56          25503
127        7            63          25566
128        6            12          25578
129        5            40          25618
130        4            32          25650
131        3            33          25683
132        2            20          25703
133        1            41          25744

Table. 6 Scatter of Journals and Citations over Bradford's zone

Zone      No. of        % of        No. of        % of       Bradford
         Journals     Journals    citations    citations    Multiplier

1           13          3.96         8418        32.70          --
2           41         12.50         8741        33.95         3.15
3          274         83.54         8585        33.35         6.68
Total      328          100         25744        100.00        4.91

Table. 7. Bradford's zone of scattering

Zone      No. of        % of        No. of        % of
         Journals     Journals    citations    citations

1          1.52         0.46         2629        10.21
2         52.48        16.00        14530        56.44
3          274         83.54         8585        33.35
Total      328          100         25744         100
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Author:Gourikeremath, Gouri N.; Hiremath, Rudramuni; Kumbar, B.D.; Hadagali, Gururaj S.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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