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Application of Bradford's Law of Scattering to the Discipline of Law: Analysis of Doctoral Theses Citations Submitted by Universities in India.

1. INTRODUCTION

Revolution in information and communication technology has resulted in changing the landscape of legal literature, emerging new fields of law, reporting channels, media and finding tools and search aids. This leads to an ever growing increase in the corpus of the legal literature. Law journals are inevitable in legal literature. Jurists, law professionals, Legal research scholar mostly use the law reports because it contains judicial opinions that are legally binding under the rule of stare devises. Articles in legal journals also form a source of reference to legal practitioner, students, and to judges and may provide information on subjects which are too new or too specialized. Articles will be a continuous source of reference over a longer period than other materials. Articles in legal journals have also been accepted by judges on several occasions because of their accuracy. In the fields of law there are a good number of journals published by commercial organizations, academic and professional bodies.

Generally legal journals are categorized as:

1. Academic journals : which will covers articles only

2. Law Reports: which will cover only the full text of case laws

3. Hybrid: This cover both articles and case laws. Some among them also cover statutory materials such as acts, amendments, rules, etc

4. Legislative materials: This includes acts, rules, notifications etc.

The 21st century moved forward, the difficulty of providing access to all of the intellectual materials necessary to sustain a vibrant law library become increasingly clear. The scope of legal publishing exploded and law libraries were expected to keep carried with all contemporary development within a limited funds. In this circumstance, bibliometric approaches that examine the citations found in dissertations and journal articles will help the librarian to identify the core journals, to understand the information use pattern of researcher, and to determine the information behavior of researchers. Hence this study focuses on identifying the core law journals by applying the Bradford's law of scattering in the disciplines of Law.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

There are various aspects of literature available for Bradford's law analysis of scattering. Since its proclamation the law analyzed, retested, redefined, interpreted, compared, proposed and contributed various models for scattering. It created corpus of literature. There are two approaches; verbal and graphical have been recognized in analyzing the law. Some of the notable analyses of verbal formulation of the law are propound by Leimkuhler, Goffman and Warren. The graphical representation of the law is analyzed by Kendall, Cole and Brooks. There are enormous literatures available on application of Bradford's law of scattering. Noteworthy studies are by Sengupta who prepared rank list of journals in the fields of medicine, biochemistry, physiology, microbiology, pharmacology, Maheswarapa and Prakash (1982) tested Bradford's law on botanical literature. ArjunLal and Panda tested the applicability of two approaches of Bradford's law of scattering on the data collected from 20 doctoral theses submitted to the Regendra Agricultural University, Bihar in the subject of plant pathology during 1980-1993. Pillai (2007) studied Bradford's Law on 11412 citations appeared in 71 doctoral theses awarded by Indian Institute of Science during 1999-2003. Dhanamjaya, Talawar. Mulla and Chowdappa (2011) analyzed 17151 citations in 137 doctoral theses in engineering and technology awarded in universities of Karnataka during 1961 to 2008. Joginder Singh Burman, Sheela (2011) prepared rank list of journals by analyzing 3052 citations from 33 dissertations available in Campus Law Centre Library, University of Delhi.

The above studies confirm the applicability of Bradford's law of scattering in different disciplines. This study tries to fill up the gap in literature in analyzing Bradford's law of scattering in the discipline of law.

3. OBJECTIVES

This study mainly aims to examine the appropriateness of Bradford's law of scattering in law journals available in the Ph.D dissertations. The objectives of the study are,

1. To analyze the core journals referenced in the Ph.D. dissertations by Indian researchers;

2. To rank the cited journal and to check appropriateness of Bradford's Law of Scattering;

3. To study the phenomenon of scattering for citation data;

4. To study the chronological distribution of citations;

5. To find out most cited law journals in India.

4. SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The research was carried out on data available at Shodhganga database retrieved by the keywords law and legal studies. This study is limited to the doctoral theses submitted during the year 2010-2015 to Shodhganga database. It includes citation of journals referred in the doctoral theses and excludes other forms of citations such as books, newspaper, magazines etc. It also excludes chapter citations and case law citations appended in the Ph. D dissertations.

5. METHODOLOGY

The present study is confined to the analysis of citations referred in the Ph.D theses accepted in the field of Law and Legal Studies for the award of doctoral degree by various Universities in India available in the public domain of Shodhganga database. The keywords law and legal studies were used to retrieve the relevant reference list of doctoral theses.

Source of data for this study is imported as Portable Document Format (PDF) file from the database of Shodhganga. Totally 281 doctoral theses were imported. 29 theses were excluded from the study due to technical problem occurred during downloading the data and language of theses. 18613 citations collected from 252 theses were converted from pdf to MS Excel file format for analyzing the data. Out of 18613 citations 3187 citations were journal articles and the remaining 15426 citations were removed from the database. Each record was checked for consistency, redundancy. Totally 914 journal titles were derived from 252 theses. The journal titles rendered in citations was checked for accuracy and completeness. It is observed that most of the researchers used abbreviation in rendering the journal titles and it is also observed that there is frequent change in titles of Law journals.

Blue book of abbreviation of legal journals and OCLC World Cat were utilized to check the uniformity in rendering of journal title, and to obtain first level of bibliography and subject coverage of the journals. 141 titles of the journals were eliminated from the study due to inaccurate and incomplete titles of the journals.

Generally, a legal research involves the analysis and / or interpretation of various Codes, Acts, Rules etc, and their implementation in the society. These constitute legal sources of research study which have a primary authority of law. However, there are certain legal sources which have a secondary authority of law. They include journals, reports, treaties, encyclopedia, dictionaries, commentaries and press release etc.

6. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

The table 1 depicts the chronological distribution of Ph.D awarded by Indian Universities. It is observed that the number of Ph.D awarded is highest during the period 2005-2015.

Table 2 displays the bibliographical form of documents found in the citation. It is evident that Books (8813) are the most preferred medium of all the forms followed by Journals (3187), Online sources (2491) and reports (1113).

The values enumerated in the table 3 describe about the theses submitted by the Universities in the subject of Law and Legal Studies to the Shodhganga database. Aligarh Muslim University, University of Burden and University of Mysore contribute 45, 42 and 39 theses respectively to the Shodhganga.

Descriptive statistics such as citation counts, percentile was used to analysis the subject area of citing documents, rant list of journals. Verbal and graphical formulations of Bradford's law of scattering was employed to examine its appropriateness in law. Leimkuhier model also used to find out the core journals in law.

Bradford's law of scattering: Bradford first formulated his law in 1934. It was published in his first book entitled "Documentation" in the year 1948 and received wide attention. According to him "if scientific periodicals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups or zones maintaining the same number of articles as the nucleus where the number of periodicals in the nucleus and the succeeding zones will be as 1: n: [n.sup.2] where n is the multiplier." This is also known as Bradford's verbal expression of law of scattering.

Bradford also plotted graphs of the cumulative number of source items (R) versus the logarithms of the cumulative number of journals (log n). The resulting graph is called as "Bradford Bibliograph." Thus Bradford's law of scattering consists of verbal formulation of theoretical speculation; and the graphical representation by plotting empirical data. Bradford's verbal formulation is not mathematically identical with the graphical representation.

Bradford Scattering Phenomenon:Based on the graphical formulation, scattering phenomenon was derived as, F(X) = a+blogx, where F(X) is the cumulative number of citations contained in the first X or first Zone. x is the most productive journals, "a" and "b" are constants.

Bradford law of scattering has great significance to librarians, information professionals, administrators and policy makers in collection development particularly selection of sources of information to purchase or subscribe and materials to weed out. This helps to achieve maximum utilization of limited resources allocation to the libraries. A rank list of journals cited by research scholars in their Ph.D theses was prepared and Journals were arranged in their decreasing order of citation count. Totally 38 rank was awarded to the journals. The total number of journals observed in the present study was 773 and the number of citations to journals was 3187. It is observed from the annexure 1 that the first 10 journals in the rank list contribute more than 25% of total journal citations. The first 49 journals in the rank list contribute 50 % of total journal citations. These 49 journals can be considered as mostly cited journals by the researchers. It is also obvious from the table that 75% of total citations are contributed by the first 188 journals. The remaining 25% of citation are scattered among the 585 journals.

Table 4 illustrate the rank list of top 20 journals. It is evident from the table that American Journal of International Law was the most cited and ranked first with citation counts of 167 and 5.24%. Journal of Indian Law Institute occupied 2nd rank with 121 citation counts followed by International and Comparative Law Quarterly with 85 citation counts.The least cited was consumer Protection and Trade Practices Journal ranked 20th with 19 citation count.

These top 20 journals contribute more than 40% of total journal citations in Law. From the above table the 7th rank was shared by 2 journals. The 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th rank also shared by 2, 4, 2, and 3 journals respectively.

It is surprising to have the most cited journals published from USA, India, and UK. Among top 20 journals India contributes more than 50% of citations, USA and UK contributes 28 and 21 percentage of citations respectively. It shows that research scholars in Law mainly depend upon literature published from India, USA and U.K. for their information requirements.

Productivity of Journals in Law: The productivity of journals in Law is measured by dividing the total number of citations into four equal categories.

Table 5 depicts the ranges of citations of law journals. It is clear found that Law the first 25% of citations are covered by the first 10 journals with an average productivity of 79.1 citations per journal which have high productivity. The second, third and fourth group of citations are covered by 40,147, and 576 journals respectively. This trend shows the decreasing productivity of cited journals in Law.

Chronological Distribution of Journal Citations: Table 3 reveals that maximum number of citations (55.53%) is cited during the year 1990 to 2009, followed by the period 1970-1989 accounting for 823 (25.82%) citations. The other period groupings are in decreasing trend. This clearly shows that the Law researchers are in need of recent information for their research work. Very small percent of references are cited which are published about a century ago.

Appropriateness of Bradford's Law of Scattering:

Verbal Formulation: Rank list of law journals was prepared to check the appropriateness of the law. The journals were arranged and ranked according to decreasing frequency of citation counts. Annexure 1 depicts the rank list of journals arranged according to the decreasing order of citation counts along with their cumulative number of citations, percentage of journals. 773 journals were divided into three zones. The Bradford's multiplier factor was arrived at by dividing journals of a zone by its preceding zone. Bradford's multiplier was expressed as the ratio of the number of journals in any group to the number of journals in any immediately preceding. 1: n: [n.sup.2]. The scattering of journals and corresponding number of citations in the three zones along with the value of Bradford multipliers are shown in Table 7.

Thus, the ratios of journals contributing approximately the same number of articles in the core group and succeeding zones = 17: 107: 649. The Bradford's multiplier factor (BMF) was arrived at by dividing number of journal titles of a zone by its preceding zone.

BMF=(107/17) + (649/107)/2 = 6.29+6.06/2 = 12.35/2= 6.17

Thus 1: n: [n.sup.2] = 17: 17X6.17: 17X (6.17)2 = 17: 105.05: 17X38.06 = 17: 105.05: 647.17

The basis for choosing the three zones was to minimize the percentage error in distribution of citation count. The percentage of error was calculated as (17+ (17X6.17) + (17X 6.172) - (17+107+649)) = (17+104.89+647.17)-(773) = (769 - 773) = -3.93. Thus the ratio 17:107: 649 does not fit into the Bradford's distribution.

Leimkuhler model: Leimkuhler developed a model based on Bradford's verbal formulation as:R (r) = a log (1+br) Where R (r) is the cumulative number of articles contributed by journals ranked 1 through r,a and bareparameters.Egghe explains that

a = [y.sub.o]/ log k and b = k - 1/[r.sub.o] and k is the Bradford multiplier factor calculated as k = [([e.sup.g] x [Y.sub.m]).sup.1/P]

Where [e.sup.g] is Euler's number having 1.781 [y.sub.m] is the number of citations of rank one journal. In this study [y.sub.m] = 167. P is the Bradford groups or number of zone = 3

Thus k = (1.781x167)1/3 = (297.427)1/3 = 6.67 = k = 6.67 [Y.sub.o] = A/P where A denotes the total number of citations. A = 3187

Where P denotes number of zones. P = 3

[Y.sub.o] = 1062.33 [R.sub.o] = number of journals in the nucleus of Bradford. It is calculated as follows,

[r.sub.o] T(k - 1) = ([k.sup.p] - 1)

Where T stands for Total number of Journals = 773

[r.sub.o] 773(6.67-1)/[(6.67).sup.3]-1 =773(5.67)/296.74-1 = 4382.91/295.74 = 14.82 = [r.sub.0] = 14.82

a = [y.sub.0] log k = 1062.33/0.824125834 = 1289.04 ; b = k - 1/[r.sub.0] = 6.67 - 1/14.82 = 5.67/14.82 = 0.38

Different Bradford zone can be obtained used the value of k and [r.sub.o].

Thus [r.sub.o] :[r.sub.o]X k : [r.sub.o] X [k.sup.2] = 1:n:[n.sup.2]

Nucleus zone [r.sub.o] = [r.sub.o]X1 = 14.82X1 = 14.82

Nucleus zone [r.sub.1] = [r.sub.0]Xk = 14.82X6.67 = 98.85

Nucleus zone [r.sub.2] = [r.sub.0]X[k.sup.2] = 14.82X [(6.67).sup.2] = 14.82X44.48 = 659.32 14.82: 98.84: 659.32

Percentage of error is 14.82 + 98.85 + 659.32 - 773/773 X 100 = 772.98 - 773/773 X 100 0.02/773 X 100 = 0.002

The percentage error is negligible. The number of journals in the nucleus is 14.82 and the mean value of the Bradford multiplier is 6.67. The application of Leimkuhler model to the data set proves that the Bradford law fits very well with the multiplier of 6.67.

It is perceived that the number of journals contributing citations to each zone increases by a multiplier of 6.67. The data of the zonal analysis shows that the first zone containing 15 journals contributed 967 citations are the most productive journals in law with 1.94% of total cited journals, the 109 journals of the second zone produced 1191 citations sharing 14.10% of total journals and the 649journals of the third zone produced 1029 citations sharing 83.95% of total journals. Each zone has approximately one-third of the total citations.

Graphical Formulation: The graphical formulation of the Bradford's law of scattering has been applied to the literature of Law. Table 3 represents Bradford Bibliogaph. To testify the applicability of Bradford's law of scattering, a graph plotted with horizontal x axis represents the logarithmic of cumulative number of journals, and the vertical y axis represents cumulative number of citations. It is apparently known from the figure 1 that a rapid rise of exponential curve indicates very less number of journals cited highly and becomes linear curve followed by droop towards tails shows that maximum number of journals cited very less.

7. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION

This study reveals that some of the law research scholars lack uniformity and consistency in rendering citations. There was no standard abbreviation followed in rendering journal titles. The verbal formulation of Bradford's law of scattering was tested by dividing the total number of journal citation into three zones. The law journal distribution revealed the ratio as 17:107:649. The ratio indicates that the number of journal titles in each zone was not increasing geometrically. The verbal formulation is inappropriate with the journal titles in Law. Leimkuhler model is then applied for the verification of Bradford's law of scattering. It is found that law fits the journal distribution, as the percentage of error is most negligible (0.002%). The rank list of journals revealed that the most cited journal was American Journal of International Law (USA) with 5.24% of citation, followed by the Journal of Indian Law Institute (India) with 3.79% of citation and International and Comparative Law Quarterly (UK) with 2.66% of citation. The rank list of journals shows that among 773 journals cited only 25 journals accounted for more than 75% (79.1) of the citations and therefore they may be considered as core journals. It may be observed that journals published 333 years ago had been cited by law researchers. It is also observed that law researcher cited more than 20% of non-law journal in their studies.

The quality of this kind of research is mainly depending on the accuracy and correctness of the citations provided by the research scholars in their doctoral dissertations. This study focuses on appropriateness of Bradford's Law of Scattering in the discipline of Law. It helps the law librarian to identify the core law journals, and also about the scattering phenomena of legal literatures in law journals. A complete bibliometric study needs to be conducted in the discipline of Law to determine the information use pattern of law researcher and to trace the trend of research more accurately.

References

Arjun, Lal & Panda, Krishna C. (1999) Bradford's law and its application to bibliographical of Plant Pathology dissertations: An analytical approach. Library Science: with a Slant to Documentation Information Studies, 36(3), 193-206.

Asha, Rani (2014),Citation analysis of management Doctoral Dissertations submitted to the Universities of Haryana, Punjab & Himachal Pradesh, Ph.D thesis, Kurukshetra University.

Bradford, S.C. (2011) Documentation. (Crosby Lockwood and Sons: London), 1948.

Dhanamjaya, Talawar, Mulla and Chowdappa, Visibility of Reference Patterns in the Doctoral Theses of Engineering and Technology: A Citation Analysis Study. PEARL-A Journal of Library and Information Science, 5(2), 59-70.

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

https://lib.law.washington.edu/cilp/abbrev.html

Joginder Singh Burman, and Sheela M, (2011) Citation analysis of dissertations of law submitted to University of Delhi. Library Philosophy and Practice. available at http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/

Maheswarappa BS and Prakash BP. (1982) Literature use pattern by the researchers in the field of botany: A citation study of doctoral theses. Journal of Library and Information Science, 7 (1), 15-32.

Pillai, K. G. S. (2007), Journal citations in Physics doctoral dissertations of Indian Institute of Science. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 54 (4), 177- 184.

Ravichandra Rao, I.K, (1998) An analysis of Bradford multipliers and a model to explain law of scattering. Scientometrics, 41(1-2), 93-100.

Sengupta, I N, (1973) Choosing Physiology Periodicals: A recent study of the growth of its literature. Annals of Library Science and Documentation. 20 39-57.

Sengupta, I N, (1972) Impact of Scientific serials on the advancement of Medical knowledge: An objective method of analysis, International Library Review.4 169-195.

Sengupta, I N, (1974) Choosing of Microbiology Periodicals: Study of the growth of literature in the field. Annals of Library Science and Documentation. 1 11

Sudhier Pillai, K.G., (2010 Application of Bradford's Law of Scattering to the Physics Literature: AStudy of Doctoral Theses Citations at the Indian Institute of Science.30 (2),) 3-14.

www.commonlii.org/in/journals/NLUDLRS/2011/11.pdf

by

E. NISHAVATHI

Librarian

Dr. Ambedkar Government Law College,

Chennai-600 104, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: e_nishavathi@hotmail.com

Dr. R. JEYSHANKAR

Assistant Professor

Department of Library and Information Science

Alagappa University

Karaikudi--630 003, Tamil Nadu, India

Caption: Figure 1: Graphical Formulation of Bradford Law of Scattering
Table--1. Chronological Distribution of Ph.D Awarded

Sl. no      Year      No. of Ph.D
                        awarded

1        1965--1975         1
2        1975--1985         8
3        1985--1995        14
4        1995--2005        44
5        2005--2015       185
Total                     252

Table--2
Citation Counts of the Legal Sources (Bibliographical Form)

Sl. no   Forms                     Citation    Cumulative     % of
                                    Counts       No, of      Citation
                                                Citations

1.       Books                       8813         8813        46.49%
2.       Journals                    3187         12000       18.63%
3.       Online Sources              2471         14471       13.03%
4.       Reports                     1113         15584       5.87%
5.       Treaties                     683         16267       3.60%
6.       Press Release                576         16843       3.04%
7.       Assembly Resolution &        309         17152       1.63%
           Debates
8.       Statues                      213         17365       1.12%
9.       Acts & Manuals               210         17575       1.11%
10.      Conference                   173         17748       0.91%
11.      Magazines                    164         17912       0.87%
12.      Circulars & Resolutions      143         18055       0.75%
13.      Reference Sources            100         18155       0.53%
14.      Judicial Decisions           100         18255       0.53%
15.      Other Languages              71          18326       0.37%
16.      Other Documents              63          18389       0.33%
           (Policy Statement,
           Plan Doc)
17.      Standards                    59          18448       0.31%
           &Technicalpaper
18.      Unpublished Theses           47          18495       0.25%
19.      Working Papers               19          18514       0.10%
20.      Interviews                   14          18528       0.07%
21.      Occasional Papers            12          18540       0.06%
22.      Inaugural Address            11          18551       0.06%
23.      Archival Sources             11          18562       0.06%
24.      Editorial Comments            9          18571       0.05%
25.      Unpublished Manuscripts       8          18579       0.04%
26.      Official Records              8          18587       0.04%
27.      Letters                       6          18593       0.03%
28.      Pamphlets                     6          18599       0.03%
29.      Ml Dissertations              3          18602       0.02%
30.      Briefs                        3          18605       0.02%
31.      Reviews                       3          18608       0.02%
32.      Manuscripts                   2          18610       0.01%
33.      Statements                    1          18611       0.01%
34.      Newsletter                    1          18612       0.01%
35.      CBS News                      1          18613       0.01%
Total                                18613                   100.00%

Sl. no   Forms                     Cumulative %    Rank
                                   of Citations

1.       Books                        46.49%         1
2.       Journals                     65.12%         2
3.       Online Sources               78.15%         3
4.       Reports                      84.03%         4
5.       Treaties                     87.63%         5
6.       Press Release                90.67%         6
7.       Assembly Resolution &        92.30%         7
           Debates
8.       Statues                      93.42%         8
9.       Acts & Manuals               94.53%         9
10.      Conference                   95.44%        10
11.      Magazines                    96.31%        11
12.      Circulars & Resolutions      97.06%        12
13.      Reference Sources            97.59%        13
14.      Judicial Decisions           98.11%        14
15.      Other Languages              98.49%        15
16.      Other Documents              98.82%        16
           (Policy Statement,
           Plan Doc)
17.      Standards                    99.13%        17
           & Technical paper
18.      Unpublished Theses           99.38%        18
19.      Working Papers               99.48%        19
20.      Interviews                   99.55%        20
21.      Occasional Papers            99.62%        21
22.      Inaugural Address            99.68%        22
23.      Archival Sources             99.73%        22
24.      Editorial Comments           99.78%        23
25.      Unpublished Manuscripts      99.82%        24
26.      Official Records             99.87%        24
27.      Letters                      99.90%        25
28.      Pamphlets                    99.93%        25
29.      Ml Dissertations             99.95%        26
30.      Briefs                       99.96%        26
31.      Reviews                      99.98%        26
32.      Manuscripts                  99.99%        27
33.      Statements                   99.99%        28
34.      Newsletter                   100.00%       28
35.      CBS News                     100.00%       28
Total

Table 3.Contribution of Universities to the Shodhganga Database

S. No   Universities                                   No of theses

1       Aligarh Muslim University                           48
2       University of Burden                                42
3       University of Mysore                                39
4       Maharshi Dayanad University                         16
5       Cochin University of Science and Technology         14
6       Kurushetra University                               12
7       Dr. Hari Singh GourVishwavidhyalay                   8
8       Punjabi University                                  8
9       Five Universities produced 6 theses                 30
10      Two Universities produced 5 theses                  10
11      Three Universities produced 4 theses                12
12      One University produced 3 theses                    3
13      Two Universities produced 2 theses                  4
14      Universities produced one thesis                    6
Total                                                      252

Table 4. Rank List of Top 20 Journals in Law

Rank   Title of The Journal                    Country   Citations

1      American Journal of International Law     USA        167
2      Journal o Indian Law Institute           INDIA       121
3      International And Comparative Law         UK         85
         Quarterly
4      AIR                                      INDIA       77
5      Indian Bar Review (P) Journal of Bar     INDIA       74
         Council Of India
6      Economic And Political Weekly            INDIA       64
7      Cochin University Law Review (CULR)      INDIA       55
7      Supreme Court Cases                      INDIA       55
8      Criminal Law Journal                     INDIA       53
9      Indian Journal of International Law      INDIA       40
10     Harvard Law Review                        USA        39
11     Modern Law Review                         UK         36
12     British Year Book of International        UK         35
         Law
13     Human Rights Quarterly                    USA        33
13     Yale Law Journal                          USA        33
14     Indian Journal of Marketing              INDIA       30
15     Journal of Intellectual Property         INDIA       28
         Rights
16     American Journal of Comparative Law,      USA        26
16     Supreme Court Journal                    INDIA       26
17     Company Law Journal                      INDIA       24
17     European Intellectual Property Review     UK         24
17     Law Quarterly Review                      UK         24
17     New Law Journal                           UK         24
18     California Law Review                     USA        23
18     Indian Journal of Criminology            INDIA       23
19     Harvard International Law Journal         USA        21
19     Journal of Marriage And Family            USA        21
19     Nyaya Deep                               INDIA       21
20     Consumer Protection And Trade            INDIA       19
         Practices Journal

Rank   Title of The Journal                    Cumulative      % of
                                                 no of       Citations
                                                citation

1      American Journal of International Law       167         5.24%
2      Journal o Indian Law Institute              288         3.80%
3      International And Comparative Law           373         2.67%
         Quarterly
4      AIR                                         450         2.42%
5      Indian Bar Review (P) Journal of Bar        524         2.32%
         Council Of India
6      Economic And Political Weekly               588         2.01%
7      Cochin University Law Review (CULR)         643         1.73%
7      Supreme Court Cases                         698         1.73%
8      Criminal Law Journal                        751         1.66%
9      Indian Journal of International Law         791         1.26%
10     Harvard Law Review                          830         1.22%
11     Modern Law Review                           866         1.13%
12     British Year Book of International          901         1.10%
         Law
13     Human Rights Quarterly                      934         1.04%
13     Yale Law Journal                            967         1.04%
14     Indian Journal of Marketing                 997         0.94%
15     Journal of Intellectual Property           1025         0.88%
         Rights
16     American Journal of Comparative Law,       1051         0.82%
16     Supreme Court Journal                      1077         0.82%
17     Company Law Journal                        1101         0.75%
17     European Intellectual Property Review      1125         0.75%
17     Law Quarterly Review                       1149         0.75%
17     New Law Journal                            1173         0.75%
18     California Law Review                      1196         0.72%
18     Indian Journal of Criminology              1219         0.72%
19     Harvard International Law Journal          1240         0.66%
19     Journal of Marriage And Family             1261         0.66%
19     Nyaya Deep                                 1282         0.66%
20     Consumer Protection And Trade              1301         0.60%
         Practices Journal

Rank   Title of The Journal                    Cumulative
                                                  % of
                                                Citations

1      American Journal of International Law      5.24%
2      Journal o Indian Law Institute             9.04%
3      International And Comparative Law         11.70%
         Quarterly
4      AIR                                       14.12%
5      Indian Bar Review (P) Journal of Bar      16.44%
         Council Of India
6      Economic And Political Weekly             18.45%
7      Cochin University Law Review (CULR)       20.18%
7      Supreme Court Cases                       21.90%
8      Criminal Law Journal                      23.56%
9      Indian Journal of International Law       24.82%
10     Harvard Law Review                        26.04%
11     Modern Law Review                         27.17%
12     British Year Book of International        28.27%
         Law
13     Human Rights Quarterly                    29.31%
13     Yale Law Journal                          30.34%
14     Indian Journal of Marketing               31.28%
15     Journal of Intellectual Property          32.16%
         Rights
16     American Journal of Comparative Law,      32.98%
16     Supreme Court Journal                     33.79%
17     Company Law Journal                       34.55%
17     European Intellectual Property Review     35.30%
17     Law Quarterly Review                      36.05%
17     New Law Journal                           36.81%
18     California Law Review                     37.53%
18     Indian Journal of Criminology             38.25%
19     Harvard International Law Journal         38.91%
19     Journal of Marriage And Family            39.57%
19     Nyaya Deep                                40.23%
20     Consumer Protection And Trade             40.82%
         Practices Journal

Table 5: Range of Citations of Law Journals:

Range of    Number of    Number of    Cumulative
Citations   journals     Citations      no of
             covered                   Citations

1-25            10          791           791
26-50           40          823          1614
51-75          147          806          2420
76-100         576          767          3187
Total          773         3187

Range of     % of        Average
Citations   Journals   Productivity
                        of Journals

1-25          1.30         79.1
26-50         5.17         20.57
51-75        19.01          5.48
76-100       74.51          1.33
Total        99.99          4.12

Table 6 Chronological Distribution of Journal Citations:

Year           No of      Cumulative    % of       Cumulative
              Citations     no of      Citation   % of citation
                          Citations

1600-1700          2            3         0.06         0.09
1800-1899          8           10         0.25         0.31
1900-1929         38           48         1.19         1.50
1930-1949         75          123         2.35         3.85
1950-1969        343          466        10.76        14.62
1970-1989        823         1289        25.82        40.44
1990-2009       1770         3059        55.53        95.98
2009-2013         79         3138         2.47        98.469
Year not          49         3187         1.53         100
  mentioned
Total           3187                      100

Table 7. Scattering of journals and citations over Bradford Zone

Zone     No of       No of      % of      Cumulative    Cumulative
        citations   Journals   Journals     No. of        No. of
                                           Citations     Journals

1         1025         17        2.19        1025            17
2         1133        107       13.84        2158           124
3         1029        649       83.94        3187           773
Total     3187        773

Table 8. Zonal analysis with the multiplier of 6.67

Rank   No. Jls    Cum.     No.    Cum. of    Log of     % of
                 No. of    Cits     Cits     Cum. no    Cits
                   Jls                        of jls

1         1         1       167      167        0        5.24
2         1         2       121      288        0.30     3.79
3         1         3        85      373        0.47     2.66
4         1         4        77      450        0.60     2.41
5         1         5        74      524        0.69     2.32
6         1         6        64      588        0.77     2.00
7         2         8       110      698        0.90     3.45
8         1         9        53      751        0.95     1.66
9         1        10        40      791        1        1.25
10        1        11        39      830        1.04     1.22
11        1        12        36      866        1.07     1.12
12        1        13        35      901        1.11     1.09
13        2        15        66      967        1.17     2.07
         15                 967                10.12
14        1        16        30      997        1.20     0.94

15        1        17        28     1025        1.23     0.87
16        2        19        52     1077        1.27     1.63
17        4        23        96     1173        1.36     3.01
18        2        25        46     1219        1.39     1.44
19        3        28        63     1282        1.44     1.97
20        1        29        19     1301        1.46     0.59
21        3        32        54     1355        1.50     1.69
22        1        33        17     1372        1.51     0.53
23        3        36        48     1420        1.55     1.50
24        4        40        60     1480        1.60     1.88
25        4        44        56     1536        1.64     1.75
26        6        50        78     1614        1.69     2.44
27        6        56        72     1686        1.74     2.25
28        2        58        22     1708        1.768    0.69
29        7        65        70     1778        1.81     2.19
30        6        71        54     1832        1.85     1.69
31        8        79        64     1896        1.89     2.00
32       11        90        77     1973        1.95     2.41
33       15       105        90     2063        2.02     2.82
34       19       124        95     2158        2.09     2.98
        109                1191                34.04
35       43       167       172     2330        2.22     5.39
36       59       226       177     2507        2.35     5.55
37      133       359       266     2773        2.55     8.34
38      414       773       414     3187        2.88    12.99
        649                1029                10.02

Rank   No. Jls   % of Cum.     % of     Zones
                  of Cits     Tot Jls

1         1         5.24       0.12
2         1         9.03       0.12
3         1        11.70       0.12
4         1        14.11       0.12
5         1        16.44       0.12
6         1        18.44       0.12
7         2        21.90       0.25
8         1        23.56       0.12
9         1        24.81       0.12
10        1        26.04       0.12
11        1        27.17       0.12
12        1        28.27       0.12
13        2        30.34       0.25
         15                             Zone 1
14        1        31.28       0.12
15        1        32.16       0.12
16        2        33.79       0.25
17        4        36.80       0.51
18        2        38.24       0.25
19        3        40.22       0.38
20        1        40.82       0.12
21        3        42.51       0.38
22        1        43.04       0.12
23        3        44.55       0.38
24        4        46.43       0.51
25        4        48.19       0.51
26        6        50.64       0.77
27        6        52.90       0.77
28        2        53.59       0.25
29        7        55.78       0.90
30        6        57.48       0.77
31        8        59.49       1.03
32       11        61.90       1.42
33       15        64.73       1.94
34       19        67.71       2.45
        109                            Zone 2
35       43        73.10       5.56
36       59        78.66       7.63
37      133        87.00      17.20
38      414        100        53.55
        649                            Zone 3

Table 9.
Leimkuhler model: Scattering of journals and citations over
Bradford Zone

Zone     No of       No of      % of      Cumulative    Cumulative
        citations   Journals   Journals     No. of        No. of
                                           Citations     Journals

1          967         15        1.94         967            15
2         1191        109       14.10        2158           124
3         1029        649       83.95        3187           773
Total     3187        773

Table 10. Bradford Bibliography

No. of     Cumulative     No. of      Cumulative         Log of
Journals     No. of      citations       no of        Cumulative no
            Journals                   Citations       of journals

1               1          167             167              0
1               2          121             288             0.30
1               3           85             373             0.47
1               4           77             450             0.60
1               5           74             524             0.69
1               6           64             588             0.77
2               8          110             698             0.90
1               9           53             751             0.95
1              10           40             791              1
1              11           39             830             1.04
1              12           36             866             1.07
1              13           35             901             1.11
2              15           66             967             1.17
1              16           30             997             1.20
1              17           28            1025             1.23
2              19           52            1077             1.27
4              23           96            1173             1.36
2              25           46            1219             1.39
3              28           63            1282             1.44
1              29           19            1301             1.46
3              32           54            1355             1.50
1              33           17            1372             1.51
3              36           48            1420             1.55
4              40           60            1480             1.60
4              44           56            1536             1.64
6              50           78            1614             1.69
6              56           72            1686             1.74
2              58           22            1708             1.76
7              65           70            1778             1.81
6              71           54            1832             1.85
8              79           64            1896             1.89
11             90           77            1973             1.95
15            105           90            2063             2.02
19            124           95            2158             2.09
43            167          172            2330             2.22
59            226          177            2507             2.35
133           359          266            2773             2.55
414           773          414            3187             2.88
773                       3187
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Author:Nishavathi, E.; Jeyshankar, R.
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
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Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Dec 1, 2017
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