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The Stages of Energy Technology Innovation

Technology innovation is a complex process influenced predominantly by the potential market for the technology, investment in R&D, spillovers from other technology areas, and the general advancement of science. For illustrative purposes (see figure A1.1), this process can be divided into four stages--research and development (R&D), demonstration, scale-up/deployment, and commercialization--each of which is characterized by different technical and institutional barriers. Consequently, the private and public sectors play different roles along the innovation chain.

The early phases of technological innovation focus on basic research to find solutions to specific technical problems. During the development phase, the research findings are applied to new technologies and products. Demonstration projects are then undertaken to further adapt the technology and demonstrate the functioning in larger-scale and real-world applications. Because of elevated technological risks and technology spillovers that prevent private companies from fully capturing the commercial benefits, the earlier stages of technology development are usually funded predominantly by public sources. After fundamental technical barriers have been resolved and the commercial potential of a technology becomes apparent, private sector funding becomes prevalent. Private funding increases during the scale-up phase, in which--most often with public assistance--technology is deployed on a larger scale. Private participation increases through full commercialization as public involvement drops off.

It should be noted that the junctions between these stages are ill-defined and characterized by multiple dynamic feedbacks. The advancement of innovations from one stage of development to the next is not automatic: the majority of innovations in any stage fail. Moreover, the transition from predominantly public research to predominantly private product development is not smooth and funding gaps between the various stages often prevent technically proven ideas from reaching large-scale deployment. In some technology sectors, active involvement by the venture capital industry plays an important role in closing some of these gaps for the most promising innovations. Similarly, many governments support the development of commercial products generated from basic R&D through a variety of measures. For example, government-supported business incubators that provide financial, management, and technical support to young technology ventures play an important role in pushing innovations in research to actual product development. Nevertheless, important gaps between public and private support for different stages of technological development persist.



Overview of Selected Clean Energy Technology Options

This Appendix provides an overview (7) of the most promising technologies under development and in use today, including information on their strengths and weaknesses as well as their current stage of development (see table A2.1). It also provides an estimate of how much additional emission reduction could be realized from each technology versus a business-as-usual case. These estimates on potential emission reduction are drawn from the International Energy Agency publication Energy Technology Perspectives (IEA 2006a), which presents different scenarios of technological operation under accelerated technological development. The potential C[O.sub.2] reduction does not refer to the total amount a given technology can lower emissions but instead to the additional emission reduction per year in 2050 (compared with business-as-usual) that can be realized through the following actions:

* Increased support for research and development (R&D) for technologies with technical challenges and the need to reduce costs before commercial viability;

* Demonstration programs for energy technologies;

* Deployment programs for technologies not yet cost-competitive but whose costs could be reduced through learning-by-doing;

* Introduction of policies and measures that would attribute a price of $25 to each ton of C[O.sub.2] emitted into the atmosphere;

* Policies to overcome noneconomic barriers to technology commercialization such as standards, labeling information campaigns, and energy auditing.

Efficient Coal-Fired Electricity Generation

Coal is the most prevalent and least expensive fossil fuel available. The estimated global coal reserve to production ratio is more than 200, implying that coal can continue to be consumed at current rates for more than two centuries, much longer than oil or gas. Many of the countries with the largest and fastest growing energy demand have substantial coal reserves, such as China and India. As a result, virtually all future energy scenarios predict the increased use of coal for power generation, notably in developing countries.

In this light, technologies that increase the efficiency of power generation from coal and/or facilitate capturing C[O.sub.2] emissions are of critical importance for reducing the carbon footprint of fossil fuels.

Supercritical and Ultra-Supercritical Steam Cycle Coal Plants

Supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal plants are defined by their steam temperatures. Supercritical plants use steam temperatures of 540[degrees]C and above, ultra-supercritical plants use 580[degrees]C and above. Supercritical plants can achieve overall efficiencies of up to 46 percent. Ultra-supercritical plants are currently achieving efficiencies up to about 50 percent and possibly about 55 percent through accelerated technology development in the future.

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)

IGCC systems, which can process a variety of different feedstocks including coal, petroleum coke, biomass, and municipal solid waste, are receiving considerable public attention as a clean and efficient power-generation technology. By converting solid fuel to a gas and burning that gas in a combined-cycle plant, IGCC offers considerable improvements in electricity-generation efficiency over using the solid fuel in a simple steam loop. Current demonstration plants have efficiencies of about 45 percent, but efficiencies of 50 percent or higher are expected in the coming decades. In addition, emissions of a wide range of pollutants can be reduced by capturing them on-site.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

Given the continued importance of coal and natural gas for power plants, technologies that can reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation using fossil fuels is vitally important. The higher efficiency technologies described above could improve efficiencies by up to 10 percent or possible slightly more. However, although very helpful, such innovation is not enough to counteract emission increases due to expected rapid growth rates in fossil fuel power generation. This is where CCS holds such promise. If fully developed, it could reduce emissions from coal plants as much as 90 percent and thus allow continued and expanded use of coal within the framework of substantial global C[O.sub.2] emission reduction.

Carbon capture and storage reduces carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion by separating out C[O.sub.2] from the combustion process and sequestering it in a permanent storage site so that it is prevented from reaching the atmosphere and contributing to global warming. The technology requires three distinct stages: (i) capturing CO2 from power plants (or other concentrated CO2 sources such as in the chemical industry), (ii) transporting captured C[O.sub.2] by pipeline or tanker, and (iii) storing C[O.sub.2] underground in deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or coal seams. The technologies in each stage face different challenges; all these challenges must be addressed if technology is to be deployed widespread.

Renewable Power Generation

Renewable energy technologies offer an important option for generating electricity at little or no greenhouse gas emissions. A variety of technologies at different stages of development can reduce emissions. Many of these technologies require site-specific operating conditions (such as solar, ocean energy). Consequently, the focus of R&D efforts varies considerably between countries, reflecting domestic relevance of the various technologies.

Small and Large Hydropower

Hydropower is the dominant source ofrenewable electricity today and accounts for 19 percent of total electricity production and 82 percent of total renewable electricity (RENI21 2005). About 808 GW of hydropower capacity is currently in operation or under construction, the majority in Brazil, Canada, China, India, Norway, the Russian Federation, and the United States (IEA 2006a). In addition to electricity generation, hydropower projects are often designed to enhance potable and irrigation water supply and provide flood control. The majority of hydroelectricity is produced from large hydro projects but smaller hydro--most of which are run-off-river design--are increasingly being built, especially in China.

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Solar Thermal Electric

Solar photovoltaic electricity is a modular technology, based on semiconductors that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Each module usually produces up to several hundred watts but can be combined into large power arrays to fit different applications, grid-connected and off-grid. Currently, the globally installed capacity is about 4GW--most of which is in Germany, Japan, and the United States (RENI21 2005).

Solar thermal electric, also termed concentrating solar power (CSP), uses direct sunlight, which is concentrated through reflectors and used for heating and cooling applications or directly converted to electricity. In contrast to PV, CSP technologies can be integrated with conventional thermal cycles. The technology is, however, very demanding in terms of sunlight requirements and is therefore mostly relevant in arid, sun-intensive regions. Currently, about 400MW of CSP are in operation but several large-scale projects are being developed in Algeria, the Arab Republic of Egypt, Spain, and the United States (ibid.).

Ocean Energy

Different ocean energy technologies are being developed along four major concepts. Wave energy facilities harness kinetic energy associated with ocean waves. Tidal and marine current systems capture the potential energy associated with ocean currents and tides. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) extracts power by exploiting temperature differences between surface water and deep water. Salinity gradient (osmotic energy) systems harness the entropy of mixing freshwater and salt water, for example at river mouths.

Geothermal Power

Geothermal power plants harness geothermal heat to generate electricity. Different forms of geothermal technology are being developed, which differ in terms of the type of geothermal heat exploited (that is steam, hot water, or dry rock) and in their conversion technology. Most large-scale geothermal power development is currently limited to regions near tectonic plate boundaries but some technologies allow harnessing less accessible resources, for example, through deep drilling. Currently there are about 8GW of installed capacity worldwide (ibid).


Harnessing wind energy through on-shore and off-shore wind farms has been one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy in the past decade--largely propelled by deployment subsidy policies in several OECD countries. Currently installed capacity is in the range of 48GW and second only to hydropower as a source of renewable electricity (ibid.).


Biomass fuels have similar characteristics to coal so that similar technologies are used to generate electricity. In this way, most biomass is combusted and used in steam cycles, either alone or co-fired with coal. Current global capacity is about 40GW, mostly installed in conjunction with agricultural processing (such as the sugar industry), forestry (such as paper mills), or landfill sites (ibid.).

Second Generation Biofuels

Biofuels refer to the production of liquid fuels from agricultural products. The fuels produced are mostly used as substitutes for petroleum products, primarily gasoline and diesel fuel. The current generation of biofuels is limited by the agricultural feedstocks that can be used (such as surgarcane, corn, and palm oil) and by potential negative social and environmental effects associated with their large-scale production. Moreover, their production is economically viable only in the most efficient feedstock-producing countries and under particularly high oil prices, such as sugar cane ethanol in Brazil. Second-generation biofuels have promise because they would be able to convert any biomass material into liquid fuels, generate high emissions reductions, and mitigate competition between biofuel and food production.

Second-generation biofuel technologies such as lingocellulosic ethanol and biomass-to-liquids (BTL) biodiesel allow the conversion into biofuels not only of the glucose and oils retrievable in today's first-generation bioethanol and biodiesel, but also of cellulose, hemicellulose, and even lignin--the main building blocks of most biomass. Thus, less expensive and more abundant feedstocks such as residues, stems, and leaves of crops, straw, biodegradable urban wastes, weeds, and fast-growing trees can in principal be converted into biofuels. This considerably increases the achievable scale of production and mitigates many of the social and environmental concerns associated with first-generation biofuels.

Energy Efficiency

End-use energy efficiency comprises a broad set of technologies and technology management systems that can achieve the same energy services with lower energy inputs. Most attention is currently drawn to improvements in efficiency in the transport (mostly automobiles) and buildings sectors as well as in the industry sector. For automobiles, for example, research goals include reducing vehicle weight, improving aerodynamics, and improving the efficiency of engine components. For buildings, efficiency measures include efficient lighting (such as CFLs and LEDs); better insulation; and more efficient heating, cooling, and water pumping systems. Most industrial processes can be optimized with regards to their conversion efficiency of energy inputs, such as through more efficient motor systems.

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear power provides a significant amount of electricity in France and in numerous countries, including China, Finland, India, Japan, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. More than 430 nuclear power plants are operating in the world, accounting for 17 percent of the world's electricity generation in 2002. In OECD countries, 346 reactors were connected to the grid at the end of 2006, constituting 23.1 percent of the total OECD and 30 percent of the European Union electricity supply. With climate change issues growing in importance, a new debate over an increasing role of nuclear power has been launched in several countries. Nuclear power can offer a positive contribution to energy security because most reserves for the uranium and thorium used in nuclear technologies are not located in sensitive regions. In the short to medium term, the lifetime of existing plants could be extended from the initial 40 years to up to 60, depending on the type and use of the power plant. However, nuclear waste disposal, reactor safety, and nuclear proliferation as well as related liability issues continue to be of considerable concern.

Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Transport

Fuel cells powered by hydrogen have received considerable public attention, especially for powering cars. Both for stationary and automotive applications, fuel cells are significantly more expensive than competing technologies. Several demonstration vehicles have been developed, but the technology is still in a relatively early R&D phase. Although in the automotive sector the high efficiency makes fuel cells equal or less expensive than gasoline operations, the capital costs of fuel cells are considerably higher than for gasoline-powered vehicles. Major technological advances and cost reductions are necessary in all areas. Research is focusing especially on the development of membranes, hydrogen storage components, and improvements in stack life. Once these barriers are overcome and it becomes clear what kind of on-board hydrogen storage technology will prevail, additional R&D efforts are needed on hydrogen refueling infrastructure.


Analyses Supporting the Need for Technological Innovation

IPCC Fourth Assessment Report

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group 3 report on climate change mitigation released in May (IPCC 2007a) strongly supports the need for new and improved energy technologies to achieve a sustainable future. This report states that "investments in and worldwide deployment of low-GHG emission technologies as well as technology improvements through public and private research, development, and deployment (RD&D) would be required for achieving stabilization targets" (italics added).

The report also lists the key mitigation technologies that need to be commercialized by 2030 to stabilize emissions, which include the following:

* Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for gas, biomass, and coal-fired generating facilities;

* New and improved forms of renewable energy, including tidal and waves energy, concentrating solar, and solar PV;

* Improved energy efficiency;

* Second-generation biofuels;

* Higher efficiency aircraft;

* Advanced electric and hybrid vehicles;

* CCS for cement, ammonia, and iron manufacture; and

* Advancement in agricultural technologies.

None of these technologies is currently commercially available to deploy on any type of significant scale. Getting them ready for substantial deployment would require a concerted RD&D effort.

The Stern Review

The Stern Review (HM Treasury 2006) also highlights the need for new and improved energy technologies to address global warming. The Review notes that stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations--at whatever level--will require reducing annual global emissions below 5 GtC[O.sub.2]e, which is the level that the earth can naturally absorb without adding to atmospheric concentrations. This level is more than 80 percent below the absolute level of current annual emissions. To achieve such reductions, the Review states that policies to accelerate new technology development will be one of three essential elements to combat climate change. (8)

More specifically, the Stern Review states that tackling climate change "requires a widespread shift to new or improved technology in key sectors such as power generation, transport, and energy use" and that "the development and deployment of a wide range of low-carbon technologies is essential in achieving the deep cuts in emissions that are needed." The Review explains that although the private sector plays the major role in R&D and technology diffusion, enhanced collaboration between government and industry will further stimulate the development of a broad portfolio of low-carbon technologies and reduce costs. It calls for a doubling of global public energy R&D funding, to about $20 billion per year, and an increase of two to five times globally for deployment incentives for low-emission technologies.

IEA Scenarios

International Energy Agency scenarios demonstrate the limitations of policies that rely solely on current technologies. In its alternative policy cenario (APS), IEA assumes that all policies currently under consideration around the world to reduce emissions are fully implemented (IEA 2006b). This scenario assumes continuing improvements in the cost and performance of energy technologies, but does not include any efforts to accelerate these improvements beyond current trends. Consequently, two promising technologies--carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels--are not assumed to be commercially available by the end of the 2030 scenario window.

The APS--with its mix of extensive policy implementation but modest technological advances--does not present a sustainable energy future. From 2004 to 2030, global energy demand rises by 38 percent and C[O.sub.2] emissions by 31 percent. By 2030, oil still accounts for 32 percent of total supply while the combined supply of all fossil fuels is 77 percent of the total. These figures--though improvements from business-as-usual due to the extensive policy implementations--underline the limitations of relying on today's energy technologies.

The IEA has also examined scenarios that assume accelerated development of clean energy technologies, found in Energy Technology Perspectives (IEA 2006a). The IEA uses accelerated technology scenarios (ACTs) where increased R&D and other measures bring clean energy technologies to commercialization more rapidly than would be the case under business-as-usual. The advanced technologies include renewable energy, end-use efficiency technologies, carbon capture and storage (CCS), nuclear power, and improved efficiency of fossil fuel-fired generating stations. The ACT projections show that accelerated technology development can make a substantial difference in our energy future. Under the accelerated technology scenario, C[O.sub.2] emissions rise just 6 percent from 2003 to 2050. Although this scenario also assumes policies to encourage cleaner energy use (such as a $25/ton value put on C[O.sub.2] emissions), the major difference between it and the other less-promising scenarios is the added push for energy technology innovation. Figure A3.1 shows emission scenarios for these three projections.



Historical Data on Government Energy R&D Spending

This appendix provides a more detailed picture of public and private R&D spending in IEA countries. Tables A4.1 and A4.2 depict the technologies where R&D has been focused over the past 25 years. Figures A4.1 and A4.2 show how--until recently--energy R&D has been falling both in absolute terms and relative to other industries.

Summary of Recent Energy RD&D Activities of Japanese and U.S. Governments

As depicted in figure A4.3, Japan and the United States are by far the largest contributors to energy R&D in absolute terms. Thus, the following section briefly outlines some of the most recent RD&D activities in these two countries.

The United States, as a result of its Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) and America COMPETES Act, increased both basic energy science (by 5 percent) and applied energy R&D (by 32 percent) in FY07. These increases included dramatic boosts for selected renewable energy priorities, including hydrogen, solar power, and biomass. Increases in these priorities are set to continue in FY08; the U.S. Congress also proposes to increase energy R&D spending dramatically for other renewable energy, fossil fuels, and energy conservation programs. Additionally, $300 million has been authorized in 2008 for the new Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) to fund breakthrough alternative energy R&D technologies. Overall, U.S. energy R&D spending rose 11 percent (in real terms) in FY07 with a projected increase of 18 percent to in FY08.

In addition, in September 2007, the U.S. government proposed the creation of a new international clean technology fund to help developing nations harness the power of clean energy technologies. This fund will help finance clean energy projects in the developing world. The U.S. government began it by the end of 2007.

Several Japanese initiatives also point to renewed commitment to clean energy technologies. The "New National Energy Strategy" released by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) in 2006 aims to establish the foundation for sustainable development through a comprehensive approach for energy issues and environmental issues. Targets include a 30 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2030 through a positive cycle of technological innovation and new energy innovation through the development of revolutionary energy technologies including cleaner-burning coal and new-generation solar technology. The recently announced "Cool Earth 50" initiative, aimed at creating a new international framework to fight global warming beyond the 2012 expiration of the Kyoto Protocol, includes investments in clean energy technologies. Japan's "Innovation 25" program sees a clean energy industry based on new technologies as a source of economic growth.




There have also been substantial increases in other means of government support for clean energy technologies beyond those associated with traditional R&D programs. Primary among these are support systems for renewable energy that can take the form of direct subsidies, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, tax rebates, and biofuel blending mandates. These support policies may at least in part compensate for the relatively low R&D figures described above and have been increasing almost without exception in OECD countries in the last two to three years. It is estimated that such deployment incentives amount to $33 billion globally (HM Treasury 2006). Such support leads to fuller deployment of technologies not yet commercially competitive, such as wind power, and in this way brings manufacturing and operating experience that leads to more reliable, lower-cost technology. The increase in such support systems thus acts as a de facto technology acceleration program although it must be noted that--in contrast to RD&D programs--they apply only to technologies with near-term commercial viability and reliability.
Table A2.1. Clean Energy Technologies and Mitigation Potential
Resulting from Accelerated Technology Innovation

 by 2050
 Stage of Development (Gt CO2/year)
Supercritical, R&D-Commercial 0.3

IGCC R&D-Demonstration 0.2
Carbon capture & storage Demonstration 5.5

Hydropower Scale-up-Commercial 0.5

Solar R&D-Commercial 0.5

Ocean energy R&D 0.1
Geothermal Commercial 0.3
Wind Scale-up

Bioelectricity Commercial 0.5

Hydrogen fuel cells for R&D 0.8

Second-generation biofuels R&D-Demonstration 1.3
End-use energy efficiency

 Vehicles (engine, nonengine, Scale-up-Commercial 5.4
 and hybrid technologies) Commercial

 Heating and cooling 2.6

 Electrical end-use and other Scale-up-Commercial 4.6
 Other Scale-up-Commercial 1.8
Nuclear power generation

 II and III generation Commercial 1.8

 IV generation R&D 1.9

Supercritical, - Supercritical is commercial;
ultra-supercritical ultra-supercritical requires
 more development, especially in the
 area of high-temperature materials
 - Enabling technologies for CCS
IGCC - Enabling technology for CCS
Carbon capture & storage - Cost barriers
 - Needs successful demonstrations
 of full system integration
 - Challenges for regulatory and
 legal systems
Hydropower - Large-scale is commercial
 - Mini and micro are
Solar - PV is commercial in certain off-grid
 - Grid applications are in R&D phase,
 large cost reductions required
 - Concentrating solar power (CSP)
 is in demonstration phase
Ocean energy - Early stages of development
Geothermal - Large potential in certain regions
Wind if costs can be reduced
 - Deployment policies have
 significantly reduced costs but is
 still rarely commercial
Bioelectricity - Large potential for BIG/GT, IGCC,
 and biorefineries but they are in
 R&D/demonstration stage

Hydrogen fuel cells for - Very significant cost barriers

Second-generation biofuels - Significant cost barriers
End-use energy efficiency - The primary barriers facing end-use
 efficiency technologies relate to
 Vehicles (engine, nonengine, market barriers, inadequate
 and hybrid technologies) regulations, capital constraints,
 and lack of information
 Heating and cooling - Where these nontechnical barriers
 can be overcome, private industry
 is normally ready to conduct
 Electrical end-use and other work to bring the bulk of products
 Other to commercialization
Nuclear power generation - Barriers of public acceptance, and
 political, regulatory,
 II and III generation environmental, safety
 and financial issues of reactor
 safety, waste disposal, and nuclear
 IV generation - Large cost barriers

Source: Figures adapted from IEA 2006a.

Note: Figures indicate additional abatement potential of each
technology relative to the baseline scenario, not total potential for
CO2 emission reduction.
This potential can be realized through increased energy R&D, more
extensive demonstration and deployment programs, and a set of policies
that lead to adoption of technologies that reduce CO2 emissions at

Table A4.1. Public R&D Expenditures in IEA Countries

 R&D Budgets
 (million 2005 US$, (exchange rates)

 1992-2001 2002 2003 2004 (a)

Energy efficiency 12,206 1,627 1,215 1,094
Fossil fuels 9,545 1,099 1,010 1,089
 Oil & gas 4,375 603 525 500
 Coal 5,170 495 484 520
 C[O.sub.2] capture and -- -- 69
Renewable energy sources 7,683 896 868 1,082
 Solar energy 3,865 439 417 502
 Wind energy 1,162 118 123 128
 Ocean energy 63 5 4 9
 Bio-energy 1,657 229 236 296
 Geothermal energy 771 76 58 47
 Hydropower 165 27 28 31
 Other renewables -- -- -- 66
Nuclear fission and fusion 44,939 4,204 4,222 3,763
Hydrogen and fuel cells -- -- -- 253
Other power & storage 4,181 523 506 373
Other (b) 13,662 1,815 1,875 1,772
Total energy R&D 92,217 10,165 9,699 9,429

 Share of Total
 R&D (%)

 1992-2001 2004 (a)

Energy efficiency 13.24% 11.61%
Fossil fuels 10.35% 11.56%
 Oil & gas 4.74% 5.31%
 Coal 5.61% 5.52%
 C[O.sub.2] capture and 0.00% 0.73%
Renewable energy sources 8.33% 11.48%
 Solar energy 4.19% 5.33%
 Wind energy 1.26% 1.36%
 Ocean energy 0.07% 0.10%
 Bio-energy 1.80% 3.15%
 Geothermal energy 0.84% 0.50%
 Hydropower 0.18% 0.33%
 Other renewables -- 0.71%
Nuclear fission and fusion 48.73% 39.91%
Hydrogen and fuel cells 0.00% 2.69%
Other power & storage 4.53% 3.96%
Other (b) 14.81% 18.80%
Total energy R&D 100.00% 100.00%

Source: IEA databases.

Note: -- = Not available.

(a.) 2004 is the last year for which detailed and updated R&D
statistics for all major IEA countries was available in IEA
databases at the time of writing.

(b.) "Other" includes energy systems analysis (system analysis
related to energy R&D; sociological, economical, and environmental
impact of energy not specifically related to a technology listed
above) as well as hydrogen, energy technology information
dissemination, and studies not related to a specific technology
area listed above.

Table A4.2. Combined Spending by All IEA Governments on Energy R&D
(million of US$ in 2004 prices and exchange rates)

Energy Category 1974 1975 1976 1977

Conservation/efficiency 167 289 372 608
Fossil fuels 405 569 852 1,326
Renewable energy 68 216 370 805
Nuclear fission 3,877 4,497 4,340 5,794
Nuclear fusion 435 577 734 1,059
Power & storage 141 172 199 391
Other tech./research 829 920 1,214 910
Total 5,922 7,239 8,080 10,894

Energy Category 1978 1979 1980 1981

Conservation/efficiency 729 756 1,016 837
Fossil fuels 1,629 1,765 2,551 2,613
Renewable energy 1,229 1,724 2,029 2,007
Nuclear fission 6,133 6,559 6,573 6,591
Nuclear fusion 1,309 1,577 1,267 1,368
Power & storage 502 716 430 355
Other tech./research 1,104 1,006 1,276 461
Total 12,636 14,103 15,142 14,233

Energy Category 1982 1983 1984 1985

Conservation/efficiency 728 915 848 861
Fossil fuels 1,634 1,600 1,506 1,513
Renewable energy 1,222 1,094 1,069 893
Nuclear fission 6,363 6,086 5,809 6,807
Nuclear fusion 1,445 1,423 1,433 1,507
Power & storage 275 318 296 300
Other tech./research 422 896 848 895
Total 12,090 12,332 11,808 12,776

Energy Category 1986 1987 1988 1989

Conservation/efficiency 735 773 641 569
Fossil fuels 1,520 1,350 1,494 1,375
Renewable energy 711 624 618 560
Nuclear fission 6,345 5,030 4,294 4,783
Nuclear fusion 1,355 1,275 1,183 1,094
Power & storage 274 290 341 360
Other tech./research 790 949 1,118 1,262
Total 11,729 10,290 9,689 10,003

Energy Category 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Conservation/efficiency 626 750 694 818 1,109
Fossil fuels 1,851 1,686 1,171 1,202 1,229
Renewable energy 565 747 689 717 746
Nuclear fission 4,274 4,476 3,754 3,641 3,526
Nuclear fusion 1,066 1,103 1,056 1,158 1,115
Power & storage 283 318 269 270 385
Other tech./research 1,119 1,350 1,227 1,383 1,254
Total 9,785 10,429 8,860 9,189 9,364

Energy Category 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Conservation/efficiency 1,217 1,143 1,100 1,304 1,400
Fossil fuels 1,035 966 818 647 665
Renewable energy 800 717 705 775 761
Nuclear fission 3,657 3,601 3,457 3,370 3,372
Nuclear fusion 1,110 999 965 896 723
Power & storage 366 351 375 419 399
Other tech./research 1,241 1,224 1,275 1,211 1,320
Total 9,426 9,000 8,696 8,622 8,641

Energy Category 2000 2001 2002 2003

Conservation/efficiency 1,471 1,603 1,621 1,189
Fossil fuels 515 734 1,021 971
Renewable energy 751 823 888 841
Nuclear fission 3,404 3,205 3,539 3,199
Nuclear fusion 877 823 691 655
Power & storage 549 622 524 510
Other tech./research 1,271 1,575 1,767 1,836
Total 8,838 9,385 10,051 9,200

Energy Category 1974-2003 Total

Conservation/efficiency 26,889
Fossil fuels 38,214
Renewable energy 25,767
Nuclear fission 140,352
Nuclear fusion 32,279
Power & storage 10,997
Other tech./research 33,952
Total 308,451

Source: IEA Online R&D Statistics Database,; and correspondence
with Richard Doornbosch, OECD.
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Title Annotation:Accelerating Clean Energy Technology Research, Development, and Deployment: Lessons from Non-energy Sectors
Publication:Accelerating Clean Energy Technology Research, Development, and Deployment
Date:May 1, 2008
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