The information in this appendix includes a variety of useful conversion factors and facts. Armed with this information, the reader can understand more, plan more, and learn more.
TABLE A-1 CONVERSION TABLES FOR COMMON WEIGHTS AND MEASURES Common Measures Conversion Amounts 1 pound 454 grams 2.2 pounds 1 kilogram 1 quart 1 liter 1 gram 15.43 grains 1 metric ton 2,205 pounds 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 1 centimeter 10 millimeters or .39 inches 1 meter 39.37 inches 1 acre .406 hectare TABLE A-2 WEIGHT CONVERSIONS Common Measures Conversion Amounts 8 tablespoons 1/4 pound 3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon 1 pint 1 pound 2 pints 1 quart 4 quarts 1 gallon or 8 pounds 2,000 pounds 1 ton 16 ounces 1 pound 27 cubic feet 1 cubic yard 1 peck 8 quarts 1 bushel 4 pecks Other Conversions 1 percent .01 1 percent 10,000 parts per million 1 megacalorie (mcal) 1,000 calories 1 calorie (big calorie) 1,000 calories (small calorie) 1 megacalorie 1 therm TABLE A-3 STANDARD WEIGHTS OF FARM PRODUCTS PER BUSHEL Product Pounds Alfalfa 60 Apples (average) 42 Barley (common) 48 Beans 60 Bluegrass (Kentucky) 14-28 Bromegrass, orchardgrass 14 Buckwheat 50 Clover 60 Corn (dry ear) 70 Corn & cob meal 45 Corn (shelled) 56 Corn kernel meal 50 Corn (sweet) 50 Cowpeas 60 Flax 56 Millet (grain) 50 Oats 32 Onions 52 Peas 60 Potatoes 60 Ryegrass 24 Rye 56 Soybeans 60 Spelt 30-40 Sorghum 56 Sudangrass 40 Sunflower 24 Timothy 45 Wheat 60 Milk, per gallon 8.6 TABLE A-4 STORAGE AND FEEDING DRY MATTER-LOSSES OF ALFALFA Storage Loss Feeding Loss Storage Method (percent) (percent) Small bales, stored inside 4 5 Round bales, stored inside 4 14 Hay stacks, stored inside 4 16 Round bales, stored outside 12 14 Hay stacks, stored outside 16 16 Haylage, vertical silo 7 11 Haylage, bunk silo 13 11 TABLE A-5 BUSHEL WEIGHTS AND VOLUMES Pounds/ Cubic Item Cubic Feet Feet/Ton Oats 32 lb/bu 26 77 Barley 48 lb/bu 38.4 53 Shelled corn 56 lb/bu 44.8 45 Wheat 60 lb/bu 48 42 Corn & cob meal 70 lb/bu 28 72 Soybeans 60 lb/bu 48 42 Rye 56 lb/bu 44.8 45 Soybean oil meal 54 lb -- 37 Dairy feed 35 lb -- 57 TABLE A-6 MEASUREMENT STANDARDS, HAY AND STRAW Average Range Cubic Cubic Item Feet/Ton Feet/Ton Hay, baled 275 250-300 Hay, chopped-field cured 425 400-450 Hay, chopped-mow cured 325 300-350 Hay, long 500 475-525 Straw, baled 450 400-500 Straw, chopped 600 575-625 Hay, loose 480 370-390 Straw, loose 800 750-850 TABLE A-7 FAHRENHEIT TO CENTIGRADE TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS (1) [degrees]F [degrees]C [degrees]F [degrees]C 100 37.8 77 25.0 99 37.2 76 24.4 98 36.7 75 23.9 97 36.1 74 23.3 96 35.6 73 22.8 95 35.0 72 22.2 94 34.4 71 21.7 93 33.9 70 21.1 92 33.3 69 20.6 91 32.8 68 20.0 90 32.2 67 19.4 89 31.7 66 18.9 88 31.1 65 18.3 87 30.6 64 17.8 86 30.0 63 17.2 85 29.4 62 16.7 84 28.9 61 16.1 83 28.3 60 15.6 82 27.8 59 15.0 81 27.2 58 14.4 80 26.7 57 13.9 79 26.1 56 13.3 78 25.6 55 12.8 [degrees]F [degrees]F [degrees]C 100 54 12.2 99 53 11.7 98 52 11.1 97 51 10.6 96 50 10.0 95 49 9.4 94 48 8.9 93 47 8.3 92 46 7.8 91 45 7.2 90 44 6.7 89 43 6.1 88 42 5.6 87 41 5.0 86 40 4.4 85 39 3.9 84 38 3.3 83 37 2.8 82 36 2.2 81 35 1.7 80 34 1.1 79 33 0.6 78 32 0.0 (1) Formulas used: [degrees]C = ([degrees]F - 32) x 5/9 or [degrees]F = ([degrees]C x 9/5) + 32 TABLE A-8 CONVERSION FACTORS FOR ENGLISH AND METRIC MEASUREMENTS To Convert To the Metric To Convert the English Multiply by Metric acres 0.4047 hectares acres 4047 square meters BTUs 1055 joules BTUs 0.0002928 kilowatt hours BTU/hours 0.2931 watts bushels 0.03524 cubic meters bushels 35.24 liters cubic feet 0.02832 cubic meters cubic feet 28.32 liters cubic inches 16.39 cubic centimeters cubic inches 1.639 [10.sup.-5] cubic meters cubic inches 0.01639 liters cubic yards 0.7646 cubic meters cubic yards 764.6 liters feet 30.48 centimeters feet 0.3048 meters feet/minute 0.508 centimeters/second feet/second 30.48 centimeters/second gallons 3785 cubic centimeters gallons 0.003785 cubic meters gallons 3.785 liters gallons/minute 0.06308 liters/second inches 2.54 centimeters inches 0.0254 meters miles 1.609 kilometers miles per hour 26.82 meters/minute ounces 28.349 grams fluid ounces 0.02947 liters liquid pints 0.4732 liters pounds 453.59 grams quarts 0.9463 liters square feet 0.0929 square meters square yards 0.8361 square meters tons 0.9078 tons yards 0.0009144 kilometers yards 0.9144 meters To Convert To Get the English Multiply by English acres 2.47 acres acres 0.000247 acres BTUs 0.000948 BTUs BTUs 3415.301 BTUs BTU/hours 3.411805 BTU/hours bushels 28.37684 bushels bushels 0.028377 bushels cubic feet 35.31073 cubic feet cubic feet 0.035311 cubic feet cubic inches 0.061013 cubic inches cubic inches 61012.81 cubic inches cubic inches 61.01281 cubic inches cubic yards 1.307873 cubic yards cubic yards 0.001308 cubic yards feet 0.032808 feet feet 3.28084 feet feet/minute 1.968504 feet/minute feet/second 0.032808 feet/second gallons 0.000264 gallons gallons 264.2008 gallons gallons 0.264201 gallons gallons/minute 15.85289 gallons/minute inches 0.393701 inches inches 39.37008 inches miles 0.621504 miles miles per hour 0.037286 miles per hour ounces 0.035275 ounces fluid ounces 33.93281 fluid ounces liquid pints 2.113271 liquid pints pounds 0.002205 pounds quarts 1.056747 quarts square feet 10.76426 square feet square yards 1.196029 square yards tons 1.101564 tons yards 1093.613 yards yards 1.093613 yards TABLE A-9 HOW TO COLLECT, PRESS, AND MOUNT PLANTS Plant mounts make better study material than any manual. A properly dried, pressed, and mounted plant is attractive, easily displayed, and will last a long time. A plant collection makes an interesting conversation piece in the home and can be used as an exhibit at fairs, schools, and other displays. Equipment * Digging tool--a shovel, garden digger, or some other digging tool to remove the plant from the soil. * Trimming tool--a sharp knife or a pair of scissors to cut off woody specimens, to remove excess or old plant material, and to slice thick roots. * Specimen container--plastic bags are recommended for keeping plants until you can press them. * Notebook--a field notebook or tablet and a pencil or pen are needed to record all important information about the plant and the location where the plant was found. * Plant press--a binder-type press, eighteen inches long by twelve inches wide with alternating cardboard, blotter, and folded newspaper is recommended to dry and press the plant. Other items such as magazines will work for pressing if enough weight is placed on top. Collection Procedures 1. Because some plants bloom in early spring and others bloom in the late fall, you will not be able to collect all the plants at any one time of year. Plan several collection trips throughout the spring, summer, and fall. 2. Choose plant specimens carefully. Select one, or preferably two, of each plant species to be collected. 3. Avoid plants that are off-color, grazed, overmature, diseased, or otherwise not normal. 4. While at the site, record the plant in your field notebook or tablet by giving it a number. Record the plant name (if it is known) and the information that will be needed when completing the plant labels for your mount. Start a numbering system that will work for you. You may want to include the year, such as 99-1,99-2, and so on. If you use this format, 99 refers to the year, and each different plant species will be numbered consecutively (1,2,3, and so on). 5. When collecting grasses and grass-like plants: * Select specimens with seedheads fully emerged from the sheath. * Select specimens that are still green including the seedhead. * Collect the whole plant, when possible, including a good sample of the roots. * Be sure that rhizomes or stolons are attached to the plant if they are typical for that species. 6. When collecting forbs: * Select specimens in the flowering stage. * Collect the whole plant if possible, including a portion of the root. * Some forbs can be collected with both flowers and seeds, or seed pods, on the plant at the same time. * Be sure that rhizomes or stolons are attached to the plant if they are typical for that species. * Taproots or other thick roots should be sliced away on the underside so that the plant will be fairly flat after pressing. Collection Procedures 7. When collecting shrubs and other woody plants: * Select a branch about twelve to fourteen inches in length and not over ten inches in width. * Collect the plant when it is in bloom. * Many shrubs bloom in early spring before they leaf out. In these cases, collect two specimens, one in flower and one after the plant has leafed out. * Mount both specimens on the same sheet. * It is often useful to include a sample of both the current year and the older bark of woody plants. * Roots of large woody plants should not be included on the plant mount. 8. To remove a plant from the soil, dig about six inches straight down around the plant about three inches out from the stem. Carefully lift out the chunk of sod. If the soil is moist, use water to wash away the soil from the roots. 9. Remove all soil particles from the roots. Do not be afraid to wash the roots thoroughly on all the plants collected. In fact, it may take more than one washing. Excess moisture after washing the roots can be removed by firmly pressing the plant between paper towels. 10. Remove the excess plant material from the roots, stems, leaves, and seedheads. For example, by removing several stems from a large bunchgrass or shrub, it is easier to dry and mount a specimen. If plants are very large and bulky, collect a sample of the stem, leaf arrangement, root, and flower or seedhead. 11. Take several plastic bags with you when collecting plants. Put the plants in the bag with a few drops of water (do not overdo it), then seal the bag, and the specimens will stay fresh for several hours. They should be kept out of direct sunlight. If it isn't possible to press all the plants collected, most plants will stay fresh in the plastic bag if kept cool, such as in a refrigerator, for a day or two. However, put only one kind of plant in a bag and number the bag to match your field notebook. 12. Seeds and/or seed pods are very helpful in identifying many plants. A good way to include seeds is to place several seeds in a small, clear plastic, self-sealing envelope attached to the mount sheet. To prevent new infestations, it is also a good idea to carefully remove and burn all other seeds from any undesirable or weedy plant specimens. Guidelines for Pressing Plants The object is to quickly dry the plants under firm pressure to retain plant colors and the plant arrangement. 1. Press the plants as soon as possible after collecting. Once a plant wilts, it will not make an attractive mount. 2. Have your press ready to go before you remove a specimen from the plastic bag. Have plenty of newspaper pages folded lengthwise with about a quarter of the upper and lower edges folded toward the center. This will help keep your specimens from sliding out. A supply of corrugated cardboard sheets (cut to fit your press) are also needed. As you fill your press, alternate the cardboard sheets and folded paper (beginning and ending with a sheet of cardboard) to keep the specimens flat and speed the drying process. Although it is not necessary, blotter sheets can be placed between the newspaper and cardboard to speed the drying process. 3. Remove one plant at a time from the plastic bag. Check the plant closely to make sure that all soil is removed from the roots and remove excess moisture with a paper towel. Guidelines for Pressing Plants 4. If the plant is less than fourteen inches long, place it between the folded newspaper. Arrange the stems, leaves, roots, and flowers exactly as you want them to appear on the mount. Flowers should be pressed open. Both the upper and lower surfaces of flowers and leaves should be displayed. 5. If the plant is longer than twelve inches, it will be necessary to fold the plant in the shape of a V, N, or W. If the plant is still too large, press a sample of each plant part--stem, leaf, root, and flower or seedhead. For hard-to-handle plants, hold at the stem base firmly and slowly move the plant up and down against the newspaper a few times stopping with an upward stroke. (This will help separate and straighten out the branches and leaves.) 6. Hold the plant firmly in place and fold the upper and lower segments of the newspaper over the plant. While applying pressure to keep the plant in position, write the assigned plant number from your field notebook on the newspaper. Then place the plant into your press (a cardboard sheet should be below and above the folded newspaper). 7. Examine the plant after it has been pressed for twenty-four hours. This is your last opportunity to do some rearranging while the plant is still flexible. Be sure both upper and lower leaf surfaces show. Change the newspaper or blotter paper every day until the plant is thoroughly dry. Remember that succulent (fleshy) plants will take much longer to press. 8. Plants can be removed from the press in seven to ten days. Keep the plants in folded newspaper until you are ready to mount them. Mounting Plants After the plant specimens have been pressed and dried, they are ready to be mounted. 1. Herbarium sheets, standard (white) tag board, or poster board are recommended for mounting sheets. Although herbarium sheets usually have to be ordered through biological supply outlets, poster board can be purchased at most stores selling office and school supplies. If you use tag board, four mount sheets can be cut from one board if each sheet is cut at 11" x 14", or three sheets can be cut if each sheet is cut at 11 1/2" x 161/2". 2. Placement of specimen is easy if the plants have been pressed properly. The specimen should be placed upright with roots near the bottom and should provide a pleasing appearance. Leave room in the lower right-hand corner for a 3" x 5" mount label. 3. A transparent glue (Elmer's glue is best) is preferred to spot fasten the specimen to the mountsheet. You can also use small strips of gummed cloth. Scotch tape is not recommended. Small weights, such as lead casts, large nails, heavy washers, or large nuts, will hold the plant to the mount sheet while the glue is drying. 4. Each mount requires a label in the lower right-hand corner. The label must be properly filled out. Guidelines for Storing Plants 1. Mounted plants are usually stored in a cabinet or case to protect them from dust and insects. Although protective material is not required. Some collectors (especially for 4-H projects) use a protective cover to protect the plant material as it becomes brittle. Use a 4-5 mil clear plastic mylar material and do not use Saran Wrap or 1-2 mil clear plastic. Also, your mounts should not be laminated with a clear seal plastic until a botanist has verified the specimen and signed the label. Guidelines for Storing Plants 2. Your plants should be filed in a logical order that makes it easy to find a specific specimen. By filing all specimens by family, then arranging the family members in alphabetical order by genus and species, it is easy to find a specific specimen. 3. It is usually a good idea to store a few mothballs with your plants to protect them from insects. TABLE A-10 SAMPLE PLANT LABEL Plant common name -- Scientific name -- Collection Site Information Date collected -- State -- Distance -- (miles) and -- (direction) from (nearest town/city) nearest landmark -- Elevation -- Slope face -- Circle one for each item: Topography: mountains, foothills, breaks, plains, riparian Slope: nearly level, rolling, moderate, very steep Abundance: abundant, occasional, very few Tree overstory: yes, no Collector -- Plant number -- Verified by --