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Due to its location in a book, and because of its name, an appendix is often ignored by the reader. But an appendix contains valuable information that can enhance a reader's understanding and learning. Further, information in an appendix is quick and easy to find.

The information in this appendix includes a variety of useful conversion factors and facts. Armed with this information, the reader can understand more, plan more, and learn more.

Common Measures            Conversion Amounts

1 pound                    454 grams
2.2 pounds                 1 kilogram
1 quart                    1 liter
1 gram                     15.43 grains
1 metric ton               2,205 pounds
1 inch                     2.54 centimeters
1 centimeter               10 millimeters or .39 inches
1 meter                    39.37 inches
1 acre                     .406 hectare


Common Measures            Conversion Amounts
8 tablespoons              1/4 pound
3 teaspoons                1 tablespoon
1 pint                     1 pound
2 pints                    1 quart
4 quarts                   1 gallon or 8 pounds
2,000 pounds               1 ton
16 ounces                  1 pound
27 cubic feet              1 cubic yard
1 peck                     8 quarts
1 bushel                   4 pecks

Other Conversions

1 percent                  .01
1 percent                  10,000 parts per million
1 megacalorie (mcal)       1,000 calories
1 calorie (big calorie)    1,000 calories (small calorie)
1 megacalorie              1 therm


Product                     Pounds

Alfalfa                     60
Apples (average)            42
Barley (common)             48
Beans                       60
Bluegrass (Kentucky)        14-28
Bromegrass, orchardgrass    14
Buckwheat                   50
Clover                      60
Corn (dry ear)              70
Corn & cob meal             45
Corn (shelled)              56
Corn kernel meal            50
Corn (sweet)                50
Cowpeas                     60
Flax                        56
Millet (grain)              50
Oats                        32
Onions                      52
Peas                        60
Potatoes                    60
Ryegrass                    24
Rye                         56
Soybeans                    60
Spelt                       30-40
Sorghum                     56
Sudangrass                  40
Sunflower                   24
Timothy                     45
Wheat                       60
Milk, per gallon             8.6


                              Storage Loss   Feeding Loss
Storage Method                 (percent)      (percent)

Small bales, stored inside          4              5
Round bales, stored inside          4             14
Hay stacks, stored inside           4             16
Round bales, stored outside        12             14
Hay stacks, stored outside         16             16
Haylage, vertical silo              7             11
Haylage, bunk silo                 13             11


                                Pounds/       Cubic
Item                           Cubic Feet    Feet/Ton

Oats 32 lb/bu                      26           77
Barley 48 lb/bu                   38.4          53
Shelled corn 56 lb/bu             44.8          45
Wheat 60 lb/bu                     48           42
Corn & cob meal 70 lb/bu           28           72
Soybeans 60 lb/bu                  48           42
Rye 56 lb/bu                      44.8          45
Soybean oil meal 54 lb             --           37
Dairy feed 35 lb                   --           57


                                Average       Range
                                 Cubic        Cubic
Item                            Feet/Ton     Feet/Ton

Hay, baled                        275        250-300
Hay, chopped-field cured          425        400-450
Hay, chopped-mow cured            325        300-350
Hay, long                         500        475-525
Straw, baled                      450        400-500
Straw, chopped                    600        575-625
Hay, loose                        480        370-390
Straw, loose                      800        750-850


[degrees]F    [degrees]C    [degrees]F    [degrees]C

    100          37.8           77           25.0
    99           37.2           76           24.4
    98           36.7           75           23.9
    97           36.1           74           23.3
    96           35.6           73           22.8
    95           35.0           72           22.2
    94           34.4           71           21.7
    93           33.9           70           21.1
    92           33.3           69           20.6
    91           32.8           68           20.0
    90           32.2           67           19.4
    89           31.7           66           18.9
    88           31.1           65           18.3
    87           30.6           64           17.8
    86           30.0           63           17.2
    85           29.4           62           16.7
    84           28.9           61           16.1
    83           28.3           60           15.6
    82           27.8           59           15.0
    81           27.2           58           14.4
    80           26.7           57           13.9
    79           26.1           56           13.3
    78           25.6           55           12.8

[degrees]F    [degrees]F    [degrees]C

    100           54           12.2
    99            53           11.7
    98            52           11.1
    97            51           10.6
    96            50           10.0
    95            49            9.4
    94            48            8.9
    93            47            8.3
    92            46            7.8
    91            45            7.2
    90            44            6.7
    89            43            6.1
    88            42            5.6
    87            41            5.0
    86            40            4.4
    85            39            3.9
    84            38            3.3
    83            37            2.8
    82            36            2.2
    81            35            1.7
    80            34            1.1
    79            33            0.6
    78            32            0.0

(1) Formulas used: [degrees]C = ([degrees]F - 32) x 5/9 or
[degrees]F = ([degrees]C x 9/5) + 32


To Convert        To the Metric        To Convert
the English       Multiply by          Metric

acres             0.4047               hectares
acres             4047                 square meters
BTUs              1055                 joules
BTUs              0.0002928            kilowatt hours
BTU/hours         0.2931               watts
bushels           0.03524              cubic meters
bushels           35.24                liters
cubic feet        0.02832              cubic meters
cubic feet        28.32                liters
cubic inches      16.39                cubic centimeters
cubic inches      1.639 [10.sup.-5]    cubic meters
cubic inches      0.01639              liters
cubic yards       0.7646               cubic meters
cubic yards       764.6                liters
feet              30.48                centimeters
feet              0.3048               meters
feet/minute       0.508                centimeters/second
feet/second       30.48                centimeters/second
gallons           3785                 cubic centimeters
gallons           0.003785             cubic meters
gallons           3.785                liters
gallons/minute    0.06308              liters/second
inches            2.54                 centimeters
inches            0.0254               meters
miles             1.609                kilometers
miles per hour    26.82                meters/minute
ounces            28.349               grams
fluid ounces      0.02947              liters
liquid pints      0.4732               liters
pounds            453.59               grams
quarts            0.9463               liters
square feet       0.0929               square meters
square yards      0.8361               square meters
tons              0.9078               tons
yards             0.0009144            kilometers
yards             0.9144               meters

To Convert                             To Get
the English       Multiply by          English

acres             2.47                 acres
acres             0.000247             acres
BTUs              0.000948             BTUs
BTUs              3415.301             BTUs
BTU/hours         3.411805             BTU/hours
bushels           28.37684             bushels
bushels           0.028377             bushels
cubic feet        35.31073             cubic feet
cubic feet        0.035311             cubic feet
cubic inches      0.061013             cubic inches
cubic inches      61012.81             cubic inches
cubic inches      61.01281             cubic inches
cubic yards       1.307873             cubic yards
cubic yards       0.001308             cubic yards
feet              0.032808             feet
feet              3.28084              feet
feet/minute       1.968504             feet/minute
feet/second       0.032808             feet/second
gallons           0.000264             gallons
gallons           264.2008             gallons
gallons           0.264201             gallons
gallons/minute    15.85289             gallons/minute
inches            0.393701             inches
inches            39.37008             inches
miles             0.621504             miles
miles per hour    0.037286             miles per hour
ounces            0.035275             ounces
fluid ounces      33.93281             fluid ounces
liquid pints      2.113271             liquid pints
pounds            0.002205             pounds
quarts            1.056747             quarts
square feet       10.76426             square feet
square yards      1.196029             square yards
tons              1.101564             tons
yards             1093.613             yards
yards             1.093613             yards


Plant mounts make better study material than any manual. A properly
dried, pressed, and mounted plant is attractive, easily displayed,
and will last a long time. A plant collection makes an interesting
conversation piece in the home and can be used as an exhibit at
fairs, schools, and other displays.


* Digging tool--a
shovel, garden digger, or some other digging tool to remove the
plant from the soil.

* Trimming tool--a sharp knife or a pair of
scissors to cut off woody specimens, to remove excess or old plant
material, and to slice thick roots.

* Specimen container--plastic
bags are recommended for keeping plants until you can press them.

* Notebook--a field notebook or tablet and a pencil or pen are
needed to record all important information about the plant and the
location where the plant was found.

* Plant press--a binder-type
press, eighteen inches long by twelve inches wide with alternating
cardboard, blotter, and folded newspaper is recommended to dry and
press the plant. Other items such as magazines will work for
pressing if enough weight is placed on top.

Collection Procedures

1. Because some plants bloom in early spring and others bloom in
the late fall, you will not be able to collect all the plants at
any one time of year. Plan several collection trips throughout the
spring, summer, and fall.

2. Choose plant specimens carefully.
Select one, or preferably two, of each plant species to be

3. Avoid plants that are off-color, grazed, overmature,
diseased, or otherwise not normal.

4. While at the site, record the plant in your field notebook or
tablet by giving it a number. Record the plant name (if it is known)
and the information that will be needed when completing the plant
labels for your mount. Start a numbering system that will work for
you. You may want to include the year, such as 99-1,99-2, and so on.
If you use this format, 99 refers to the year, and each different
plant species will be numbered consecutively (1,2,3, and so on).

5. When collecting grasses and grass-like plants:

* Select specimens with
seedheads fully emerged from the sheath.

* Select specimens that
are still green including the seedhead.

* Collect the whole plant, when possible, including a good sample of
the roots.

* Be sure that rhizomes or stolons are attached to the plant if they
are typical for that species.

6. When collecting forbs:

* Select specimens in the flowering stage.

* Collect the whole plant if possible, including a portion of the

* Some forbs can be collected with both flowers and seeds, or seed
pods, on the plant at the same time.

* Be sure that rhizomes or stolons are attached to the plant if they
are typical for that species.

* Taproots or other thick roots should be sliced away on the underside
so that the plant will be fairly flat after pressing.

Collection Procedures

7. When collecting shrubs and other woody plants:

* Select a branch about twelve to fourteen inches in
length and not over ten inches in width.

* Collect the plant when it is in bloom.

* Many shrubs bloom in early spring before they
leaf out. In these cases, collect two specimens, one in flower and
one after the plant has leafed out.

* Mount both specimens on the same sheet.

* It is often useful to include a sample of both the
current year and the older bark of woody plants.

* Roots of large woody plants should not be included on the plant

8. To remove a plant from the soil, dig about six inches straight down
around the plant about three inches out from the stem. Carefully
lift out the chunk of sod. If the soil is moist, use water to wash
away the soil from the roots.

9. Remove all soil particles from the roots. Do not be afraid to wash
the roots thoroughly on all the plants collected. In fact, it may take
more than one washing. Excess moisture after washing the roots can be
removed by firmly pressing the plant between paper towels.

10. Remove the excess plant material from the roots, stems, leaves,
and seedheads. For example, by removing several stems from a large
bunchgrass or shrub, it is easier to dry and mount a specimen. If
plants are very large and bulky, collect a sample of the stem, leaf
arrangement, root, and flower or seedhead.

11. Take several plastic bags with you when collecting plants. Put
the plants in the bag with a few drops of water (do not overdo it),
then seal the bag, and the specimens will stay fresh for several
hours. They should be kept out of direct sunlight. If it isn't
possible to press all the plants collected, most plants will stay
fresh in the plastic bag if kept cool, such as in a refrigerator, for
a day or two. However, put only one kind of plant in a bag and number
the bag to match your field notebook.

12. Seeds and/or seed pods are very helpful
in identifying many plants. A good way to include seeds is to place
several seeds in a small, clear plastic, self-sealing envelope
attached to the mount sheet. To prevent new infestations, it is
also a good idea to carefully remove and burn all other seeds from
any undesirable or weedy plant specimens.

Guidelines for Pressing Plants

The object is to quickly dry the plants under firm pressure
to retain plant colors and the plant arrangement.

1. Press the plants as soon as possible after collecting. Once a
plant wilts, it will not make an attractive mount.

2. Have your press ready to go
before you remove a specimen from the plastic bag. Have plenty of
newspaper pages folded lengthwise with about a quarter of the upper
and lower edges folded toward the center. This will help keep your
specimens from sliding out. A supply of corrugated cardboard sheets
(cut to fit your press) are also needed. As you fill your press,
alternate the cardboard sheets and folded paper (beginning and
ending with a sheet of cardboard) to keep the specimens flat and
speed the drying process. Although it is not necessary, blotter
sheets can be placed between the newspaper and cardboard to speed
the drying process.

3. Remove one plant at a time from the plastic
bag. Check the plant closely to make sure that all soil is removed
from the roots and remove excess moisture with a paper towel.

Guidelines for Pressing Plants

4. If the plant is less than fourteen inches long, place it between
the folded newspaper. Arrange the stems, leaves, roots, and flowers
exactly as you want them to appear on the mount. Flowers should be
pressed open. Both the upper and lower surfaces of flowers and leaves
should be displayed.

5. If the plant is longer than twelve inches, it will
be necessary to fold the plant in the shape of a V, N, or W. If the
plant is still too large, press a sample of each plant part--stem,
leaf, root, and flower or seedhead. For hard-to-handle plants, hold
at the stem base firmly and slowly move the plant up and down
against the newspaper a few times stopping with an upward stroke.
(This will help separate and straighten out the branches and

6. Hold the plant firmly in place and fold the upper and
lower segments of the newspaper over the plant. While applying
pressure to keep the plant in position, write the assigned plant
number from your field notebook on the newspaper. Then place the
plant into your press (a cardboard sheet should be below and above
the folded newspaper).

7. Examine the plant after it has been
pressed for twenty-four hours. This is your last opportunity to do
some rearranging while the plant is still flexible. Be sure both
upper and lower leaf surfaces show. Change the newspaper or blotter
paper every day until the plant is thoroughly dry. Remember that
succulent (fleshy) plants will take much longer to press.

8. Plants can be removed from the press in seven to ten days. Keep the
plants in folded newspaper until you are ready to mount them.

Mounting Plants

After the plant specimens have been pressed and
dried, they are ready to be mounted.

1. Herbarium sheets, standard
(white) tag board, or poster board are recommended for mounting
sheets. Although herbarium sheets usually have to be ordered
through biological supply outlets, poster board can be purchased at
most stores selling office and school supplies. If you use tag
board, four mount sheets can be cut from one board if each sheet is
cut at 11" x 14", or three sheets can be cut if each sheet is cut
at 11 1/2" x 161/2".

2. Placement of specimen is easy if the
plants have been pressed properly. The specimen should be placed
upright with roots near the bottom and should provide a pleasing
appearance. Leave room in the lower right-hand corner for a 3" x 5"
mount label.

3. A transparent glue (Elmer's glue is best) is
preferred to spot fasten the specimen to the mountsheet. You can
also use small strips of gummed cloth. Scotch tape is not
recommended. Small weights, such as lead casts, large nails, heavy
washers, or large nuts, will hold the plant to the mount sheet
while the glue is drying.

4. Each mount requires a label in the
lower right-hand corner. The label must be properly filled out.

Guidelines for Storing Plants

1. Mounted plants are usually
stored in a cabinet or case to protect them from dust and insects.
Although protective material is not required. Some collectors
(especially for 4-H projects) use a protective cover to protect the
plant material as it becomes brittle. Use a 4-5 mil clear plastic
mylar material and do not use Saran Wrap or 1-2 mil clear plastic.
Also, your mounts should not be laminated with a clear seal plastic
until a botanist has verified the specimen and signed the label.

Guidelines for Storing Plants

2. Your plants should be filed in a
logical order that makes it easy to find a specific specimen. By
filing all specimens by family, then arranging the family members
in alphabetical order by genus and species, it is easy to find a
specific specimen.

3. It is usually a good idea to store a few
mothballs with your plants to protect them from insects.


Plant common name -- Scientific name --
Collection Site Information
Date collected -- State -- Distance -- (miles)
and -- (direction) from (nearest town/city) nearest landmark --
Elevation -- Slope face --
Circle one for each item:
Topography: mountains, foothills, breaks, plains, riparian
Slope: nearly level, rolling, moderate, very steep
Abundance: abundant, occasional, very few
Tree overstory: yes, no
Collector --
Plant number -- Verified by --
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Publication:Fundamentals of Plant Science
Article Type:Appendix
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Previous Article:Chapter 22: Modern agriculture and world food: why plant science?
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