# Appendix.

Appendix A: Weights and Measurements

Weights and Measurements

This section has been written to give you instant access to a table of weights and measurements when you are entering recipes. The weights and measurements are only approximate: you can never be precise for many reasons:

1. The moisture contents of products vary constantly.

2. Sizes of individual pieces or particles will vary from container to container.

3. The exact weight of a gallon or a pound of product is seldom a convenient round number.

4. It would be impractical to say that a pint of water is 1 9/10 cups. It is simpler just to say 2 cups.

5. Products containing moisture become lighter as they dry out.

6. Wet products containing sugar become heavier when the moisture evaporates and they become thicker.

7. A cup of flour could weigh 4 ounces. If you sift it, it may weigh less.

8. Any measurement such as a "Level" teaspoon or "Level" cupful is seldom exactly accurate.
```Gram Weight Conversion Table

OUNCES      GRAMS     POUNDS     GRAMS

1       28.35       1       453.6
2       56.70       2       907.2
3       85.05       2.5    1134.0
4      113.40       3      1136.8
5      141.75       4      1814.4
6      170.10       5      2268.0
7      198.45       6      2721.6
8      226.80       7      3175.2
9      255.15       8      3628.8
10      283.50       9      4082.4
11      311.85      10      4536.0
12      340.20      15      6804.0
13      368.55      20      9072.0
14      396.90      25     11340.0
15      425.25      30     13608.0
16      453.60      35     15876.0

(Note: When you know the weight in ounces, multiply by
28.35 to find the grams. Divide the grams by 453.6 to find
the pounds.)

Metric Size Fluid Equivalents

U.S. FL   3/4                  1/1/08
METRIC               OZ        OZ        1 OZ       OZ

1.75 Liter           59.2      78.9      59.2       52.6
1.0 Liter            33.8      45.1      33.8       30.0
750 Milliliters      25.4      33.9      25.4       22.6
500 Milliliters      16.9      22.5      16.9       15.0
200 Milliliters       6.8       9.1       6.8        6.0
50 Milliliters        1.7

METRIC             1/1/04    1/1/02    CLOSEST PREVIOUS
OZ        OZ        CONTAINER U.S. OZ
1.75 Liter
1.0 Liter            47.4      39.5    1/2 Gal.   = 64 OZ
750 Milliliters      27.0      22.5         Qt.   = 32 OZ
500 Milliliters      20.3      16.9        5th    = 25.6 OZ
200 Milliliters      13.5      11.3         Pt    = 16 OZ
50 Milliliters        5.4       4.5     1/2 Pt.   = 8 OZ
Miniature  = 1.6 OZ

Equivalent Measures for Fluids

3 teaspoons           =      1 tablespoon
16 tablespoons        =      1 cup
28.35 grams           =      1 ounce
1 cup                 =      1/2 pint
2 cups                =      1 pint
2 pints               =      1 quart
4 quarts              =      1 gallon
768 teaspoons         =      1 gallon
1 lb. (water) *       =      16 fluid ounces
1 lb. (water) *       =      1 fluid pint
2 lb. (water) *       =      1 fluid quart

(Note: This table gives measurement/weight
equivalencies for water. Other liquids may vary.)

Volume Conversions for Recipe Writing

TEASPOON    TABLESPOON     QUART        CUP

1 teaspoon          1.0       0.333333     0.0052083    0.020833
1 tablespoon        3.0       1.0          0.015625     0.062500
1 cup              48.0      16.0           .25         1.0
1 pint             96.0      32.0           .50         2.0
1 quart           192.0      64.0          1.0          4.0
1 gallon          768.0     256.0          4.0         16.0

Pound and Ounce to Gram

OUNCES      GRAMS     POUNDS    GRAMS

1       28.35         1      453.60
5      141.75         5     2268
10      283.50        10     4536
12      340.20        25    11340
16      453.60        50    22680

Teaspoons and Tablespoons

TEASPOONS            TABLESPOONS

3 = 0.5 ounce       1 = 3 teaspoons
6 = 1 ounce         2 = 1 ounce
48 = 1 cup           4 = 0.25 cup
96 = 1 pint          8 = 0.5 cup
192 = 1 quart        16 = 1 cup
960 = 5 quarts      128 = 1/2 gallon
768 = 1 gallon      256 = 1 gallon

Decimal Equivalents of Common Fractions

ROUNDED TO     ROUNDED TO
FRACTION     3 PLACES       2 PLACES

5/6            0.833         0.83
4/5            0.8           0.8
3/4            0.75          0.75
2/3            0.667         0.67
5/8            0.625         0.63
3/5            0.6           0.6
1/2            0.5           0.5
1/3            0.333         0.33
1/4            0.25          0.25
1/5            0.2           0.2
1/6            0.167         0.17
1/8            0.125         0.13
1/10           0.1           0.1
1/12           0.083         0.08
1/16           0.063         0.06
1/25           0.04          0.04

Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion
(Approximate)

FAHRENHEIT             CELSIUS

32[degrees] F        0[degrees] C
50[degrees] F       10[degrees] C
68[degrees] F       20[degrees] C
86[degrees] F       30[degrees] C
100[degrees] F       40[degrees] C
115[degrees] F       45[degrees] C
120[degrees] F       50[degrees] C
130[degrees] F       55[degrees] C
140[degrees] F       60[degrees] C
160[degrees] F       70[degrees] C
170[degrees] F       75[degrees] C
180[degrees] F       80[degrees] C
185[degrees] F       85[degrees] C
195[degrees] F       90[degrees] C
200[degrees] F       95[degrees] C
212[degrees] F      100[degrees] C
230[degrees] F      110[degrees] C
250[degrees] F      120[degrees] C
265[degrees] F      130[degrees] C
285[degrees] F      140[degrees] C
300[degrees] F      150[degrees] C
325[degrees] F      165[degrees] C
350[degrees] F      175[degrees] C
360[degrees] F      180[degrees] C
375[degrees] F      190[degrees] C
400[degrees] F      200[degrees] C
425[degrees] F      220[degrees] C
450[degrees] F      230[degrees] C
485[degrees] F      250[degrees] C
500[degrees] F      260[degrees] C
575[degrees] F      300[degrees] C

Sizes and Capacities of Scoops

NUMBER ON SCOOP      LEVEL MEASURE
6      2/3 cup
8      1/2 cup
10      3/8 cup
12      1/3 cup
16      1/4 cup
20      3 1/3 tablespoons
24      2 2/3 tablespoons
30      2 tablespoons
40      1 2/3 tablespoons
50      3 3/4 teaspoons
60      3 1/4 teaspoons
70      2 3/4 teaspoons
100 2 teaspoons

Sizes and Capacities of
Measuring/Serving Spoons

SIZE OF MEASURING/    APPROXIMATE
SERVING SPOON         MEASURE

2 ounces              1/4 cup
3 ounces              3/8 cup
4 ounces              1/2 cup
6 ounces              3/4 cup
8 ounces              1 cup

Appendix B: Canned Goods

Common Can Sizes and Their Appropriate Contents

CAN SIZE         PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS

No. 5 squat

75 oz. squat

No. 10           Institution size--fruits, vegetables, and some
other foods

No. 3 cyl        Institution size--condensed soups, some vegetables.
Meat and poultry products. Economy family
size--fruit and vegetable juices

No. 2 1/2        Family size--fruits, some vegetables

No. 2            Family size--juices, ready-to-serve soups, and some
fruits

No. 303          Small cans--fruits, vegetables, some meat and

No. 300          Small cans--some fruits and meat products

No. 2 (vacuum)   Principally for vacuum pack corn

No. 1 (picnic)   Small cans--condensed soups, some fruits,
vegetables, meat, and fish

8 oz.            Small cans--ready-to-serve soups, fruits, and
vegetables

6 oz.

Common Can Sizes and Their Approximate
Weights and Volumes

Volumes represent total water capacity of the can. Actual volume of
the pack would depend upon the contents and the head space from the
fluid level to top of can.

AVERAGE          AVERAGE     CANS PER       APPROX
CAN SIZE         VOLUME      FLUID          CUPS

75 squat
No. 5               56
No. 10             105.1     99 to 117      12 to 13
No. 3 cyl           49.6     51 or 46        5 3/4
No. 2 1/2           28.55    27 to 29        3 1/2
No. 2               19.7     20 or 18        2 1/2
No. 303             16.2     16 or 17        2
No. 300             14.6     14 or 16        1 3/4
No. 2 (vacuum)               12 fl oz        1 1/2
No. 1 (picnic)               10 1/2 fl oz    1 1/4
8 oz.                8.3      8 fl oz        1
6 oz.                5.8      6 fl oz        3/4

AVERAGE
CAN SIZE         CASE        WEIGHT

75 squat          6           4 lb 11 oz
No. 5             6           4 lb 2 oz
No. 10            6           6 lb 9 oz
No. 3 cyl        12          46 fl oz
No. 2 1/2        24          12 oz
No. 2            24           1 lb 13 oz
No. 303          24 or 36     1 lb
No. 300          24          15 1/2 oz
No. 2 (vacuum)   24
No. 1 (picnic)   48
8 oz.            48 or 72    8 oz
6 oz.            48          6 oz
```