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Appendix.

APPENDIX A

Flowers

The aim of the flower appendix is to provide a wealth of information to help you become more familiar with and confident in pronouncing, selecting, and caring for cut flowers. Generic names and common names are listed alphabetically. The name of each genus is given first, (which is also the scientific name, botanical name, and the Latin name) and is followed by a suggested pronunciation. The family in which it is placed, the derivation of the name, species, and common names are listed for each flower. Although most flowers are available yearround, some are limited to certain seasons, or have peak supplies in only one or two months of the year. A brief description of each flower is given along with approximate vase life and specific care and handling procedures. Common names are cross-referenced to the correct scientific name. The color plates, line illustrations, and photographs help ease identification.

Vase life can be dramatically increased by following several simple care and handling techniques. Choose flower varieties carefully. Often one variety, because of its genetic makeup will outlast another for several days or weeks. It is important to process flowers immediately upon arrival. Process the most expensive and wilt-sensitive flowers first. Studies show that cutting flowers under water and treating with a hydration solution, such as dipping newly cut stems for one second in Floralife Quick Dip[R] or for 30 to 60 minutes in Hydraflor[R]/100, will greatly speed the hydration and longevity of cut flowers. Place flowers in a warm preservative solution and let them stand outside the cooler for one to two hours. Next, place flowers in a 32-38[degrees]F cooler that has 80-90% relative humidity. Protect flowers from ethylene sources. Generally the grower, wholesaler, or retailer will treat flowers with an ethlyene inhibitor. For an in-depth look at care and handling, see Chapter 10.

A

ACACIA (see Plate 10) (a-KAY-sha)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: Named from the Greek word akis (sharp point), referring to the thorns.

Species: dealbata, longifolia; others

Common Names: acacia, mimosa, wattle

Availability: October through March

Description: Trees with clusters of fragrant, ball-shaped yellow flowers with gray-green, finely cut leaves. Branches of fluffy clusters work well as fillers; recut under water; place stems in hydration solution; cut flowers dry out and lose their fuzzy appearance as they age.

Vase Life: 4 to 5 days while in cooler, cover with plastic to retain moisture.

ACHILLEA (ah-kil-LEE-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Achilles of Greek mythology, who is said to have used it medicinally.

Species: filipendulina, millefolium; others and hybrids

Common Names: yarrow, milfoil

Availability: July through September

Description: Flat-headed, yellow corymb flowers over a feathery foliage. Also available in pink, red, and white.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

ACONITUM (ak-ah-NEE-tum)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: napellus; others

Common Names: monkshood, aconite

Availability: April through October

Description: Tall spikelike racemes of deep blue, hooded (helmet-shaped) florets. Also available in light blue, white, and cream varieties.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days. Monkshood is extremely toxic.

Wash hands after handling to get rid of toxic substances.

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AFRICAN CORN LILY see Ixia

AFRICAN DAISY see Gerbera

AFRICAN LILY see Agapanthus

AGAPANTHUS (see Plate 1) (ag-a-PAN-thus)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words agape (love) and

anthos (flower)

Species: africanus (A. umbellatus), orientalis; others and hybrids

Common Names: lily of the Nile, African lily

Availability: March through August

Description: Large umbels of blue, funnel-shaped flowers in various tints. Also available in white. The stem of the agapanthus adds a strong line element with its bold-shaped yet airy flower head. Mixes well with other flowers in many different design styles.

Vase Life: 4 to 7 days, with individual florets blooming continuously over several days; ethylene sensitive.

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ALCHEMILLA (al-ke-MIL-la)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Species: mollis; others

Common Name: lady's mantle

Availability: Spring to early fall with peak supplies May through July

Description: Feathery sprays (compound cymes) of small, yellowish or greenish flowers. Useful as an airy filler.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

ALLIUM (see Plate 1) (AL-ee-um)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name for garlic

Species: giganteum, sphaerocephalon; others

Common Names: allium, onion flower, garlic, flowering onion

Availability: April through September

Description: Bulbs producing globe-shaped umbels of purple and pink flowers on leafless stems. Also available in blue, white, and yellow varieties. Most smell like onion when cut, but odor generally dissipates.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

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ALPINIA (see Plate 2) (al-PIN-ee-ah)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger, cardamom, and turmeric)

Species: purpurata, zerumbet; others

Common Names: ginger, ostrich plume, torch ginger, shell ginger

Availability: Year-round

Description: The flower head consists of shiny red or pink bracts at the end of a heavy, thick stem, often up to 36 inches long. Ginger provides a strong vertical line. The colored bracts provide emphasis. If flowers appear wilted, immerse the entire stem and bracts in room-temperature water for 15 to 30 minutes.

Vase Life: Incredibly long lasting, up to 3 weeks

ALSTROEMERIA (see Plate 1) (al-stre-MEAR-ee-ah)

Family: Alstroemeriaceae (alstroemeria family)

Name Origin: Named after Baron Claus Alstroemer (1736-1794).

Species: heamantha, aurantiaca, pelegrina; others and hybrids

Common Names: alstroemeria, alstro, Peruvian lily, Inca lily, lily of the Incas

Availability: Year-round

Description: Umbelled clusters of delicate, trumpetshaped flowers borne at the end of short flower stalks that spray off of a single stem. Available in many colors with many intermediate colors. Most varieties are freckled or streaked with contrasting colors.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 2 weeks, with individual flowers lasting 5 to 7 days each. Ethylene sensitive, with leaves often yellowing prematurely; remove lower leaves.

AMARANTHUS (am-a-RAN-thus)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Name Origin: From the Greek word amarantos (unfading), referring to the long-lasting flowers.

Species: hypochondriacus, tricolor, caudatus; others and hybrids

Common Names: amaranth; prince's feather (A. hypochondriacus); Joseph's coat (A. tricolor); love lies bleeding, cat's tail, tassel flower (A. caudatus)

Availability: Summer and autumn

Description: Erect and brushlike flower racemes and spikes up to 6 inches long. Available in red, green, and cream. The species A. caudatus and hybrids are slender, drooping red-flower racemes up to 16 inches long.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

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AMARYLLIS (see Plate 3) (am-a-RIL-is)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Named after a shepherdess in Greek mythology.

Species: belladonna; see Hippeastrum for the larger trumpet-shaped flower that is commonly called Amaryllis.

Common Names: belladonna lily, naked lady lily, cape belladonna

Availability: May through November

Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers, each 2 to 3 inches across on a single thick, leafless stem. Available in pink, red, and white. Belladonna lilies are fragrant and attractive in many design styles, especially parallel and vegetative designs where their forms are apparent.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 10 days

AMAZON LILY see Eucharis

AMMI (see Plate 21) (AM-me)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: majus; (similar are the species Daucus carota and D. sativus)

Common Names: Queen Anne's lace, bishop's weed; wild Queen Anne's lace (Daucus)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Delicate, white, compound umbels, 3 to 6 inches across. Queen Anne's lace is more airy than Daucus varieties. Both Ammi and Daucus work well as fillers.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

ANANAS (see Plate 21) (a-NA-nas)

Family: Bromeliaceae (pineapple family)

Species: nanus, bracteatus stivus, comosus; others

Common Names: ornamental pineapple, dwarf pineapple

Availability:Year-round

Description: Large or small pink, white, or variegated head resembles the edible pineapple. Provides an immediate focal point through shape and texture. Use caution--plants have thorny spikes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

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ANEMONE (see Plate 1) (a-NEM-oh-nee)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: Named after Adonis, also called Naamen, a handsome young man of Greek mythology who was loved by Aphrodite. He was killed by a wild boar and his blood is said to have given rise to the blood-red flowers.

Species: coronaria; others and hybrids Common Names:windflower, lily of the field, poppy anemone Availability: October through May Description: Cup-shaped solitary flowers open up flat. Petals surround a dark center. Available in vibrant colors of red, pink, blue, purple, as well as white. Many anemones curve toward the light. Vase Life: 3 to 7 days. Keep cool to prevent premature wilting and drooping.

ANETHUM (a-NAY-thum)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: graveolens

Common Name: dill

Availability:Year-round

Description: Compound umbel clusters of yellow flowers, similar to Queen Anne's lace, on stems up to 36 inches tall. A useful, long-lasting filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

ANIGOZANTHOS (see Plate 14) (a-nee-go-ZAN-thus)

Family: Haemodoraceae (kangaroo paw family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anoigo (to open) and anthos (flower), referring to the flowers that are widely open.

Species: flavidus, pulcherrimus, rufus; others and cultivars

Common Name: kangaroo paw

Availability:Year-round

Description: Unusual red, purple, green, or yellowish, fuzzy flowers borne in one-sided racemes and spikes. Each blossom has a covering of short, colored fur providing a delicate texture contrast. Combines easily with other exotic flowers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 2 weeks

ANNUAL DELPHINIUM see Consolida

ANTHURIUM (see Plate 2) (an-THUR-ee-um)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anthos (flower) and oura (tail), referring to the tail-like inflorescence or spadix.

Species: andraeanum, scherzeranum

Common Names: anthurium, tail flower, flamingo flower, painted tongue, painter's palette, peace lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Anthurium flowers consist of a modified, shiny, colorful leaf called a "spathe." The spathe is usually heart-shaped or arrow-shaped, in reds, pinks, white, bicolors, and tricolors. The true flowers are on a cylindrical, long spadix that is usually yellow, but sometimes appears in other colors. The size of the spathe varies from 23?4 to 6 inches or more. These flowers lend a dramatic focal point and look best when used alone or with other exotic flowers.

Vase Life: Anthuriums are extremely hardy cut flowers, lasting 2 to 3 weeks or more; however, care must be taken in handling anthuriums as they bruise easily. Anthuriums are accustomed to humid and warm conditions. Mist often with water and do not store below 45[degrees]F. If bracts look wilted, immerse entire stem in water for 15 to 30 minutes.

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ANTIRRHINUM (see Plate 24) (an-tee-RYE-num)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anti (like) and rhis (snout), referring to the appearance of the individual florets. Species: majus; cultivars

Common Names: snapdragon, snaps

Availability: Year-round

Description: A spiked, terminal raceme with florets 11?2 inches long that are tubular with rounded upper and lower lips (when squeezed together they snap open and shut).

Available in many colors. Snapdragons are geotropic (bend upright away from gravity); store or arrange in a vertical position to prevent curvature. Removing the very top bud can help deter bending.

Vase Life: Capable of a long vase-life of up to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive.

AQUILEGIA (ak-wi-LEE-ji-a)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aquila (eagle). The flower petals resemble the claws of eagles and other birds of prey.

Species: caerula, canadensis, chrysantha, flabellata; others and hybrids

Common Name: columbine

Availability: April through September

Description: Terminal, bonnet-shaped flowers consisting of five petals, each with its own protruding spur. The flowers are 1 to 3 inches long. Available in white, pink, yellow, blue, and purple.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days; do not store in cooler.

ARUM LILY see Zantedeschia

ASCLEPIAS (as-KLEE-pee-us)

Family: Asclepiadacea (milkweeds and wax plant)

Name Origin: From Asklepios, the Greek god of medicine, referring to medicinal properties.

Species: tuberosa; others

Common Names: milkweed, blood flower, silkweed

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through September

Description: Tiny, waxy, orange flowers appear in rounded, umbellate cyme clusters. Adds mass and accent to designs; can also be used as a filler flower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; florets continue to open; remove old or dying florets. Stems exude a milky sap (hence the name milkweed); dip stems in hot water and place in warm perservative solution.

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ASIAN LILY see Lilium

ASTER (see Plate 3) (AS-ter)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aster (star), referring to the flowers.

Species: cordifolius, ericoides, novi-belgii; others and hybrids

Common Names: monte cassino aster (A. ericoides 'Monte Cassino'); Michaelmas daisy (A. novi-belgii)

Availability: July through December

Description: Numerous daisylike flowers 3?4 to 1 inch across in double or single types. Available in a wide variety of colors, usually with a yellow center. The flowers are clustered racemes, corymbs, or panicles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 10 days

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ASTILBE (see Plate 3) (a-STIL-bee)

Family: Saxifragaceae (currants, hydrangeas, and saxifrages)

Name Origin: From the Greek words a (without) and stilbe (brillance), meaning the individual flowers are extremely small.

Species: chinensis; others and hybrids

Common Names: false spirea, goat's beard, meadowsweet

Availability: Year-round

Description: Pyramidal feather plumes. Flowers are borne in loose, pyramidal panicles on slender stems. Available in white, pink, and red. Excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

ASTRANTIA (a-STRAN-tee-ah)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aster (star) referring to the starlike flowers.

Species: major; others and hybrids

Common Name: masterwort

Availability: April to September

Description: Delicate, star-shaped flowers in clustered umbels. Available in white, pinks, and reds. Useful as a mass or filler flower. Up close, Astrantia has a slight, sometimes unpleasant, odor.

Vase Life: 4 to 7 days

ATRIPLEX (AH-tri-plex)

Family: Chenopodiaceae (sugar beet family)

Name Origin: Greek name for A. hortensis herbs and shrubs.

Species: lumex; others

Common Names: saltbush, greasewood

Availability: November through April

Description: Tall erect stems with open loose flower heads; available in red, green, and gray; sometimes used as cut foliage.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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B

BABY'S BREATH see Gypsophila

BACHELOR'S BUTTON see Centaurea

BANKSIA (see Plate 20) (BANK-see-ah)

Family: Proteaceae (proteas, banksias, and grevilleas)

Name Origin: Named after botanist Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820).

Species: ashbyi, baxteri, coccinea, collina, ericifolia, menziesii, speciosa; many others

Common Names: protea, bird's nest, giant bottlebrush

Availability: Year-round

Description: Conelike, dense terminal spikes in reds, oranges, and yellows. Provides an immediate focal point. Foliage has textural appeal.

Vase Life: Extremely long lasting, 2 to 4 weeks

BARBERTON DAISY see Gerbera

BELLADONNA LILY see Amaryllis

BELLFLOWER see Campanula

BELLS OF IRELAND see Moluccella

BILLY BUTTONS see Craspedia

BIRD OF PARADISE see Strelitzia

BIRD'S NEST see Banksia

BLACK-EYED SUSAN see Rudbeckia

BLANKET FLOWER see Gaillardia

BLAZING STAR see Liatris

BLOOD FLOWER see Asclepias

BLUEBELL see Scilla

BLUE LACEFLOWER see Trachymene

BLUE THROATWORT see Trachelium

BORONIA (ba-RONE-knee-ah)

Family: Rutaceae (citrus fruit family)

Species: heterophylla

Common Name: boronia

Availability: January to September, with peak supplies in the spring

Description: Long spikes of bright hot pink, light pink, or purple bell-shaped flowers nestled up and down the stem of soft, needlelike leaves; similar to heather but softer with larger flowers; citrusy scent.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; susceptible to dehydration; condition in hydrating solution outside the cooler; air dries nicely.

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BOUVARDIA (see Plate 4) (boo-VAR-dee-ah)

Family: Rubiaceae (gardenias, coffee, and quinine)

Name Origin: Named after Dr. Charles Bouvard (1572-1658).

Species: longiflora hybrids

Common Name: bouvardia

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small, tubular flowers with spreading starlike petals in terminal cyme clusters. Generally fragrant. Available in white, pinks, oranges, and reds. Excellent filler flower. Often used in wedding and corsage work.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; sensitive to water stress and cool temperatures; ethylene sensitive; prefers preservative solution to the use of floral foam. Remove foliage on lower stem.

BRAIN FLOWER see Celosia

BRODIAEA see Triteleia

BROOM see Cytisus

BUPLEURUM (boo-PLUR-rum)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word boupleuros (ox rib).

Species: rotundifolium, grif-fithii; others

Common Name: thorough-wax

Availability: Year-round

Description: Multibranched green filler flower and foliage; tiny yellow crown of flowers at the ends of green, leafy stems; adds a light, airy, informal look.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; wash lower stems and recut under water; immediately place in hydration solution; condition outside of cooler for 1 to 2 hours.

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BUTTERFLY ORCHID see Oncidium

BUTTON MUM see Chrysanthemum

BUTTON SNAKEROOT see Liatris

C

CALENDULA (ka-LEN-dew-la)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word calandae (first day of the month), referring to its long flowering period.

Species: officinalis; many hybrids

Common Name: pot marigold

Availability: April through November

Description: Daisylike double-petaled head flowers. Available in bright yellows and oranges.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CALLA LILY see Zantedeschia

CALLISTEPHUS (see Plate 3) (ka-LIS-te-fus)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words kallos (beautiful) and stephanus (crown), referring to the showy solitary flower heads.

Species: chinensis hybrids

Common Names: China aster, aster, Matsumoto aster

Availability: June through September

Description: Large, solitary flower heads. Available in a variety of shapes and colors.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days; remove any excess foliage for longer vase life.

CALLUNA see Erica

CALYCINA see Thryptomene

CAMELLIA (see Plate 5) (ka-MEL-ee-a)

Family: Theaceae (tea, camellias, and franklinia)

Name Origin: Named after pharmacist George Joseph

Kamel (1661-1706), who studied the Philippines flora.

Species: japonica, reticulata, sinensis; others

Common Name: camellia

Availability: January and February

Description: Solitary waxy flowers. Available mostly in pinks, reds, and white. Single flowers are excellent for weddings and corsages. Larger flowering branches add interest to large designs.

Vase Life: Single flowers that are prepackaged, last only 1 to 2 days. However, woody branches with flower buds can last more than a week.

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CAMPANULA (see Plate 5) (kam-PAHN-ew-lah)

Family: Campanulaceae (bellflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word campana (bell), referring to the bell-shaped flowers.

Species: glomerata, persicifolia, pyramidalis; others

Common Names: bellflower, chimney bells, Canterbury bells

Availability: April through August

Description: Whether clustered or spikelike, these work well in mixed summer arrangements. C. glomerata has a bold clustered shape that works well in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CANDYTUFT see Iberis

CAPE JASMINE see Gardenia

CARNATION see Dianthus

CARTHAMUS (see Plate 24) (CAR-tha-mus)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: tinctorius

Common Names: safflower, false saffron

Availability: June through November

Description: These thistlelike flowers are about 1 inch across with a green globular center, where thin orange or yellowish petals emerge. Safflowers add interesting texture to designs. Useful as an accent or filler.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks. Removal of excess foliage increases vase life.

CASPIA see Limonium

CAT'S TAIL see Amaranthus

CATTLEYA (see Plate 19) (KAT-lee-ah)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: Named after horticultural patron, William Cattley (early 1800s).

Species: aurantiaca, bicolor, intermedia, labiata; others and hybrids

Common Name: corsage orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: The flowers measure 3 to 6 inches across. Available in white, lavender, pink, and yellow. Their shape is exotic and interesting, with showy sepals and petals. A broad ruffled lip is in the center. Generally used for corsage and wedding flowers but can be incorporated into arrangements. Generally packaged singly with individual water tubes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 5 to 10 days with direct water supply

CELOSIA (see-LO-si-ah or see-LO-shee-ah)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Name Origin: From the Greek word keleos (burning), referring to the brightly colored flowers.

Species: argentea, cristata, plumosa; hybrids

Common Names: brain flower, cockscomb, woolflower

Availability: July through November

Description: Available in reds, yellows, and oranges. C. cristata with its crested shape adds interesting form and texture to contemporary designs. The feathery plumes of C. plumosa work well as fillers and accents.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CENTAUREA (see Plate 7) (sent-ta-REE-a)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kentaur for Centaur, who is said to have used it medicinally.

Species: cyanus, macrocephala; others

Common Names: cornflower, bachelor's button, bluebottle

Availability: February through September

Description: Small, thistlelike head flowers. Available in blue, pink, yellow, and white. Useful as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CHAENOMELES (see Plate 22) (kee-NAHM-el-eez)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words chaina (to gape) and melon (apple), referring to the belief the fruit was split.

Species: cathayensis, japonica, speciosa

Common Name: flowering quince

Availability: January to April

Description: Clusters of pink, red, or white flowers on woody branches. Works well in oriental designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 10 days

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CHAMELAUCIUM (see Plate 28) (cham-ee-LAW-si-um)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Species: uncinatum, ciliatum, pheliferum; others

Common Name: waxflower

Availability: September through May

Description: Heathlike shrubs with star-shaped flowers in white, pinks, lavenders, and bicolors. Densely clustered along woody branching stems. Needlelike foliage. An excellent filler flower. Many have lemon scent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

CHELONE (kee-LO-nee or shel-LONE)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word chelone (turtle), referring to the corolla that is shaped like a turtle's head.

Species: obliqua

Common Names: turtlehead, snakehead

Availability: July through October

Description: Pink flowers are similar in appearance to

snapdragons; however, florets are clustered closer together in terminal, spikelike racemes.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CHIMNEY BELLS see Campanula

CHINA ASTER see Callistephus

CHINCHERINCHEE see Ornithogalum

CHRISTMAS ROSE see Helleborus

CHRYSANTHEMUM (see Plate 6) (kris-ANTH-e-mum)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words chrysos (golden) and anthos (flower).

Species: morifolium, frutescens, coccincum, parthenium, carinatum; others and cultivars

Common Names: mum or florist's chrysanthemum (C. morifolium) includes spray varieties (duet or anemone, button, daisy, cushion [formerly called pompom], spider, and exotic varieties like starburst) as well as single-head varieties (Fuji, incurve or football mum, and mefo). Many other types include daisy, marguerite daisy (C. frutescens); Shasta daisy (C. maximum); feverfew (C. parthenium, Matricaria capansis), pyrethrum (C. coccineum); oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum).

Availability: Year-round

Description: Available in a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures. Smaller spray types work well as fillers and accents. Larger solitary flowers provide mass and emphasis.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks; Marguerite daisies are heavy drinkers. Remove wilted foliage from stems. To prevent shattering, spray the back and top of flower heads with an aerosol designed for this purpose. Do not pound or smash stems.

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CIRSIUM (see Plate 5) (SIR-cee-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: japonicum; others and hybrids Common Names: plume thistle, plumed thistle. Cnicus benedictus is a similar thistlelike flower with spiny, leafy bracts.

Availability: May through November

Description: Small thistlelike flower heads. Available in pinks and purples. Useful as a filler. Provides interesting accent because of texture and shape.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

CLARKIA (see Plate 13) (KLARK-ee-ah)

Family: Onagraceae (clarkias, fuchias, and evening primroses)

Name Origin: Named after Captain William Clark (1770-1838).

Species: amoena, concinna; others

Common Names: godetia, satin flower, farewell-to-spring. Godetia (goh-DEE-shee-ah) comprises a subgenus of Clarkia and is sometimes listed separately.

Availability: May through August

Description: Clustered funnel-shaped flowers about 2 inches across with a papery texture. Available in a wide range of colors and bicolors. Godetia provides emphasis or mass, and can also be used as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CNICUS see Cirsium

COBRA HEAD see Sarracenia

COCKSCOMB see Celosia

COFFEE BEAN BERRY see Hypericum

COLEONEMA see Diosma

COLUMBINE see Aquilegia

CONE FLOWER see Rudbeckia

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CONSOLIDA (see Plate 16) (kon-SO-li-da)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word consolida (to make whole), referring to its medicinal properties.

Species: ambigua (Delphinium ajacis); orientalis (D. orientale); regalis (D. consolida). Consolida florets and leaves differ slightly from Delphinium; the two upper petals are united into one, and they lack the lower two petals.

Common Name: larkspur

Availability: June through September

Description: Spikelike racemes in blues, lavenders, pinks, and white. Excellent for adding mass and line.

Vase-Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

CONVALLARIA (see Plate 18) (kahn-val-AIR-ee-ah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word convallis (valley).

Species: majalis

Common Name: lily of the valley

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant and delicate white or pink bell-shaped florets along short, terminal, one-sided racemes. Popular for wedding and corsage work. Also an excellent accent in contemporary or vegetative design styles.

Vase Life: 2 to 6 days

CORNFLOWER see Centaurea

CORN LILY see Ixia

CORSAGE ORCHID see Cattleya

COSMOS (KAHZ-mohs)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kosmos (beautiful).

Species: bipinnatus, sulphureus; others

Common Name: cosmos

Availability: June through August

Description: Solitary flowers with a single row of petals in white, yellow, reds, and pinks surrounding a yellow center. Useful for adding mass; works well as a filler in summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 4 to 6 days

COSTUS (KAWS-tus)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)

Species: megalobractiatus, pulverulentus, spicatus; others

Common Names: spiral ginger, kiss of death, spiral flag

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spirally twisted conelike bracts, available in red, orange, yellow, pink, and white. These unusual flowers provide emphasis.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days or longer

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CRANE LILY see Strelitzia

CRASPEDIA (cras-PEH-dee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: globosa

Common Names: billy buttons, Australian bachelor buttons

Availability: August through October

Description: Long-lasting ball-shaped yellow flowers; can easily dry

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

CROCOSMIA (see Plate 7) (kro-KOS-mee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words krokos (saffron) and osme (smell). When dried, they smell of saffron.

Species: masoniorum

Common Names: montbretia, coppertip

Availability: June through November

Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers in one-sided, spikelike patterns. Available in shades of scarlet, orange, and red. Useful in many design styles as a filler, line, or accent.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

CURCUMA (ker-CUE-mah)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)

Species: alismatifolia, domestica; others

Common Names: summer tulips, Thia tulips, Siam tulips, hidden lilies, queen lilies Availability: April through September

Description: Light pink and other colored bracts; looks like ginger.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks or more; do not place in the cooler.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CYMBIDIUM (see Plate 19) (sim-BID-ee-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kymbe (boat), referring to the hollowed lip.

Species: hybrids

Common Name: cymbidium

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spray of orchid flowers. Usually sold singly with individual water tubes. Wide variety of colors. Useful for corsage and wedding flowers but can be incorporated into arrangements.

Vase Life: Extremely longlasting, 1 to 3 weeks with good water supply. Avoid temperatures below 38[degrees]F. Do not damage the stigma, which results in premature wilting.

CYNARA (see Plate 9) (SIN-ah-rah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin name for these perennial herbs.

Species: scolymus

Common Names: globe artichoke, artichoke, thistle

Availability: July through October

Description: Tight green, thistlelike spiney heads, 2 to 4 inches in diameter, from which purple and blue flowers emerge. These add interesting texture to designs. Useful as a focal point, accent, or filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CYPRIPEDIUM see Paphiopedilum

CYTISUS (SIT-is-us)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family) Name Origin: From the Greek word kytisos, the name for these and similar shrubs.

Species: canariensis (Genista canariensis); for C. scoparius (G. scoparia) see in Appendix B under Cytisus.

Common Names: genista, broom, sweet broom

Availability: January through May

Description: Small, fragrant pea-shaped florets on wiry, leafless branches. Available in white and yellow, along with other dyed colors of pinks and purples. Useful as a filler and for soft curving lines in many design styles.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

D

DAFFODIL see Narcissus

DAHLIA (see Plate 15) (DAHL-yah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Swedish botanist Dr. Anders Dahl (1751-1789).

Species: many hybrids and cultivars

Common Name: dahlia

Availability: July through November

Description: The wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors, and textures of these head flowers allow many design uses. Can add mass, provide emphasis, and accent. Smaller varieties work well as fillers.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, 2 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

DAISY see Chrysanthemum

DANCING DOLL see Oncidium

DAUCUS see Ammi

DELPHINIUM (see Plate 7) (del-FIN-ee-um)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word delphis (dolphin), referring to the shape of the flowers.

Species: elatum, D. x belladonna, cardinale, grandiflorum; others. For D. ajacis, see Consolida ambigua and C. orientalis. Common Name: delphinium

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spikelike racemes available in white and various tints and shades of blue, lavender, and pink. Useful as a line flower or in adding mass. Some varieties work well as fillers. Many design uses for a variety of styles.

Vase Life: Varies greatly with species, from 3 to 4 days to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive; florets can easily shatter, so handle with care.

DENDROBIUM (see Plate 19) (den-DRO-be-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words dendron (tree) and bios (life), referring to their epiphytic growth (an epiphyte is a plant that grows on another plant but is not a parasite and produces its own food by photosynthesis).

Species: bigibbum, nobile, phalaenopsis; others and hybrids

Common Names: dendrobium, Singapore orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spray orchids in lavenders, pinks, and white. Spray racemes provide slightly curving lines. Commonly used with exotic or tropical flowers. Individual blossoms are used for corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

DESERT CANDLE see Eremurus DIANTHUS (see Plate 8) (die-ANTH-us)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words Di (Zeus) and anthos (flower).

Species: barbatus, caryophyllus, chinensis; hybrids and cultivars

Common Names: sweet William (D. barbatus); carnation, clove pink (D. caryophyllus); pixie, spray carnation, minicarnation (D. caryophyllus nana); pinks, Chinese pink, annual pink (D. chinensis)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Carnations are one of the floral industry's staples; available in a wide range of colors and varieties; white and other light colors can be color-dyed or tipped with paint; most are fragrant; versatile and offer many design uses. Sweet Williams are densely packed clusters of florets; available in pinks, reds, purples, and white; useful as a filler or accent. Miniature carnations have several buds and flowers on each stem; large variety of colors; work well as fillers or in adding mass. Carnations are used in corsages, boutonnieres, leis, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: Carnations and pixies are long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks; sweet William lasts 5 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

DIDISCUS see Trachymene

DIGITALIS (see Plate 9) (di-ji-TAL-lis)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word digitus (finger), referring to the fingerlike florets. Species: purpurea, grandiflora (D. ambigua), lanata

Common Name: foxglove

Availability: June through September

Description: Tall spikelike, often one-sided, racemes. The downward-facing tubular florets are splashed in the throat with exotic spots. Available in white and various shades of red, purple, pink, and yellow. Useful for adding line to arrangements. Vase Life: Long lasting, about 2 weeks, with florets continously opening

DILL see Anethum

DIOSMA (die-OZ-mah)

Family: Rutaceae (citrus family)

Species: ericoides; sometimes referred to as Coleonema ericoides

Common Names: diosma, coleonema, breath of heaven

Availability: February through May

Description: Fragrant, heathlike shrubs with tiny, white, pink, lavender, or red flowers in terminal cymose clusters.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

DRYANDRA (dry-AN-dra)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Species: floribunda, formosa; others

Common Name: dryandra

Availability: Year-round

Description: Dense-headed flowers mostly available in yellow, but also available in oranges and reds, with prickly toothed leaves, similar to their Banksia relatives. These flowers provide accent and emphasis.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

E

EASTER LILY see Lilium

ECHINOPS (see Plate 12) (EK-i-nops)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words echinos (hedgehog) and -opsis (appearance).

Species: ritro, humilis

Common Name: globe thistle

Availability: July through October

Description: Intense blue, white, or metalic blue, round, thistlelike flowers at the end of branching stems. The bold texture of these flowers creates striking effects.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

EREMURUS (see Plate 9) (air-re-MOUR-us or e-ray-MEW-rus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words eremia (desert) and oura (tail), referring to their desert habitat and the shape of the inflorescence.

Species: robustus, stenophyllus

Common Names: foxtail lily, desert candle, king's spear

Availability: May through September

Description: Tall spikelike racemes with small star-shaped florets on leafless stems. Generally yellow, but white, cream, orange, and pink varieties are also available. Excellent for adding line.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks, during which time tiny new florets continuously open.

ERICA (see Plate 13) (AIR-i-kah)

Family: Ericaceae (heath family)

Species: canaliculata, codonodes (Spanish heather), persoluta, melanthera (Scotch heather); others and hybrids. The genus Calluna (kah-LOO-nah) is known as common heather. Many other genera, such as Thryptomene, are heathlike shrubs and are often called heather or heath.

Common Names: heath, heather

Availability: November through April

Description: Spikelike flower clusters in panicles and racemes, with tiny bell-shaped florets. Available in pinks, purples, white, yellows, and green. Useful as a filler. Taller varieties can create line.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ERYNGIUM (air-IN-jee-um)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: alpinum, amethystinum, giganteum; others and hybrids

Common Names: sea holly, eryngo

Availability: June through October

Description: Flower head is cone-shaped, surrounded by feathery bracts. Available in silver-purple, blues, some pinks, green, and white. Adds unusual texture and form to arrangements. Well suited for many design styles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

EUCHARIS (YOU-kah-ris)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Species: amazonica (E. grandiflora)

Common Names: Amazon lily, eucharis lily, lily of the Amazon

Availability: Year-round

Description: three to six individual fragrant, large white flowers are borne in umbel patterns on leafless stems.

Vase Life: 7 to 14 days; individual flowers continue to open.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

EUPHORBIA (see Plate 10) (you-FOR-bee-ah)

Family: Euphorbiaceae (spurge family)

Name Origin: Named after Euphorbus, the physician to the king of Mauritania, Juba.

Species: fulgens, pulcherrima, marginata; others

Common Names: scarlet plume, spurge (E. fulgans); poinsettia, Christmas flower (E. pulcherrima); snow on the mountain, ghostweed (E. marginata)

Availability: September through February

Description: E. fulgans has small flowers alongside drooping stems. Adds colorful, graceful lines to designs. Available in orange, red, yellow, pink, and white. E. marginata with its green and white color pattern is useful as a foliage. All Euphorbia species bleed milky sap when cut or if leaves are removed; it can produce a severe dermatitis in susceptible individuals.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; condition in hot water with floral preservative.

EUSTOMA (see Plate 18) (yew-STOW-mah)

Family: Gentianaceae (gentians)

Species: grandiflorum (Lisianthus russellianus)

Common Names: lisianthus, prairie gentian

Availability: May through December

Description: Anemone-shaped flowers solitary on stems or in branching panicles. Generally three to five flowers open on each stem. Available in purples, pinks, reds, bicolors, and white. A variety of single, double, and triple petal forms are available; adds mass with a soft texture; single blooms work well for corsages.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

EVERLASTING FLOWER see Helichrysum

F

FALSE DRAGONHEAD see Physostegia

FALSE SPIRAEA see Astilbe

FEVERFEW see Chrysanthemum

FLAME TIP see Leucodendron

FLAMINGO FLOWER see Anthurium

FORSYTHIA (see Plate 10) (for-SITH-ee-a)

Family: Oleaceae (olives, ashes, and lilacs)

Name Origin: Named after Scottish gardener, William Forsyth (1737-1804).

Species: x intermedia, ovata

Common Names: forsythia, golden bells

Availability: November through March

Description: Small yellow flowers clustered along woody stems, appearing before leaves. Tall stems add colorful line. Short stems work well as fillers. Useful in oriental and contemporary design styles as well as traditional springtime bouquets.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

FOXGLOVE see Digitalis

FOXTAIL LILY see Eremurus

FREESIA (see Plate 11) (FREE-zee-ah or FREE-sha)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: Named after a German physician, Friedrich Freese (1800s).

Species: x hybrida

Common Name: freesia

Availability: Year-round

Description: Lovely, fragrant flowers; the florets are funnel shaped and branch asymmetrically off of a main stem on the upper side of a curved spike; available in a wide variety of colors; popular for wedding flowers and corsages. Interesting forms work well as an accent or filler in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive; hydrate well.

G

GAILLARDIA (see Plate 11) (gay-LARD-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after French magistrate, Gaillard de Charentonneau (18th century).

Species: aristata cultivars

Common Name: blanket flower

Availability: July through September

Description: Solitary, large, showy, daisylike bicolored flowers in yellows, oranges, and reds. Bright coloration of these flowers creates emphasis. Gaillardia provide mass in mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

GARDENIA (see Plate 11) (gar-DEE-nee-ah)

Family: Rubiaceae (gardenia, coffee, and quinine)

Name Origin: Named after a Scottish physician and botanist, Alexander Garden (1730-1791), of South Carolina.

Species: jasminoides cultivars

Common Names: gardenia, cape jasmine

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant, waxy, multipetaled flowers. Available in white to cream. Commercially they are packaged in special boxes wrapped for a high humidity; generally three to a box; each flower has a support collar made from thin cardboard and leaves. Gardenias bruise easily; moisten hands when working with them. Popular corsage and wedding flower.

Vase Life: Short lived, 1 to 2 days

GAYFEATHER see Liatris

GENISTA see Cytisus

GERBERA (see Plate 11) (GER-be-rah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after a German naturalist, Traugott Gerber (1700s).

Species: jamesonii; others

Common Names: gerbera, Transvaal daisy, African daisy, barberton daisy, veldt daisy

Availability: Year-round

Description: Daisy like flowers 3 to 5 inches across. Single and double-petaled forms. Available in a wide range of colors and bicolor patterns, usually with contrasting centers. Stems are fleshy and leafless. These flowers have many uses. Can easily provide a focal point or add mass. Useful in traditional and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days or longer; use clean water and containers to avoid plugged stems and bent neck; gerberas prefer preservative solution to the use of floral foam.

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

GERMAN STATICE see Limonium

GIANT BOTTLEBRUSH see Banksia

GILLYFLOWER see Matthiola

GINGER see Alpinia

GLADIOLUS (see Plate 12) (gla-dee-OH-lus)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word for a small sword, referring to the shape of the leaves.

Species: hybrids

Common Names: gladiolus, glads, sword lily, corn flag

Availability: Year-round; smaller varieties available March through July

Description: Flowers are geotropic and are arranged on a thick stem in a one-sided spike or spikelike raceme. Available in a wide range of colors. Florets, texures, and shapes vary and may be ruffled, fringed, or plain and shaped like orchids, tulips, or roses. The florets of miniature gladiolus are more loosely arranged on the stem. Both are excellent line flowers. Individual florets are useful for corsage work.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive.

GLOBE AMARANTH see Gomphrena

GLOBE ARTICHOKE see Cynara

GLOBEFLOWER see Trollius

GLOBE THISTLE see Echinops

GLORIOSA (see Plate 12) (glow-ree-OH-sah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word gloriosus (glorious).

Species: rothschildiana, superba

Common Names: gloriosa lily, glory lily, climbing lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Flowers have reflexed petals that are curled at the margins. Brightly colored red and yellow flowers on leafless stems. Unusual flower form provides emphasis. These flowers work well in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days, with individual blooms continuously blooming, each lasting 4 or 5 days.

GLORIOSA DAISY see Rudbeckia

GLORY LILY see Gloriosa

GOAT'S BEARD see Astilbe

GODETIA see Clarkia

GOLDENROD see Solidago

GOLDEN SHOWER see Oncidium

GOMPHRENA (gom-FREE-nah)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Species: globosa, haageana

Common Name: globe amaranth

Availability: July through September

Description: Round flower heads about 1 inch across on the top of long stems. The flower head is made up of tiny fluffy flowers. Available in white, pinks, purples, and orange.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

GONIOLIMON see Limonium

GRAPE HYACINTH see Muscari

GUELDER ROSE see Viburnum

GUERNSEY LILY see Nerine

GYPSOPHILA (see Plate 13) (jip-SOF-i-la or jip-so-PHIL-la)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words gypsos (gypsum) and philos (loving), referring to some species favoring gypsum or lime.

Species: elagans, paniculata (million stars); others and cultivars

Common Names: baby's breath, gyp

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant complex panicles or dichasial cymes of white or pinkish white florets. A popular and delicate filler for arrangements. Small clusters work well in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding flowers.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days; ethylene sensitive; favors cool temperatures and high humidity.

H

HEATH/HEATHER see Erica

HELIANTHUS (see Plate 26) (hee-li-ANTH-us)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and anthos (flower).

Species: annuus, tuberosus; others and hybrids

Common Name: sunflower

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June thorugh October

Description: Large daisylike head flowers up to 10 inches across with petals (ray florets) surrounding a contrasting center (disc florets); single and double forms; available in creams, yellows, oranges, reds, and browns; provides mass and emphasis.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

HELICHRYSUM (see Plate 27) (hee-li-KRIS-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and chryson (golden).

Species: bracteatum; others and cultivars

Common Names: strawflower, everlasting flower

Availability: July through September

Description: Brightly colored flowers with crisp, papery texture. Available in a wide range of colors including yellows, oranges, reds, pinks, and white. Sizes vary, most common about 2 inches across. Adds interesting texture and mass to arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

HELICONIA (see Plate 14) (hel-i-KO-nee-ah)

Family: Musaceae or Heliconiaceae (heliconia family)

Species: humilis, caribaea, psittacorum, pendula, chartacea, magnifica, xanthovillosa; others

Common Names: heliconia, lobster claw, rainbow, parrot's

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tropical erect or drooping flowers; brilliant bracts of inflorescence densely packed together on thick stems. Most are bicolored in reds, oranges, yellows, and greens. Use alone or with other tropical flowers and foliage. Coloring and unique shape demand attention.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 10 to 14 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HELIPTERUM (hee-LIP-tur-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and pteron (wings), referring to their sun-loving nature and their feathery bristles.

Species: humboldtianum, manglesii, roseum

Common Names: Swan River everlasting, immortelles

Availability: May through October

Description: Daisylike, straw-textured head flowers on thin stems. Available in white and pink with yellow centers. Adds mass and also used as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

HELLEBORUS (he-li-BOHR-us)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: niger, orientalis; others and hybrids

Common Names: Christmas rose, Lenten rose, hellebore

Availability: Year-round

Description: Large and attractive white, greenish, pink, and purple flowers 2 to 5 inches across. Five petals surround golden anthers. Useful for adding emphasis and mass.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

HIPPEASTRUM (hip-ee-AS-trum)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word hippos (horse) referring to the inflorescence of the species H. puniceum, which was likened to the head of a horse.

Species: hybrids

Common Names: amaryllis, Barbados lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Hippeastrum has four to six trumpet-shaped flowers clustered together in an umbel pattern at the top of a thick, hollow, leafless stem. Individual flowers are 5 to 9 inches across. Available in white, pinks, reds, oranges, and bicolors. These flowers have distinctive shapes that demand attention and work well in contemporary design styles. Allow space for blossoms to open.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks, while individual florets continue opening.

HYACINTH see Hyacinthus

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

HYACINTHUS (see Plate 15) (hi-ah-SIN-thus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: orientalis cultivars

Common Names: hyacinth, Dutch hyacinth

Availability: November through April

Description: Compact spikelike racemes with bell-shaped, waxy florets. Available in white, pinks, reds, blues, purples, and yellows. Extremely fragrant. These flowers are at home with other bulb flowers in traditional spring designs. Also distincitve in contemporary designs, particularly vegetative and parallel styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

HYDRANGEA

(hi-DRAN-jee-ah)

Family: Saxifragaceae (hydrangea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words hydro (water) and aggos (jar), referring to the fruits that are shaped like cups.

Species: macrophylla, paniculata; others

Common Name: hydrangea

Availability: July to October

Description: Large rounded or pyramidal compound clusters of small starlike florets in blues, pinks, and white. These flowers provide mass and emphasis in large arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days; seal the bleeding latex for longer vase life.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HYPERICUM

(hi-PEAR-i-kum or hi-pe-REE-kum)

Family: Guttiferae (mangosteen and mammey apple)

Name Origin: From the Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (a picture), it was hung above pictures to ward off evil spirits.

Species: androsaemum (Greek name for a plant with red sap, from andros [man] and haima [blood]); hookerianum; others and varieties

Common Names: hypericum berry, coffee bean berry, St. John's wort

Availability: June through December

Description: Most species produce bright yellow flowers on woody stems; their fruit or "berries" are their main attraction; berries grow in clusters and are brightly colored when ripe; berries are available in red, green, brown, and black; some varieties have reddish foliage.

Vase Life: 2 weeks; however if leaves are removed, stems will last 3 to 4 weeks.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

IBERIS (see Plate 5) (i-BEER-is)

Family: Cruciferae or Brassicaceae (mustard family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word iberis (from Iberia).

Species: amara, umbellata; others and cultivars

Common Names: candytuft, rocket candytuft

Availability: March through August

Description: Clustered florets that form a convex corymb or elongated raceme inflorescence. Available in white, pink, red, and lavender. Useful as a filler in mixed arrangements. Also works well grouped in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

INCA LILY see Alstroemeria

IRIS (see Plate 15) (EYE-ris)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: Named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow.

Species: reticulata, sibirica; others and hybrids

Common Names: iris, Dutch iris, flag

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies March through May

Description: Distinctive flower forms available in blues, purples, yellows, and white. Useful in a variety of design styles. Can be used for emphasis and accent. Allow plenty of space around flowers, as they continue to open. Striking in oriental and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 2 to 6 days; ethylene sensitive; avoid water loss. Avoid warm temperatures, drafts, and sunlight to help flowers open.

IXIA (see Plate 15) (IKS-ee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word ixia (bird lime), referring to the sticky sap.

Species: viridiflora hybrids

Common Names: corn lily, African corn lily

Availability: March through August

Description: Star-shaped florets in spike or panicle clusters on wiry stems. Available in cream, yellow, pink, orange, and red with mixtures of these colors. Works well as a line flower. Can also be used as a filler in larger bouquets. Especially striking in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days, with individual florets continuously opening.

J

JONQUIL see Narcissus

JOSEPH'S COAT see Amaranthus

K

KANGAROO PAW see Anigozanthos

KISS OF DEATH see Costus

KNIPHOFIA (nee-FOF-ee-ah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: Named after Johann H. Kniphof (1704-1763).

Species: uvaria hybrids

Common Names: red hot poker, tritoma, torch lily, poker plant

Availability: June through October

Description: Tight, terminal, spikelike racemes packed with overlapping florets of red, orange, and yellow on leafless stems. The scarlet florets become orange and then yellow with age. These tall-stemmed flowers add emphasis and height and look good in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days, with florets continuously opening.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

L

LADY'S MANTLE see Alchemilla

LADY'S SLIPPER see Paphiopedilum

LARKSPUR see Consolida

LATHYRUS (see Plate 26) (LATH-i-rus)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: The Greek name for the pea.

Species: odoratus cultivars

Common Name: sweet pea

Availability: February through September

Description: Sweetly scented flowers with delicate petals in soft colors, including white, pinks, reds, blues, and lavenders. Stems are fairly short with three to seven flowers per stem. Sweet peas can be used to add mass or used as a filler. Simple and charming alone or with other spring and summer flowers.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; ethylene sensitive.

LAVATERA (la-vah-TER-ah)

Family: Malvaceae (cotton, mallows, and hollyhocks)

Name Origin: Named after Zurich naturalists, the Lavater brothers of the 16th century.

Species: trimestris

Common Names: mallow, tree mallow

Availability: June to October

Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers that look like miniature Hawaiian hibiscus flowers. Several flowers appear at the top of tall leafy stems. Available in reds, pinks, lavendar, and white.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

LEI ORCHID see Vanda

LEPTOSPERMUM (see Plate 22) (lep-toe-SPUR-mum)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Name Origin: From the Greek words leptos (slender) and sperma (seed), referring to its narrow seeds.

Species: scoparium

Common Names: lepto, tea tree, New Zealand tea tree

Availability: Peak supplies January through April

Description: Clusters of small blossoms on woody stems. Available in white, pinks, and reds. Long branches are excellent for adding line. Smaller stems work well as spiky fillers. Provides an elegant line in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

LEUCODENDRON (see Plate 20) (loo-ka-DEN-dron)

Family: Proteacea (protea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words leukos (white) and dendron (tree), referring to its silvery foliage.

Species: argenteum; others and cultivars

Common Names: silver tree, flame tip

Availability: Year-round; some species are limited by season.

Description: Flower head consists of stiff bracts surrounding a cone or small inconspicuous flower. Male flowers have terminal, sessile heads; female flowers have terminal, conelike heads. The woody bracts, often mistaken for petals, are generally colorful, most often reds, burgundy, green, and yellows, and combinations of these colors. The stems are densely packed with stiff leaves that radiate out on all sides. These flowers work well with other exotic flowers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

LEUCOSPERMUM (see Plate 20) (lu-co-SPER-mum)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Species: cordifolium, reflexum, nutans, catherinae; others and cultivars

Common Name: pincushion protea

Availability: Year-round; some species are limited by season.

Description: The flower heads consist of colorful orange or reddish orange styles that form a domed, globular shape (thus the name pincushion). Flowers top woody stems loaded with stiff leaves. Creates emphasis through texture and form.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

LIATRIS (see Plate 16) (lie-AH-tris)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: spicata; callilepsis, and others

Common Names: liatris, gay feather, blazing star, button snakeroot, purple poker

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny florets appear in dense spikes; opening from the top downward. Available in purple and white. Excellent for creating strong line in arrangements. Works well in mixed bouquets and is striking in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

LILAC see Syringa

LILIUM (see Plate 17) (LIL-ee-um)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: The Latin name for these bulbous flowers.

Species: longiflorum; others, hybrids, and cultivars

Common Names: Lilies bred from L. auratum and L. speciosum (such as L.S. 'Rubrum') are large and called oriental lilies and are generally white, pink, and white with red. Asian lilies are generally the yellows, oranges, reds, and whites; Easter lily (L. longiflorum) is white and trumpet-shaped.

Availability: Year-round

Description: The flowers are 4 to 6 inches across. A wide range of forms and colors are available. Flowers appear on short branchs at the end of tall stems. Some are upright, while others are pendant or outward-facing. The striking form of lilies with their central floral parts provides a focal point. Leave room for lily blossoms to open. Lilies work well in mixed arrangements, wedding, and sympathy designs. Striking in oriental and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 4 to 5 days per bloom; ethylene sensitive; remove anthers to prevent staining.

LILY see Lilium

LILY OF THE FIELD see Anemone

LILY OF THE INCAS see Alstroemeria

LILY OF THE NILE see Agapanthus

LILY OF THE VALLEY see Convallaria

LIMONIUM (see Plate 25) (lee-MO-nee-um)

Family: Plumbaginaceae (see lavender and thrift)

Name Origin: From the Greek word leimon (meadow), referring to their natural habitat.

Species: latifolium, perezii, sinuatum, ferulaceum (caspia and misty blue hybrids); others and cultivars

Common Names: statice, sea lavender, caspia, misty blue, seafoam statice; Goniolimon (L. tataricum) (German statice)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny white or yellow flowers are surrounded by papery bracts. Flowers are sessile, in panicles or spikes. Bract colors include white and various shades and tints of pink, yellow, blue, and purple. Useful as a colorful filler adding interesting texture to mixed bouquets. Misty blue and caspia are sometimes odoriferous.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks; subject to mildew and brown spots; provide air circulation.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

LISIANTHUS see Eustoma

LOBSTER CLAW see Heliconia

LOOSESTRIFE see Lysimachia

LOVE IN A MIST see Nigella

LOVE LIES BLEEDING see Amaranthus

LUPINE see Lupinus

LUPINUS (see Plate 16) (lu-PEEN-us)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Species: polyphyllus cultivars

Common Name: lupine

Availability: July through September

Description: Lupine florets resemble pea blossoms and are densely packed on tall, erect spikelike raceme stalks. Available in a wide variety of colors. These are graceful, old-fashioned flowers that look lovely in mixed summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

LYSIMACHIA (lie-si-MAK-ee-ah)

Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)

Name Origin: Named after King Lysimachos of ancient Thrace. According to legend, the king was able to pacify a bull by using a piece of loosestrife.

Species: clethroides, punctata

Common Name: loosestrife

Availability: July to September

Description: Tiny white or yellow, star-shaped florets tightly arranged in small slender, curving, spikelike racemes at the top of dense foliage.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

M

MADAGASCAR JASMINE see Stephanotis

MAGNOLIA (mag-NOL-ee-ah)

Family: Magnoliaceae (Magnolia family)

Name Origin: Named after French professor of botany Pierre Magnol (1638-1715).

Species: many species and hybrids

Common Name: magnolia

Availability: February to May

Description: Elegant focal flowers on woody stems. Available in a variety of forms and colors; beautiful in oriental designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 6 days

MALLOW see Lavatera

MARGUERITE DAISY see Chrysanthemum

MARIGOLD see Tagetes

MASTERWORT see Astrantia

MATRICARIA see Chrysanthemum

MATTHIOLA (see Plate 25) (ma-THEE-oh-lah)

Family: Cruciferae or Brassicaceae (mustard family)

Name Origin: Named after Italian botanist Pierandrea Mattioli (1500-1577).

Species: incana and hybrids

Common Names: stock, gillyflower

Availability: January through October

Description: Small, 1-inch florets form rounded, spikelike racemes. Available in a wide selection of colors. These fragrant flowers add mass and line to mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

MEADOWSWEET see Astilbe

MICHAELMAS DAISY see Aster

MILKWEED see Asclepias

MIMOSA see Acacia

MISTY BLUE see Limonium

MOLUCCELLA (see Plate 4) (mahl-you-SEL-ah)

Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family)

Species: laevis

Common Names: bells of Ireland, shellflower, molucca balm

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through October

Description: Whorls of tiny, white, fragrant flowers are surrounded by curious green shell-like calyces resembling bells, which are often mistaken for petals. The flowers and sepals are clustered along tall stems. Often reserved for St. Patrick's Day, but useful throughout the year for adding line and accent. Striking in all-foliage and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

MONKSHOOD see Aconitum

MONTBRETIA see Crocosmia

MONTE CASSINO see Aster

MOTH ORCHID see Phalaenopsis

MUSCARI (see Plate 15) (mus-KAIR-ree)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: armeniacum, botryoides; others

Common Name: grape hyacinth

Availability: January through March

Description: Tiny, tubular white or blue florets densely clustered on short stems. These small and delicate flowers work best in contempoary design styles, such as parallel systems or vegetative, where they can be clustered together for greater impact.

Vase Life: 4 to7 days

N

NARCISSUS (see Plate 7) (nar-SIS-us)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Narcissus was a legendary youth of Greek mythology who was arrogant and fell in love with his own reflection.

Species: pseudonarcissus; others and hybrids

Common Names: narcissus, daffodil, jonquil

Availability: November through April

Description: The single, trumpet-shaped flowers are known as daffodils; other varieties are known as jonquils or narcissus. The tiny white narcissus in clusters are known as paperwhites. Narcissus flowers are available in a great range of forms, sizes, and colors-white, cream, yellows, oranges, and bicolors. Their form adds accent and emphasis to simple and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 4 to 6 days; condition narcissus alone, as they secrete sap when cut that is harmful to other flowers; do not recut again when mixing with other flowers in designs.

NERINE (see Plate 18) (near-REEN)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Named after a Greek sea nymph.

Species: bowdenii, sarniensis; others

Common Name: Guernsey lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small florets are lilylike and clustered at the top of leafless stems in umbel patterns. There are from six to twelve florets forming each cluster. Available in pinks, reds, and white. These flowers work well in many design styles including mixed bouquets, oriental, and contemporary. The individual florets are useful in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs. Odoriferous.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

NIGELLA (nee-JEL-lah)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: damascena; others

Common Names: love in a mist, fennel flower, wild fennel

Availability: June to September

Description: Nigella flowers are small and flat; several appear at the top of a thin, hairy stem. Egg-shaped seed capsules among the flowers provide accent. Flowers are available in blue, pink, and white. Nigella provides interesting texture.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

O

OBEDIENT PLANT see Physostegia

ONCIDIUM (see Plate 19) (ahn-SID-ee-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word onkos (tumor), referring to a swelling on the lip.

Species: pulchellum, splendidum, varicosum; others and hybrids

Common Names: oncidium, golden shower, butterfly orchid, dancing doll, dancing lady orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Masses of tiny orchid flowers in thin, branching stems. The flowers are yellow with speckles of orange, red, and brown. The stems arch with the weight of the florets; provides graceful linear curves in arrangements. These flowers work well with other orchids and exotic flowers. Arching stems are beautiful in oriental designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

ONION FLOWER see Allium

ORCHID see Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Vanda

ORIENTAL LILY see Lilium

ORNAMENTAL PINEAPPLE see Ananas

ORNITHOGALUM (see Plate 27) (or-ni-THAHG-ah-lum)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words ornis (bird) and gala (milk).

Species: arabicum, thyrsoides; others

Common Names: star of Bethlehem, chincherinchee

Availability: Year-round

Description: White, star-shaped flowers in tight racemes and corymb clusters at the top of leafless stems. Flower centers are either whitish green or black. Star of Bethlehem is a versatile flower, adding line, mass, or accent. Also useful as a spiky filler. A beautiful, long-lasting addition to mixed bouquets, oriental designs, and contemporary styles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

OSTRICH PLUME see Alpinia

OUTDOOR GYPSOPHILA see Saponaria

OXEYE DAISY see Chrysanthemum

P

PAEONIA (see Plate 24) pee-OH-ne-ah)

Family: Paeoniaceae or Ranunculaceae (peony family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name paionia, referring to Paion, who was the physician to the gods.

Species: lactiflora, suffruticosa

Common Name: peony

Availability: May through July

Description: Large, fragrant, single flowers from 3 to 8 inches across. Available in a wide variety of forms, including single, double, and anemone types. These giant blossoms are grand all by themselves or in mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

PAINTED TONGUE see Anthurium

PAINTER'S PALETTE see Anthurium

PAPAVER pah-PAY-ver)

Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)

Species: orientale, nudicaule; others and hybrids

Common Names: poppy, Iceland poppy

Availability: May through September

Description: Papery petals surround a contrasting center; open up almost flat. Flowers are solitary at the top of nodding, wiry stems. Available in a variety of intense colors.

Vase Life: 1 to 5 days; to increase vase life, sear the stem ends with a flame or dip in boiling water and place in warm preservative solution.

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

PAPERWHITES see Narcissus

PAPHIOPEDILUM (see Plate 19) (paf-ee-oh-PED-il-lum)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words Paphos the site of a temple on Cyprus where Aprhodite was worshipped and pedilon (slipper).

Species: bellatulum, fairrieanum; others and hybrids; greenhouse Cypripediums belong to the genera Paphiopedilum.

Common Names: slipper orchid, lady's slipper

Availability: Year-round

Description: Exotic flowers with dramatic form and coloring.

Ideal for contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

PEONY see Paeonia

PEPPERBERRY see Schinus

PERSIAN BUTTERCUP see Ranunculus

PERUVIAN LILY see Alstroemeria

PHALAENOPSIS (see Plate 19) (fal-en-NOP-sis)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words phalaina (moth) and -opsis (resembling).

Species: amabilis, gigantea; others and hybrids

Common Name: moth orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: These delicate, elegant orchid flowers are 3 to 4 inches across and flatter-looking than most orchids. Available mostly in white and pink. Generally sold individually. Frequently used in wedding and corsage designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

PHLOX (see Plate 21) (floks)

Family: Polemoniaceae (phlox family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word phlox (flame).

Species: paniculata, drummondii; others

Common Name: phlox

Availability: June through November

Description: Small florets form dense terminal panicles on leafy stems. Available in white, pinks, reds, lavenders, and bicolors. An excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

PHYSOSTEGIA (see Plate 18) fie-soe-STEE-jee-ah)

Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family)

Species: virginiana cultivars

Common Names: false dragonhead, obedient plant, lion's heart, obedience

Availability: July to October

Description: Tubular florets form along a 12- to 24-inch stem, forming a spikelike inflorescence with an unusual shape. Available in white, pinks, and lavender.

Vase Life: 1 week

PINCUSHION FLOWER see Scabiosa

PINCUSHION PROTEA see Leucospermum

PINEAPPLE, ORNAMENTAL see Ananas

PINKS see Dianthus

PITCHER PLANT see Sarracenia

PIXIE see Dianthus

PLUME THISTLE see Cirsium

POINSETTIA see Euphorbia

POLIANTHES (see Plate 28) pah-lee-ANTH-eez)

Family: Agavaceae (Mexican lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words polis (grey) and anthos flower).

Species: tuberosa

Common Name: tuberose

Availability: February to October

Description: Clustered spikes of fragrant, waxy, white flowers. Star-shaped florets are about 1 inch across. These flowers can add mass, line, and accent to a number of design styles. Useful in corsages, leis, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

POPPY see Papaver

POT MARIGOLD see Calendula

PRINCE'S FEATHER see Amaranthus

PROTEA (see Plate 20) PRO-tee-a)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Name Origin: Named after the Greek sea God, Proteus, who had the power of prophecy.

Species: compacta, cynaroides, grandiceps, magnifica, nerifolia, obtusifolia, repens; others and hybrids

Common Names: protea; king protea (P. cynaroides); queen protea (P. magnifica); pink mink (P. nerifolia); many other common names

Availability: Year-round

Description: Proteas are large focal flowers. They are rounded with colorful bracts in a variety of colors, forms, and textures. They stand singly at the top of woody, leafy stems.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

PRUNUS (see Plate 22) (PRU-nus)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Name Origin: Prunus is the Latin name for the plum tree.

Common Names: Prunus includes cherry, plum, peach, apricot, nectarine, and almond trees and shrubs.

Availability: October through May, depending on species. Can be forced to blossom indoors.

Description: Single or double flowers along woody branches. A wide variety of forms, depending on the species. Available in white and tints and shades of pink. Many types are fragrant. Tall branches add line. Shorter stems add linear fillers. Blossoming branches are elegant in oriental and vegetative designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

PUSSY WILLOW see Salix

Q

QUEEN ANNE'S LACE see Ammi

QUINCE see Chaenomeles

R

RAINBOW see Heliconia

RANUNCULUS (see Plate 21) (rah-NUN-kew-lus)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word rana (frog), as many prefer to grow in wet areas.

Species: asiaticus; others and hybrids

Common Names: ranunculus, Persian buttercup

Availability: January through May

Description: These single and double flowers resemble small peonies, with centers often a contrasting color or black. Sizes vary from 1 to 4 inches wide. Available in a wide selection of bright colors including white, yellow, orange, red, and pink. Colorful additions to mixed bouquets and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

RED HOT POKER see Kniphofia

ROSA (see Plate 23) (RO-za)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Species: hybrids and cultivars

Common Name: rose

Availability: Year-round

Description: Roses are available in a wide range of colors and sizes. The flowers are solitary, corymbose, or panicled on erect stems. The heads are densely crowded with petals. Roses can be grouped simply by head size into standard or tea, large, medium, mini or sweethearts, and spray roses. The stem lengths are classified as shorts, medium, long, and extra long. Roses are popular cut flowers and are useful in many design styles. Excellent flowers for corsages and boutonnieres.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 3 to 14 days; somewhat ethylene sensitive; use a hydration solution.

ROSE see Rosa

RUDBECKIA (see Plate 4) (rude-BEK-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Olof Rudbeck the elder (1630-1702) and the younger (1660-1740).

Species: fulgida, hirta; others and hybrids

Common Names: coneflower, black-eyed Susan, gloriosa daisy

Availability: July through September

Description: Daisylike gold and orange flowers with prominant black, cone-shaped centers. These flowers add mass and accent. They are striking additions to mixed summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

S

SAFFLOWER see Carthamus

SALIX (see Plate 22) (SAY-liks)

Family: Salicaceae (aspens, poplars, and willows)

Species: discolor; others

Common Names: discolor (pussy willow); S. matsudana 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew or curly willow); others

Availability: Fresh pussy willow is available January through April; curly willow is available year-round.

Description: Pussy willow catkins are soft and fuzzy; they are greyish white and closely spaced along woody stems. Curly willow adds exciting lines to floral designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 10 to 14 days and longer; dries well

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

SALTBUSH see Atriplex

SAPONARIA (sap-oh-NAH-ree-ah)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word sapo (soap). A soap can be made from the species S. officinalis. Saponaria is also known as Vaccaria.

Species: officinalis; others

Common Names: saponaria, bouncing bet, soapwort, outdoor gypsophila

Availability: June through September

Description: Small star-shaped flowers at the tips of cymose or paniculate branching stems. Available in white and pink. A delicate and airy filler in mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SARRACENIA (see Plate 26) (sa-ra-SEE-nee-ah)

Family: Sarraceniaceae (pitcher plants)

Name Origin: Named after a French botanist and physician, Michael Sarrasin (1659-1734).

Species: flava, purpurea; others and hybrids

Common Names: sarracenia, pitcher plant, swamp lily, cobra head, cobra lily, trumpet

Availability: April through September

Description: Unusual curiosities that have unique form and venation color patterns. Often mistaken for flowers, these leaves with an odd tubular, trumpet shape provide emphasis, line, and accent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

SATIN FLOWER see Clarkia

SAXICOLA see Thryptomene

SCABIOSA (see Plate 24) (skab-ee-OH-sah)

Family: Dipsacaceae (teasel and scabious)

Name Origin: From the Latin word scabies (itch), for the rough leaves were said to cure the itch.

Species: altropurpurea, caucasica

Common Names: pincushion flower, scabiosus

Availability: June through October

Description: Round, single flowers with papery texture. Flowers are 2 to 3 inches across. Available in a wide variety of colors. Useful as a mass flower in mixed bouquets. The unusual texture and intricate circular form also can create a focal point in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

SCARLET PLUME see Euphorbia

SCHINUS (SKY-nus or SHY-ness)

Family: Anacardiaceae (cashew, mango, sumacs, and poison ivy)

Species: molle; others

Common Names: pepperberry, California pepperberry, pepper tree

Availability: September through February

Description: Small red berries fill cascading and upright woody branches; adds vibrant color; good for Christmas designs; useful in a wide variety of designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 to 4 weeks; recut stems under water; do not smash stems; use hydrating solution; refrigerate until needed; dries well if hung upside down.

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

SCILLA (SKIL-lah or SIL-lah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name for the sea squill.

Species: sibirica; others and hybrids

Common Names: squill, bluebells, wood hyacinth

Availability: March through June

Description: Several small blue florets in racemes cluster the top of short stems. Works well in vegetative designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SEA HOLLY see Eryngium

SEA LAVENDER see Limonium

SEDUM (see Plate 27) (SEE-dum)

Family: Crassulaceae (stonecrops and houseleeks)

Name Origin: From the Latin word sedo (sit), a classical name for many succulent plants.

Species: spectabile, telphium; others and hybrids

Common Names: sedum, stonecrop

Availability: April through October

Description: Tiny star-shaped flowers that form dense terminal panicles. Available in yellow, pinks, reds, and white. Sedum works well as a filler in mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SHAMPOO GINGER see Zingiber

SHASTA DAISY see Chrysanthemum

SHELLFLOWER see Moluccella

SILVER TREE see Leucodendron

SINGAPORE ORCHID see Dendrobium

SLIPPER ORCHID see Paphiopedilum

SNAPDRAGON see Antirrhinum

SNOWBALL see Viburnum

SNOWBERRY see Symphoricarpos

SNOW ON THE MOUNTAIN see Euphorbia

SOLIDAGO (see Plate 27) (so-li-DAY-go)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word solido (to strengthen or make whole), making reference to its medicinal properties.

Species: canadensis; others

Common Names: solidago, goldenrod

Availability: May through October

Description: Tiny yellow flowers forming soft panicled or racemed plumes. Solidago works well as a filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

x SOLIDASTER (see Plate 27) (so-li-DAS-ter)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: Solidaster is an intergeneric hybrid, from the names of the parents: Aster and Solidago; S. luteus; hybrids

Common Name: solidaster

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny yellow flowers on branching stems. Adds a fluffy texture. Excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SPIRAL GINGER see Costus

SPURGE see Euphorbia

SQUILL see Scilla

STAR OF BETHLEHEM see Ornithogalum

STATICE see Limoniuim

STEPHANOTIS (see Plate 25) (ste-fa-NO-tis)

Family: Asclepiadaceae (millkweeds and waxplant)

Name Origin: From the Greek words stephanos (crown) and otos (ear). Greek name for myrtle, which was used to make crowns.

Species: floribunda

Common Names: stephanotis, steph, Madagascar jasmine

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small white fragrant flowers; tubular, starshaped, waxy blossoms; flowers are cut off vines and sold stemless. Packaged in air-tight, humid boxes or bags. Stephanotis works well in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: 1 to 4 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

STOCK see Matthiola

STONECROP see Sedum

STRAWFLOWER see Helichrysum

STRELITZIA (see Plate 2) (stre-LITS-ee-a)

Family: Strelitziaceae or Cannaceae (bird of paradise flower)

Name Origin: Named after Queen Charlotte of MecklenbergStrelitz (1744-1818).

Species: reginae

Common Names: bird of paradise, crane lily; giant bird of paradise (S. nicolai)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Showy blossoms are oddly shaped, resembling a bird; rigid, boatlike bracts; stems are tall and thick. These tropical flowers demand attention; use alone or with other exotic flowers and foliage.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; beauty and longevity of flowers can be increased by gently lifting out florets.

SUMMER TULIP see Curcuma

SUNFLOWER see Helianthus

SWAMP LILY see Sarracenia

SWEET BROOM see Cytisus

SWEET PEA see Lathyrus

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

STRELITZIA bird of paradise The individual bird of paradise florets can gently be lifted out of the bract, by using wet hands, increasing longevity and enhancing the flower's unique beauty. As shown at right, old and bruised florets can be removed.

SWEET WILLIAM see Dianthus

SWORD LILY see Gladiolus

SYMPHORICARPOS (sim-fo-ree-KAR-pos)

Family: Caprifoliaceae (elders and honeysuckles)

Name Origin: From the Greek words symphroein (bear together) and karpos (a fruit) referring to the clustered fruits.

Species: albus, orbiculatus

Common Names: snowberry; (S. orbiculatus is called Indian currant and coral berry)

Availability: August through November

Description: Fine and twiggy branches with tight berry clusters; white and pink berries.

Vase Life: 2 or more weeks; remove leaves to highlight the berries; leaves are susceptible to powdery mildew; cut stems under water; use preservative solution; change water as needed.

SYRINGA (see Plate 16) (si-RIN-gah)

Family: Oleaceae (lilac family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word syrinx (pipe), referring to the hollow stems.

Species: vulgaris; others and cultivars

Common Name: lilac

Availability: December through May

Description: Clustered florets in a compound dichasium inflorescence. Individual florets are star-shaped and available in white, cream, pinks, and purples. Most varieties are fragrant.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 2 to 10 days; remove all foliage from woody stems for increased cut life. Lilacs also perform better when arranged in preservative solution without the use of floral foam. Recut stem ends often.

T

TAGETES (tah-JEE-teez)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From Tages, an Etruscan deity, the grandson of Jupiter, who sprang from the newly plowed earth. Species: erecta, patula; others and hybrids

Common Names: marigold; African marigold (T. erecta); French marigold (T. patula)

Availability: July through September

Description: Bright orange and yellow daisylike or carnation-like flowers. Useful for adding mass to mixed summer bouquets. Most have a unique fragrance.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

TAIL FLOWER see Anthurium

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

TELOPEA (tay-LO-pee-ah)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Name Origin: From the greek word telopos (seen from afar), referring to the showy flowers.

Species: speciosissima

Common Name: Waratah

Availability: May through November

Description: Dense terminal racemes surrounded by colored bracts. The flowers are vibrant red and add dramatic emphasis to designs.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

THOROUGHWAX see Bupleurum

THROATWORT see Trachelium

THRYPTOMENE (thrip-toe-MEAN-ee or THRIP-toe-mine)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Species: saxicola, calycina; others

Common Names: saxicola, calycina and calcinia, Australian heather, miniwaxflower

Availability: November through April

Description: Heatherlike spikes of tiny pink or white flowers on woody stems; good linear filler; resembles waxflower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TORCH LILY see Kniphofia

TRACHELIUM (tra-KEEL-lee-um)

Family: Campanulaceae (bellflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word trachelos (neck), referring to supposed medicinal properties.

Species: caeruleum

Common Names: throatwort, blue throatwort

Availability: March through November

Description: Clustered flowers in dense terminal compound corymbs; available in pink, purple, blue, and white. Excellent for adding mass or can be used as a filler in large bouquets. Entire flower heads can be used for basing contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

THRYPTOMENE saxicola

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

TRACHYMENE (tray-ki-MEE-nee)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words trachys (rough) and meninx (membrane), referring to the fruit.

Species: caerulea (Didiscus caeruleus)

Common Names: didiscus, blue laceflower, laceflower

Availability: June through November

Description: Flat or rounded umbels of delicate blue or white flowers, similar in appearance to Queen Anne's lace. Trachymene works well as a filler or as a graceful mass flower.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

TRANSVAAL DAISY see Gerbera

TRITELEIA (see Plate 4) (tri-te-LAY-a)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words tri (three) and teleios (perfect), referring to the floral parts, which are in threes.

Species: laxa

Common Names: triteleia, brodiaea

Availability: May through November, with peak supplies May through August

Description: Flower heads at a glance are similar to Agapanthus. However, funnel-shaped florets form a smaller umbel and are not as compact and globular as those of Agapanthus; a good filler and accent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

TRITOMA see Kniphofia

TROLLIUS (TROH-lee-us)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: Trollius species

Common Name: globeflower

Availability: April through July

Description: Globe-shaped yellow, orange, or white flowers. Useful in adding mass and accent.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

TRUMPET LILY see Zantedeschia

TUBEROSE see Polianthes

TULIP see Tulipa

TULIPA (see Plate 28) (TEW-li-pa)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Turkish word tulband (turban).

Species: Many cultivars

Common Name: tulip

Availability: November through May, with peak supplies January through April

Description: Single rounded flowers with colorful sepals and petals; adds mass to mixed spring bouquets. Tulips also work well in oriental and vegetative design styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; leave stems wrapped in sleeves while hydrating to prevent bending; cut off white portion of lower stem for better water uptake; do not store or arrange with freshly cut daffodils that secrete a sap harmful to tulips.

TURTLEHEAD see Chelone

V

VACCARIA see Saponaria

VANDA (see Plate 19) (VAN-dah)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Species: coerulea, sanderana, teres, tricolor; others and hybrids

Common Names: vanda, lei orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Sprays with clusters of flat-looking orchids, 1 to 3 inches across. A wide selection of colors with spotted patterns, many of which are fragrant. Many types are used in leis.

Vase Life: 1 to 3 weeks

VERONICA (ver-RON-ik-ah)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: Named after St. Veronica.

Species: spicata, longifolia; others and cultivars

Common Names: veronica, speedwell

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through September

Description: Upright spikelike racemes made of small purple, blue, pink, or white flowers; useful as a filler; the flower tips curve, adding graceful lines to mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

VIBURNUM (vy-BUR-num)

Family: Caprifoliaceae (elders and honeysuckles)

Species: opulus; others and cultivars

Common Names: snowball, Guelder rose

Availability: January through May

Description: Showy ball-shaped terminal panicles or umbel-like cyme clusters of white or greenish florets on woody stems. These fragrant flowers add mass and texture to large mixed bouquets. Frequently used in large wedding and church decorations.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

W

WARATAH see Telopea

WATSONIA (wot-SONE-ee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: After Sir William Watson (1715-1787), London physician and botanist.

Species: Many species and hybrids

Common Name: watsonia

Availability: March through August

Description: Delicate spikes of florets, similar in appearance to crocosmia; available in whites, pinks, reds, and lavenders.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 or more days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

WATTLE see Acacia

WAXFLOWER see Chamelaucium

WILD QUEEN ANNE'S LACE see Ammi

WINDFLOWER see Anemone

Y

YARROW see Achillea

YOUTH AND OLD AGE see Zinnia

Z

ZANTEDESCHIA (see Plate 5) (zan-te-DES-kee-ah)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: Named after Italian botanist Francesco Zantedischi (born 1797).

Species: aethiopica, elliottiana, rehmannii; others and cultivars

Common Names: calla lily, calla, arum lily, trumpet lily

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies in spring and summer

Description: A striking white, greenish, yellow, or reddish spathe surrounds a yellow cylindrical spadix. Available in a variety of sizes. Stems are thick and long with heart- or spear-shaped and long-stemmed leaves. Distincitve shape and sleek line provide emphasis.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 3 to 14 days

ZINGIBER (ZIN-ji-ber)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger, cardamom, and turmeric)

Species: zerumbet; others

Common Name: shampoo ginger

Availability: June to September

Description: Florets appear inside waxy bracts; the entire cluster is similar in appearance to a pinecone. Available in pinks, reds, and yellow. Shampoo ginger provides emphasis and combines well with other tropical and exotic flowers.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

ZINNIA (ZIN-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Johann Gottfried Zinn (1727-1759).

Species: elegans cultivars

Common Names: zinnia, youth and old age

Availability: May through October

Description: Daisy-shaped flowers available in a variety of colors, forms, and sizes. These mass flowers are colorful additions to mixed summer arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

Appendix B

Foliage

The foliage appendix lists information to help you become more familiar with and confident in pronouncing, selecting, and caring for cut foliages. Generic names and common names are listed alphabetically. The name of each genus is given first, which is also the scientific name, botanical name, and the Latin name, and is followed by a suggested pronunciation. The family in which it is placed, the derivation of the name, species, and common names are listed for each foliage. Availability and a brief description of each foliage is given along with approximate vase life and specific care and handling procedures. Common names are cross-referenced to the correct scientific name. The color plates, line illustrations, and photographs help ease identification.

Although there is a tremendous variety of foliage to choose from, foliage is too often an afterthought when it comes to gathering the parts to make a flower arrangement. However, it is often the diverse foliage that can set your designs apart from all others, giving them distinction and beauty. Give thought to the foliage you select, its leaf shape, vein pattern, color, texture, and margin. By increasing your design awareness, you also enhance your design skills. For an in-depth look at leaf and foliage characteristics, see Chapter 9.

A

ABIES (see conifer illustration) (AY-beez)

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)

Species: alba, procera, balsamea; many others

Common Names: fir, balsam fir; many others

Availability: Commercially, October through January

Description: A large genus of coniferous evergreen trees; stiff branches and aromatic foliage; excellent filler, providing accent with other conifer foliage in winter or Christmas arrangements. Noble fir has bluish, stiff needles with rounded tips that densely cover branched stems. Balsam fir has dark green, rounded needles on branching stems.

Vase Life: Long lasting, from 3 to 4 weeks

ACACIA (a-KAY-sha)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word akis (sharp point), referring to the thorns.

Species: cultriformis

Common Names: knifeblade acacia, knife acacia

Availability: Limited supplies year-round

Description: Tall branches with bluish knife-shaped leaves and crowded heads of flowers in terminal racemes; distinctive shape, color, and texture adds line and accent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

ADIANTUM (a-dee-AN-tum)

Family: Polypodiacea or Adiantaceae (ferns)

Name Origin: From the Greek word adiantos (unwetted), referring to the fronds' way of repelling water.

Species: raddianum; others and cultivars

Common Name: maidenhair fern

Availability: Year-round

Description: Soft green foliage with shiny black leafstalks; useful as a filler or accent in smaller bouquets and wedding designs.

Vase Life: Short vase life of 2 to 4 days; maidenhair is wilt sensitive; soak in water and mist with water to help regain turgor.

AFRICAN BOXWOOD see Myrsine

ANGEL'S WINGS see Caladium

ANTHURIUM (an-THEWR-ree-um)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anthos (flower) and oura (tail), referring to the tail-like inflorescence (spadix) of these flowers.

Species: andraeanum, scherzeranum

Common Name: flamingo flower foliage

Availability: Year-round, however anthurium foliage is not common, as it is easily damaged while still on the plant.

Description: Heart-shaped like the anthurium flowers. The leaves are dark glossy green and vary in size. Leaves work well with the anthurium flowers and other exotic flowers. Useful as an accent foliage.

Vase Life: 10 to 14 days

ARACHNIODES see Rumohra

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS (see Plate 35) (ark-tuh-STAF-uh-los)

Family: Ericaceae (heath family)

Name Origin: From the greek words arctos (bear) and staphyle (bunch of grapes). Manzanita means "little apple" in Spanish.

Species: manzanita; others

Common Name: manzanita

Availability: Limited supplies year-round

Description: Evergreen shrub, admired for its mahoganylike, smooth, red to purple bark and crooked branches that twist and gnarl attractively.

Vase Life: 7 to 14 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

ASPARAGUS (see Plate 29) (as-PAIR-a-gus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Common Names, Species, and Descriptions: foxtail fern (A. densiflorus 'Meyeri'): foxtail fern resembles a green, fluffy foxtail, hence its name; its linear form works well in contemporary designs.

Ming fern (A. densiflorus 'Myriocladus'): (see Plate 29) ming fern is light to dark green filler foliage; the tiny tufts of soft, needlelike leaves appear on branching sprays; excellent foliage for oriental designs; small tufts work well in corsages and boutonnieres.

plumosa fern, lace fern (A. plumosus, see Plate 29): plumosa fern ranges from light to dark green, and most types have either a trailing or an upright appearance; this soft, lacy foliage is a delicate linear filler; small pieces work well in corsages and boutonnieres.

sprengeri fern, sprenger fern (A. densiflorus 'Sprengeri', see Plate 29): sprengeri fern is generally dark green, but new shoots are often light green; has needlelike leaves densely packed on trailing stems; often will have small greenish berries; useful as a filler and an accent; can create graceful curving lines in large sympathy designs; beautiful accent in bridal bouquets and casket sprays.

string smilax, greenbrier (A. asparagoides): string smilax is medium green with small elliptical leaves, closely spaced along a thin stem that grows around a piece of string, forming delicate garlands; commonly used to decorate wedding cakes and banquet tables; useful whenever a soft garland is needed.

tree fern (A. pyramidalis): tree fern is medium to dark green and appears in bushy plumes; a soft and airy filler in arrangements; small pieces work well in corsages and boutonnieres.

Availability: Year-round

Vase Life: All are prone to premature drying and shattering; while in the cooler, store in moist bags or in plastic-covered buckets; lasts 3 to 14 days.

ASPIDISTRA (see Plate 30) (as-pi-DIS-tra)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word aspideon (a small round shield), referring to the shape of the stigma.

Species: elatior

Common Names: cast iron plant, barroom plant

Availability: Year-round, with limited quantities in the winter months

Description: Shiny dark green or variegated color stripes and color blotches. These leaves look similar to Cordyline terminalis (ti leaves) but have a softer texture and do not have a prominent center midrib. Useful as a background foliage; common for large designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting 3 to 4 weeks

AUSTRALIAN LAUREL see Pittosporum

B

BAKER FERN see Rumohra

BALSAM see Abies

BARROOM PLANT see Aspidistra

BEAR GRASS see Xerophyllum

BELLA PALM see Chamaedorea

BIRD OF PARADISE FOLIAGE see Strelitzia

BOSTON FERN see Nephrolepis

BOXWOOD see Buxus

BRAKE FERN see Nephrolepis

BROOM see Cytisus

BUTCHER'S BROOM see Ruscus

BUXUS (see Plate 30) (BUCK-sus)

Family: Buxacea (box family)

Species: sempervirens; others and cultivars

Common Names: boxwood, box (B. semperivirens); Oregonia (B. species)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Boxwood has small, oval, dark green, glossy leaves that densely cover woody stems. Oregonia is similar but with a variegated coloring. Useful as a filler and for providing line.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

C

CABBAGE PALM see Sabal

CALADIUM (see Plate 31) (ka-LAY-dee-um)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: From the native name, kaladi.

Species: bicolor and hybrids

Common Names: angel's wings, elephant's ear, heart of Jesus, mother-in-law plant

Availability: Year-round

Description: Caladium plants are grown for their interesting foliage. They have large, heart- shaped leaves with contrasting, marbled color patterns and venation. Wide range of colors including greens, white, cream, pinks, and reds; provides emphasis and accent.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

CALATHEA (see Plate 31) (ka-lah-THEE-a)

Family: Marantacea (arrowroot)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kalathos (basket), referring to the flowers being clustered as if in baskets.

Species: zebrina; others

Common Names: zebra plant, peacock leaf

Availability: Year-round

Description: All species have leaves with interesting colors and venation patterns; works well as an accent foliage, and can easily create or enhance a focal point. Calathea harmonizes well with exotic flowers.

Vase Life: 1 to 3 weeks

CAMELLIA (see Plate 31) (ka-MEL-lee-a)

Family: Theacea (tea, camellias, and franklinia)

Name Origin: Named after George Joseph Kamel (1661-1706), who studied the Philippines flora.

Species: japonica; others

Common Name: camellia

Availability: Year-round

Description: Handsome, glossy green leaves on long woody branches. An excellent background foliage for large arrangements. Smaller branches are useful as accents or fillers. Individual leaves work well in corsages and boutonnieres.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CAST IRON PLANT see Aspidistra

CEDAR see Cedrus

CEDRUS (see conifer illustration) (SEE-drus)

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)

Species: atlantica, deodara; others and cultivars

Common Name: cedar, atlas cedar, deodar cedar; others

Availability: Year-round

Description: Cedar is flat and lacy with stiff needles in clusters; provides a soft, sweeping line; smaller pieces work well as fillers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 to 4 weeks

CHAMAEDOREA (see palm illustration) (ka-mee-DOR-ee-ah)

Family: Palmae or Arecaceae (palm family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words chamai (on the ground) and dorea (gift), referring to the fruits that are within reach, unlike most palms.

Species: elegans, oblongata; others

Common Names: giant palm, parlor palm (C. elegans); bella palm, narrow palm (C. elegans 'Bella'); others

Availability: Year-round

Description: Palms are medium to dark green. Giant palm has sessile, elongated 1-inch leaves. Narrow palm leaves are 1/2 inch wide. Both are useful in large arrangements. Excellent background foliage. Can be trimmed for cleaner geometric or abstract patterns.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days CLUB MOSS see Lycopodium

CODIAEUM (see Plate 31) (koh-die-EE-um)

Family: Euphorbiaceae (spurge family)

Species: variegatum cultivars

Common Name: croton

Availability: Year-round

Description: Colorful, variegated, bold patterns on leaves that vary in size and shape. Wide range of colors including red, orange, pink, green, yellow, and white. Croton leaves can create a focal point or add accent.

Vase Life: 1 week

CONIFER see Abies, Cedrus, Juniperus, Pinus

CORDYLINE (see Plate 37) (kor-di-LIE-nee)

Family: Agavaceae (sisal hemp, pulque, and dragon tree) Name Origin: From the Greek word kordyle (club), referring to the large and fleshy roots of some species.

Species: terminalis (formerly Dracaena terminalis); cultivars

Common Names: ti (tea) leaf, ti, good luck plant, tree of kings

Availability: Year-round

Description: Long glossy leaves are emerald green or darker green with a reddish margin. Leaf lengths and widths vary. Useful as background foliage, especially with tropical and exotic flowers. Leaves can be curled or cut into many shapes.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

CROTON see Codiaeum

CYCAS (SIE-kas)

Family: Cycadacea (cycas family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name for a palm.

Species: revoluta

Common Names: cycas palm, sago palm

Availability: Year-round

Description: Stiff, short, dark green leaves on straight stems, about 20 inches long; leaflets have margins bent downward with sharp tips. Useful with tropical and large arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

CYPERUS

(sie-PEE-rus or SY-per-us)

Family: Cyperacea (reeds and sedges)

Name Origin: From the Greek word for a sedge.

Species: alternifolius, papyrus

Common Names: papyrus, bulrush, paper plant (C. papyrus); umbrella palm (see palms illustration), palm crown (C. alternifolius)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Cyperus (umbrella palm) is medium green and quite showy. Its radiating umbrella appearance adds a striking form to contemporary design styles. Papyrus is also medium green but has a moplike tuft of short, stiff, grasslike leaves at the top of each stem. Unusual foliage that adds interest, texture, and form. Looks best combined with unusual and exotic flowers or in contemporary design.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 4 weeks CYTISUS (see Plate 37) (SIT-is-us or si-TIS-sus)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kytisos, the name for these and similar shrubs.

Species: scoparius cultivars

Common Name: Scotch broom, broom

Availability: August through April

Description: Long, needlelike, dark green leaves that appear stiff on woody stems; the branches can be shaped into curves by gently using the warmth of your hands to shape, and by blowing hot air on the Scotch broom to speed the curving process; it is an ideal foliage for setting the shape of crescent and Hogarth designs. Another plant called Ironwood or Australian pine, is often mistaken for Scotch broom.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 3 weeks

D

DIFFENBACHIA (see Plate 32) (deef-en-BAHK-ee-ah)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: Named afer J. F. Dieffenbach (1790-1863).

Species: imperialis; others and cultivars

Common Name: dumb cane

Availability: Limited; generally leaves are cut from a potted plant.

Description: Handsome leaves have variegated color patterns, spotted and feathered with white, cream, and yellow markings. Diffenbachia adds emphasis and accent to designs.

Vase Life: Varies with species; 1 to 2 weeks

DRACAENA (see Plate 32) (dra-SEE-nah)

Family: Agavaceae (sisal hemp, pulque, and dragon tree)

Name Origin: From the Greek word drakcina (dragon).

Species: cincta, concinna; others and cultivars

Common Name: dracaena; others. Many properly belong to the closely related genus Cordyline, but are sold and grown as dracaena.

Availability: Year-round

Description: Long slender leaves, from dark to light green with variegated striping patterns; adds line and accent to floral designs.

Vase Life: Varies with species; 3 to 4 weeks

DRYOPTERIS see Rumohra

DUMB CANE see Diffenbachia

E

ELEPHANT'S EAR see Caladium

ELK GRASS see Xerophyllum

EQUISETUM

(ek-wi-SEE-tum)

Family: Equisetaceae (equisetum)

Name Origin: From the Latin words equus (horse) and seta (bristle).

Species: hyemale

Common Names: horsetail, snake grass, scouring rush

Availability: Year-round

Description: Hollow, jointed dark green stems; leaves are mere scales at the joints. Spores are borne in conelike spikes at the top of each stem. Useful for adding line; easily manipulated into abstract linear shapes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

EUCALYPTUS (see Plate 32) (ew-ka-LIP-tus)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Name Origin: From the Greek words eu (well) and kalypto (to cover), referring to how the calyx forms a lid over the flowers in bud.

Species: cinerea, gunnii, nicholii, perriniana, polyanthemos, pulverulenta, tetragona, torquata; others

Common Names: seeded eucalyptus and spiral eucalyptus (see Plate 32), baby blue eucalyptus, silver dollar eucalyptus, willow eucalyptus, silver spoon eucalyptus, eucalyptus pods (see Plate 10); others

Availability: Year-round

Description: Most eucalyptus is bluish green to silvergray; leaves vary in shape; some are rounded and sessile along tall stems that are useful for establishing line; other types have oval or slender, elongated leaves; most have a medicinal fragrance; removing lower leaves produces a sticky residue called menthol; remove by scrubbing hands with soap that contains lanolin.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 4 weeks

EUONYMUS (see Plate 31) (ew-ON-i-mus)

Family: Celastraceae (spindle tree family)

Name Origin: From the Latin name for these deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs.

Species: japonica, fortunei; others

Common Name: euonymus

Availability: Year-round

Description: Evergreen foliage is glossy green and variegated. The leaves are oval and densely grouped on woody stems. Useful as a background foliage; shorter stems work well as an accent and filler.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

EUPHORBIA (see Plate 32) (ew-FOR-bee-a)

Family: Euphorbiaceae (spurge family)

Name Origin: Named after Euphorbus, the physician to the King of Mauritania, Juba.

Species: marginata

Common Name: snow on the mountain, ghostweed

Availability: Year-round

Description: White, yellow, and light green leaves with contrasting white margin; it exudes a white milky sap when cut that can irritate sensitive skin and cause severe burning or dermatitis. Beautiful accents in foliage arrangements and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days; seal stems for increased vase life; change water often.

F

FATSIA (FATS-see-a)

Family: Araliaceae (ivies and ginseng)

Species: japonia cultivars

Common Name: Japanese aralia

Availability: Mostly summer months

Description: Large, glossy, dark green leaves, deeply lobed like the fingers of a hand. Beautiful additions in foliage arrangements. Useful as background or filler in large arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

FERN see Nephrolepis

FIR see Abies

FLAT FERN see Nephrolepsis

FLAX see Phormium

FOXTAIL FERN see Asparagus

FURZE see Ulex

G

GALAX (see Plate 33) (GAY-lax)

Family: Diapensiaceae (shortia and galax)

Name Origin: From the Greek word gala (milk), referring to the white flowers.

Species: urceolata

Common Name: galax leaf

Availability: Year-round; limited supplies in May and June

Description: Single, heart-shaped or rounded leaves on short stems. Generally dark green; however, in the autumn and winter months galax is reddish green. Galax is useful as a background foliage for sympathy pieces and wreaths. Works well as an accent foliage in contemporary and oriental sytles.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

GAULTHERIA (see Plate 37) (gawl-THER-ee-a or gawl-the-REE-ah)

Family: Ericaceae (heath family)

Name Origin: Named after a Canadian botanist and physician, Dr. Gaulthier (1708-1758).

Species: shallon

Common Names: salal (sa-LAL), lemonleaf, shallon

Availability: Year-round, with lesser quantities in July

Description: Large, medium to dark green leaves on long woody branches. Good background foliage in large arrangements; smaller tips work well as fillers. Individual leaves are useful in corsage and boutonnieres.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 weeks

GIANT PALM see Chamaedorea

GOOD LUCK PLANT see Cordyline

GORSE see Ulex

GREENBRIAR see Asparagus

GROUND PINE see Lycopodium

H

HALA see Pandanus

HEART OF JESUS see Caladium

HEDERA (see Plate 34) (HED-er-ah)

Family: Araliaceae (ivies and ginseng)

Name Origin: From the Latin name for these evergreen climbers.

Species: helix, canariensis, colchica; cultivars

Common Names: ivy, English ivy (H. helix); Algerian ivy (H. canariensis); Persian ivy (H. colchica)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Green or variegated leaves, spaced on flexible stems. Ivy has a graceful trailing quality. Useful as a hanging and curving line foliage, and as a filler foliage.

Vase Life: 5 days or longer

HOLLAND RUSCUS see Ruscus

HOLLY see Ilex

HORSETAIL see Equisetum

HUCKLEBERRY see Vaccinium

I

ILEX (see Plate 33) (EYE-leks)

Family: Aquifoliaceae (holly family)

Species: aquifolium; others and cultivars

Common Name: holly

Availability: Commercially, November and December

Description: Dark green or variegated stiff, spiky leaves on woody stems with red berries. Useful as a winter or holiday accent and filler. Spiky leaf margins add interesting form and texture to designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

INDIAN BASKET GRASS see Xerophyllum

ITALIAN RUSCUS see Ruscus

IVY see Hedera

J

JAPANESE ARALIA see Fatsia

JUNIPER see Juniperus

JUNIPERUS (see conifer illustration) (joo-NIP-er-us)

Family: Cupressaceae ( juniper family)

Name Origin: From the Latin name for these evergreen conifers.

Species: communis; others and cultivars

Common Name: juniper

Availability: October through December

Description: Medium to light green needles on spreading branches with powdery blue berries. Generally used as a filler foliage in winter and Christmas arrangements and decorations; texture of foliage and berries provides accent.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 to 4 weeks

K

KNIFEBLADE ACACIA see Acacia

L

LACE FERN see Asparagus

LEATHERLEAF FERN see Rumohra

LEMONLEAF see Gaultheria

LYCOPODIUM (see Plate 35) (lie-koh-POH-dee-um)

Family: Lycopodiaceae (lycopodium)

Species: complanatum, obscurum; others

Common Names: club moss, ground pine

Availability: Year-round

Description: Bright green scalelike needles on short, stiff, forking branches. The stems are 15 to 20 inches long. Useful in establishing line. Also useful as a filler in contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

M

MAIDENHAIR FERN see Adiantum

MAGNOLIA (see Plate 34) (mag-NOL-ee-a)

Family: Magnoliaceae (magnolias and tulip tree)

Species: grandiflora; others

Common Name: magnolia

Availability: October through March

Description: Large, glossy, dark green leaves with a leathery texture on woody stems. Useful in large arrangements.

Vase Life: About 5 days

MAHONIA (see Plate 34) (ma-HON-ee-ah)

Family: Berberidaceae (barberry, sacred bamboo, and may apple)

Name Origin: Named after American horticulturist Bernart McMahon (died 1816).

Species: aquifolium; others

Common Names: mahonia, Oregon grape

Availability: Year-round

Description: Evergreen shrubs with glossy, spiny leaves. Useful as a filler in larger arrangements or as a background foliage.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

MANZANITA see Arctostaphylos MARANTA (ma-RAN-tah)

Family: Marantaceae (arrowroot)

Name Origin: Named after Venetian botanist Bartolommeo Maranti (16th century).

Species: leuconeura cultivars

Common Name: prayer plant

Availability: Limited; generally leaves are cut from potted plants.

Description: Light and dark green with variegated color and vein patterns. Useful in adding emphasis and accent.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

MELALEUCA (me-la-LOO-ka)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words melas (black) and leukos (white), referring to the black trunk and white shoots of many species.

Species: neosphila, elliptica; others

Common Name: melaleuca

Availability: Year-round

Description: Evergreen, woody shrubs, often mistaken for mini myrtle.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

MING FERN see Asparagus

MOCK ORANGE see Pittosporum

MONSTERA (mon-STER-ah)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: Possibly the name derived from the monstrous appearance and size of the leaves.

Species: deliciosa

Common Names: monstera, Swiss cheese plant

Availability: Year-round

Description: Large, leathery, glossy, dark green leaves; irregularly cut and perforated with interesting margins and negative spaces, thus the name Swiss cheese plant. Useful foliage with exotic and tropical flowers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 4 weeks

MYRSINE (MUR-si-nay)

Family: Myrsinaceae (myrsine)

Name Origin: Greek name for myrtle.

Species: africana

Common Name: African boxwood

Availability: Year-round

Description: Evergreen woody shrub, often mistaken for myrtle and Buxus species; has rounded, fleshy leaves; tall, like myrtle; dries well.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

MYRTLE see Myrtus

MYRTUS (see Plate 35) (MUR-tus)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtle family)

Species: communis; others and cultivars

Common Name: myrtle

Availability: October through March

Description: There are several types of myrtle that are used commercially: common myrtle grows up to 48 inches tall with large, glossy, dark green leaves; mini myrtle has lighter-colored and smaller, more compact leaves on shorter stems; variegated myrtle has color patterns with cream and yellow margins. Useful as a line foliage in setting the framework of a design; smaller pieces are useful as fillers. Myrtle has a lemon fragrance.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

N

NARROW PALM see Chamaedorea

NEPHROLEPIS (nef-row-LEP-is)

Family: Polypodiaceae (ferns)

Species: exaltata, cordifolia; cultivars

Common Names: Boston fern (N. exaltata 'Bostoniensis'); Oregon fern, brake fern, flat fern, sword fern (N. cordifolia)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Boston fern has short, light green leaves alongside a short stem usually no longer than 12 inches; an attractive filler and useful in contemporary designs. Oregon fern is much longer and wider than Boston fern. It can easily set the framework of larger designs and is useful in covering mechanics.

Vase Life: 2 to 5 days

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

NEW ZEALAND FLAX see Phormium

NOBLE FIR see Abies

O

OREGON FERN see Nephrolepis

OREGON GRAPE see Mahonia

OREGONIA see Buxus

P

PALM see Chamaedorea

PALM CROWN see Cyperus

PALMETTO PALM see Sabal

PALM FAN see Sabal

PANDANUS (see Plate 33) (PAN-da-nus or pan-DAN-us)

Family: Pandanaceae (screw pines)

Species: odaratissimus, utilis; others

Common Names: screw pine, hala leaf

Availability: Year-round

Description: Sword-shaped leaves with yellow striping, 24 to 36 inches long. Pandanus, like New Zealand flax (Phormium), makes a dramatic vertical statement. It can be curled and bent into abstract, geometric patterns.

Vase Life: Long lasting; 2 to 3 weeks

PAPYRUS see Cyperus

PARLOR PALM see Chamaedorea

PEACOCK LEAF see Calathea

PHORMIUM (see Plate 33) (FOR-mee-um)

Family: Agavaceae (sisal hemp, pulque, and dragon tree)

Name Origin: From the Greek word phormion (mat), referring to the fiber that is produced from the leaves of P. tenax.

Species: tenax cultivars

Common Names: flax, New Zealand flax

Availability: Year-round

Description: Long, narrow leaves with variegated green and white and reddish purple patterns. Useful in adding line; may be manipulated into abstract linear patterns. Harmonizes well with tropical flowers.

Vase Life: 5 to 14 days

PINE see Pinus

PINUS (see conifer illustration) (PIE-nus)

Family: Pinaceae (pine family)

Species: strobus; many others and cultivars

Common Names: pine; white pine; others

Availability: Commercially, October through February

Description: Long flexible needles on branching stems. Sizes and types vary with species.Useful in setting the skeleton of a design; smaller pieces work well as accents and fillers in winter and Christmas arrangements and decorations.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 to 4 weeks

PITTOSPORUM (see Plate 36) (pi-TOS-poh-rum or pi-toe-SPORE-um)

Family: Pittosporaceae (parchment-bark)

Name Origin: From the Greek words pitta (pitch) and sporum (seed), referring to the sticky seeds.

Species: tobira; others

Common Names: pittosporum, pitt, Australian laurel, mock orange

Availability: Year-round

Description: Dark to light green, thick, leathery leaves including variegated types with cream-colored margins. Pittosporum can easily set the skeleton or background of a design; useful as a filler foliage.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

PLUMOSA FERN see Asparagus

PODOCARPUS (see Plate 36) (poh-doh-KAR-pus)

Family: Podocarpaceae (podocarpus)

Species: macrophyllus; others

Common Name: podocarpus, tropical yew

Availability: Year-round

Description: Dark green and conifer-like with long, flexible, flat needles on tall branches. Useful in setting the framework of a design. Shorter branches are useful as accents or fillers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

POLYSTICHUM (po-LI-sti-kum)

Family: Polypodiaceae (ferns)

Name Origin: From the Greek words poly (many) and stichos (row), referring to the arrangement of the spores on the underside of the fronds.

Species: munitum; others

Common Names: western sword fern, shield fern

Availability: Year-round, with lesser quantities in the summer months

Description: Western sword fern is similar to Nephrolepis but has longer and wider leaves on stems that are 20 to 24 inches long.

Vase Life: 10 to 14 days

PRAYER PLANT see Maranta

R

RHAMNUS (RAM-nus)

Family: Rhamnaceae (buckthorn and jujube)

Name Origin: The Greek name of a shrub.

Species: alaternus; others

Common Name: variegated buckthorn

Availability: Year-round

Description: Often confused with variegated myrtle or variegated boxwood; has tall woody branching stems.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

RUMOHRA (see Plate 34) (roo-MOH-rah)

Family: Polypodiaceae (ferns)

Species: adiantiformis; other genera of the Polypodiaceae family (Dryopteris, Arachniodes) are often named leather fern, causing some confusion. Common Names: leather fern, leatherleaf, baker fern

Availability: Year-round

Description: Dark green, triangular-shaped fronds, coarsely toothed. A popular florist foliage; works well in setting the background shape and in covering mechanics. Smaller pieces work well as fillers and in corsages and boutonnieres.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

RUSCUS (see Plate 36) (RUS-kus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: aculeatus, hypoglossum

Common Names: butcher's broom, Holland ruscus (R. aculeatus); Italian ruscus, smilax ruscus (R. hypoglossum)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Butcher's broom has broad green leaves on stems 10 to 20 inches long. Adds an interesting line; also useful as a filler. Italian ruscus has branching stems each with small, green leaves resembling string smilax. Provides sweeping curves in designs or can be used as a filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

S

SABAL (see palm illustration) (SAY-bal)

Family: Palmae or Arecaceae (palm family)

Species: palmetto

Common Names: sabal, palmetto palm, palm fan, cabbage palm

Availability: Year-round

Description: Palmate leaves, deeply divided and forming a fan about 20 inches wide. Palmetto works well as a background foliage in large designs. May be trimmed for interesting shapes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

SAGO PALM see Cycas

SALAL see Gaultheria

SCOTCH BROOM see Cytisus

SCOURING RUSH see Equisetum

SCREW PINE see Pandanus

SHALLON see Gaultheria

SHIELD FERN see Polystichum

SILVER DOLLAR see Eucalyptus

SMILAX RUSCUS see Ruscus

SNAKE GRASS see Equisetum

SNOW ON THE MOUNTAIN see Euphorbia

SPRENGERI FERN see Asparagus

SPURGE see Euphorbia

STRELITZIA (stre-LITZ-ee-a)

Family: Strelitziaceae (bird of paradise)

Species: reginae

Common Name: bird of paradise

Availability: Year-round

Description: Oval-shaped, light to dark green leaves; up to 20 inches long on sturdy straight stems. Ideal foliage for tall, tropical arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

STRING SMILAX see Asparagus

SWISS CHEESE PLANT see Monstera

T

TI LEAF see Cordyline

TREE FERN see Asparagus

TREE OF KINGS see Cordyline

TROPICAL YEW see Podocarpus

U

ULEX (see Plate 33) (EW-leks)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Species: europaeus

Common Names: gorse, furze, whin

Availability: June through April

Description: Rigid, dark green, spiny branches. Excellent for adding line; useful as a background element. Provides accent in contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days; sensitive to water stress

UMBRELLA PALM see Cyperus

V

VACCINIUM (see Plate 33) (vak-SIN-ee-um)

Family: Ericaceae (heath family)

Species: ovatum

Common Names: huckleberry, huck

Availability: Year-round, with lesser quantities in July

Description: Small ovate leaves densely cover branching stems. Useful as a background foliage in large arrangements. Smaller branches work well as fillers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

VARIEGATED BUCKTHORN see Rhamnus

W

WESTERN SWORD FERN see Polystichum

WHIN see Ulex

WHITE PINE see Pinus

X

XEROPHYLLUM (see Plate 30) (zer-oh-FIL-um)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: tenax

Common Names: bear grass, elk grass, Indian basket grass

Availability: Year-round

Description: Long, thin, curving leaves, about 1?4 inch wide and up to 48 inches long. Bear grass adds a soft curving line to designs, particularly in otherwise stiff arrangements. Good foliage to add to waterfall-style bouquets.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

Z

ZEBRA PLANT see Calathea
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Article Details
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Author:Hunter, Nora T.
Publication:Delmar's Handbook of Flowers, Foliage, and Creative Design
Article Type:List
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:17664
Previous Article:Section 3: contemporary design styles and techniques.
Next Article:Glossary.
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