Printer Friendly

Appendix A. Thermal Conversion Factors.

The heat content rates (i.e., thermal conversion factors) provided in this section represent the gross (or upper) energy content of the fuels. Gross heat content rates are applied in all British thermal unit (Btu) calculations for the Monthly Energy Review and are commonly used in energy calculations in the United States; net (or lower) heat content rates are typically used in European energy calculations. The difference between the two rates is the amount of energy that is consumed to vaporize water that is created during the combustion process. Generally, the difference ranges from 2 percent to 10 percent, depending on the specific fuel and its hydrogen content. Some fuels, such as unseasoned wood, can be more than 40 percent different in their gross and net heat content rates.

In general, the annual thermal conversion factors presented in Tables A1 through A6 are computed from final annual data. However, if current year final data are not available, thermal conversion factors for the current year are computed from the best available data and labeled "preliminary." Usually, the previous year's factor is used as a preliminary value until data become available to calculate the factor appropriate to the year. The source of each factor is described in the section entitled "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6 in this appendix.

Table A1. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products

(Million Btu per Barrel)
 Petroleum Product Heat Content

Asphalt 6.64
Aviation Gasoline 5.05
Butane 4.33
Butane Propane Mixture(a) 4.13
Distillate Fuel Oil 5.83
Ethane 3.08
Ethane-Propane Mixture(b) 3.31
Isobutane 3.97
Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type 5.67
Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type 5.36
Kerosene 5.67
Lubricants 6.07
Motor Gasoline
 Conventional(c) 5.25
 Reformulated(c) 5.15
 Oxygenated(c) 5.15
 Fuel Ethanol(d) 3.54
Natural Gasoline and Isopentane 4.62
Pentanes Plus 4.62
Petrochemical Feedstocks
 Naptha Less Than 401 [degrees] F 5.25
 Other Oils Equal to or Greater
 Than 401 [degrees] F 5.83
 Still Gas 6.00
Petroleum Coke 6.02
Plant Condensate 5.42
Propane 3.84
Residual Fuel Oil 6.29
Road Oil 6.64
Special Naphthas 5.25
Still Gas 6.00
Unfinished Oils 5.83
Unfractionated Stream 5.42
Waxes 5.54
Miscellaneous 5.80


(a) 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane.

(b) 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane.

(c) See Table A3 for motor gasoline annual weighted averages beginning in 1994.

(d) Fuel ethanol, which is derived from agricultural feedstocks (primarily corn), is not a petroleum product but is blended into motor gasoline. Its gross heat content (3.539 million Btu per barrel) is used in Monthly Energy Review calculations; its net heat content (3.192 million Btu per barrel) is used in the Energy Information Administration's Renewable Energy Annual calculations.

Source: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows Table A6.

Table A2. Approximate Heat Content of Crude Oil, Crude Oil and Products, and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

(Million Btu per Barrel)
 Crude Oil Crude Oil Products Natural
 Gas Plant
 Liquids
 Produ- Produc-
 ction Imports Exports Imports Exports tion

1973 5,800 5,817 5,800 5,897 5,752 4,049
1974 5,800 5,827 5,800 5,884 5,774 4,011
1975 5,800 5,821 5,800 5,858 5,748 3,984
1976 5,800 5,808 5,800 5,856 5,745 3,964
1977 5,800 5,810 5,800 5,834 5,797 3,941
1978 5,800 5,802 5,800 5,839 5,808 3,925
1979 5,800 5,810 5,800 5,810 5,832 3,955
1980 5,800 5,812 5,800 5,796 5,820 3,914
1981 5,800 5,818 5,800 5,775 5,821 3,930
1982 5,800 5,826 5,800 5,775 5,820 3,872
1983 5,800 5,825 5,800 5,774 5,800 3,839
1984 5,800 5,823 5,800 5,745 5,850 3,812
1985 5,800 5,832 5,800 5,736 5,814 3,815
1986 5,800 5,903 5,800 5,808 5,832 3,797
1987 5,800 5,901 5,800 5,820 5,858 3,804
1988 5,800 5,900 5,800 5,820 5,840 3,800
1989 5,800 5,906 5,800 5,833 5,857 3,826
1990 5,800 5,934 5,800 5,849 5,833 3,822
1991 5,800 5,948 5,800 5,873 5,823 3,807
1992 5,800 5,953 5,800 5,877 5,777 3,804
1993 5,800 5,954 5,800 5,883 5,779 3,801
1994 5,800 5,950 5,800 5,861 5,779 3,794
1995 5,800 5,924 5,800 5,848 5,747 3,796
1996 5,800 5,935 5,800 5,842 5,741 3,777
1997 5,800 5,954 5,800 5,862 5,729 3,762
1998 5,800 5,953 5,800 5,862 5,715 3,769
1999(a) 5,800 5,942 5,800 5,845 5,715 3,744
2000(a) 5,800 5,942 5,800 5,845 5,715 3,744


(a) Preliminary.

Note: Crude oil includes lease condensate.

[TABULAR DATA A3-A5 NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

(Btu per Kilowatthour)
 Fossil-Fueled Nuclear Geothermal
 Steam-Electric Steam-Electric Energy Electricity
 Plants(a) Plants Plants(b) Consumption

1973 10,389 10,903 21,674 3,412
1974 10,442 11,161 21,674 3,412
1975 10,406 11,013 21,611 3,412
1976 10,373 11,047 21,611 3,412
1977 10,435 10,769 21,611 3,412
1978 10,361 10,941 21,611 3,412
1979 10,353 10,879 21,545 3,412
1980 10,388 10,908 21,639 3,412
1981 10,453 11,030 21,639 3,412
1982 10,454 11,073 21,629 3,412
1983 10,520 10,905 21,290 3,412
1984 10,440 10,843 21,303 3,412
1985 10,447 10,813 21,263 3,412
1986 10,446 10,799 21,263 3,412
1987 10,419 10,776 21,263 3,412
1988 10,324 10,743 21,096 3,412
1989 10,432 10,724 21,096 3,412
1990 10,402 10,680 21,096 3,412
1991 10,436 10,740 20,997 3,412
1992 10,342 10,678 20,914 3,412
1993 10,309 10,682 20,914 3,412
1994 10,316 10,676 20,914 3,412
1995 10,312 10,658 20,914 3,412
1996 10,340 10,623 20,960 3,412
1997 10,357 10,623 20,960 3,412
1998 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412
1999 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412
2000(c) 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412


(a) Used as the thermal conversion factor for hydroelectric power generation, and for wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

(b) Used as the thermal conversion factor for geothermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

(c) Preliminary.

Source: See "Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation," which follows this table.

Thermal conversion factors for hydrocarbon mixes (Table A1) are weighted averages of the thermal conversion factors for each hydrocarbon included in the mix. For example, in calculating the thermal conversion factor for a 60-40 butane-propane mixture, the thermal conversion factor for butane is weighted 1.5 times more heavily than the thermal conversion factor for propane.

Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation

Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

Asphalt. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel for "Gasoline, Aviation" as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Butane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 4.326 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil Worm and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Butane-Propane Mixture. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines calculation of 4.130 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane. See Butane and Propane.

Crude Oil, Exports. Assumed by EIA to be 5.800 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for crude oil produced in the United States. See Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production.

Crude Oil, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the thermal conversion factor of each type of crude oil imported by the quantity imported. Thermal conversion factors for each type were calculated on a foreign country basis through 1996, by determining the average American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity of crude imported from each foreign country from Form ERA-60 in 1977, or for 1997 and later, by determining the weighted average API gravity from the Form EIA-814, and converting average API gravity to average Btu content by using National Bureau of Standards, Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products, 1933.

Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.800 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950."

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product exported and crude oil exported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and crude oil exported. See Crude Oil, Exports and Petroleum Products, Exports.

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported. See Crude Oil, Imports and Petroleum Products, Imports.

Distillate Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.825 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950."

Ethane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.082 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Ethane-Propane Mixture. EIA calculated 3.308 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane. See Ethane and Propane.

Fuel Ethanol Blended Into Motor Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 3.539 million Btu per barrel published in "Oxygenate Flexibility for Future Fuels," a paper presented by William J. Piel of the ARCO Chemical Company at the National Conference on Reformulated Gasolines and Clean Air Act Implementation, Washington, D.C., October 1991.

Isobutane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.974 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel for "Jet Fuel, Commercial" as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.355 million Btu per barrel for "Jet Fuel, Military" as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and. Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Kerosene. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950."

Liquefied Petroleum Gases. * 1960 through 1966: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products, 1956, Table 4 footnote, constant value of 4.011 million Btu per barrel. * 1967 forward: Calculated annually by EIA as a weighted average by multiplying the quantity consumed of each of the component products by each product's conversion factor, listed in this appendix, and dividing the sum of those heat contents by the sum of the quantities consumed.

The component products are ethane (including ethylene), propane (including propylene), normal butane (including butylene), butane-propane mixtures, ethane-propane mixtures, and isobutane. Quantities consumed are from: 1967 through 1980: EIA, Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, Table 1. 1981 forward: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, Table 2.

Lubricants. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.065 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Miscellaneous Products. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.796 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956

Motor Gasoline. * 1960 through 1993: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 million Btu per barrel for "Gasoline, Motor Fuel" as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics. * 1994 forward: EIA calculated national annual quantity-weighted average conversion factors for conventional, reformulated, and oxygenated motor gasolines (shown in appendix Table C1). The factor for conventional motor gasoline is 5.253 million Btu per barrel, as used for previous years. The factors for reformulated and oxygenated gasolines, both currently 5.150 million Btu per barrel, are based on data published in the Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Mobile Sources, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory report EPA 420-F-95-003, Fuel Economy Impact Analysis of Reformulated Gasoline.

Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Production. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors of each natural gas plant liquid produced weighted by the quantity of each natural gas plant liquid produced.

Natural Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 4.620 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Pentanes Plus. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 4.620 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for natural gasoline. See Natural Gasoline.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Naphtha Less Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.248 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for special naphthas. See Special Naphthas.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for distillate fuel oil. See Distillate Fuel Oil.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Still Gas. Assumed by EIA to be 6.000 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for still gas. See Still Gas.

Petroleum Coke. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.024 million Btu per barrel as reported in Btu per short ton in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950." The Bureau of Mines calculated this factor by dividing 30.120 million Btu per short ton, as given in the referenced Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, by 5.0 barrels per short ton, as given in the Bureau of Mines Form 6-1300-M and successor EIA forms.

Petroleum Products, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed at electric utilities, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed at electric utilities. The quantity of petroleum consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Industrial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed in the industrial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the industrial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Residential and Commercial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the residential and commercial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the residential and commercial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Transportation Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factor for all petroleum products consumed in the transportation sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the transportation sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product exported.

Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product imported, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product imported.

Plant Condensate. Estimated to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel by EIA from data provided by McClanahan Consultants, Inc., Houston, Texas.

Propane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.836 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Residual Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.287 million Btu per barrel as reported in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, "Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950."

Road Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of asphalt (see Asphalt) and was first published by the Bureau of Mines in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Special Naphthas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.248 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of total gasoline (aviation and motor) factor and was first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Still Gas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimated thermal conversion factor of 6.000 million Btu per barrel and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Unfinished Oils. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for distillate fuel oil (see Distillate Fuel Oil) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 3, 1977.

Unfractionated Stream. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for plant condensate (see Plant Condensate) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 2, 1981.

Waxes. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.537 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas

Natural Gas, Total Consumption. 1973-1979: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor calculated annually by the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in Gas Facts, an AGA annual publication. 1980 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas consumed by the total quantity of natural gas consumed. The heat content and quantity consumed are from Form EIA-176. Published sources are: 1980-1989: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 15. 1990-1992: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 16. 1993 forward: 1992 value used as an estimate.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas received at electric utilities by the total quantity received at electric utilities. The heat contents and receipts are from Form FERC-423 and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Sectors Other Than Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of all natural gas consumed less the heat content of natural gas consumed at electric utilities by the quantity of all natural gas consumed less the quantity of natural gas consumed at electric utilities. Data are from Forms EIA-176, FERC-423, EIA-759, and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of exported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas exported, both reported on Form FPC- 14.

Natural Gas, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of imported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas imported, both reported on Form FPC-14.

Natural Gas Production, Dry. Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for the consumption of dry natural gas. See Natural Gas Total Consumption.

Natural Gas Production, Marketed (Wet). Calculated annually by EIA by adding the heat content of dry natural gas production and the total heat content of natural gas plant liquids production and dividing this sum by the total quantity of marketed (wet) natural gas production.

Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke

Coal, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumption by the total tonnage.

Coal, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) received at electric utilities by the sum of the tonnage received.

Coal, Consumption by Other Power Producers. Calculated annually by dividing the total heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumed by other power producers by their total consumption tonnage.

Coal, Consumption by the Electric Power Sector. Calculated annually by dividing the total heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) by total consumption tonnage of the electric power sector.

Coal, Consumption by End-Use Sectors. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumed by the end-use sectors by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal exported by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal imported by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Production. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the total heat content of coal (including some anthracite culm) produced by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal Coke, Imports and Exports. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimate of 24.800 million Btu per short ton.

Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

Fossil-Fueled Steam-Electric Plant Generation. There is no generally accepted practice for measuring the thermal conversion rates for power plants that generate electricity from hydroelectric, wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, or solar thermal energy sources. Therefore, EIA uses data from Form EIA-767 to calculate a rate factor that is equal to the prevailing annual average heat rate factor for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States. By using that factor, it is possible to evaluate fossil fuel requirements for replacing those sources during periods of interruption such as droughts. The heat content of a kilowatthour of electricity produced, regardless of the generation process, is 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour. 1973-1991: The weighted annual average heat rate for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States, as published by EIA in Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 9. 1992 forward: Unpublished factors calculated on the basis of data from Form EIA-767.

Geothermal Energy Plant Generation. 1973-1981: Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the annual average heat rates of operating geothermal units by the installed nameplate capacities as reported on Form FPC-12. 1982 forward: Estimated annually by EIA on the basis of an informal survey of relevant plants.

Nuclear Steam-Electric Plant Generation. 1973-1991: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content consumed in nuclear generating units by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation are reported on Form FERC-1, "Annual Report of Major Electric Utilities, Licenses, and Others"; Form EIA-412, "Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities"; and predecessor forms. The factors, beginning with 1982 data, are published in the following EIA reports--1982: Historical Plant Cost and Annual Production Expenses for Selected Electric Plants 1982, page 215. 1983-1991: Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 13. 1992 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of the steam leaving the nuclear generating units to generate electricity by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation data are reported in Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Licensed Operating Reactors--Status Summary Report.
COPYRIGHT 2001 US Department of Energy
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Monthly Energy Review
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2001
Words:4264
Previous Article:Section 10. International Energy.
Next Article:Appendix B. Metric and Other Physical Conversion Factors.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters