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Appendix A Flowers.

H

HEATH/HEATHER see Erica

HELIANTHUS (see Plate 26)

(hee-li-ANTH-us)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and anthos (flower).

Species: annuus, tuberosus; others and hybrids

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Common Name: sunflower

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June thorugh October

Description: Large daisylike head flowers up to 10 inches across with petals (ray florets) surrounding a contrasting center (disc florets); single and double forms; available in creams, yellows, oranges, reds, and browns; provides mass and emphasis.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

HELICHRYSUM (see Plate 27)

(hee-li-KRIS-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and chryson (golden).

Species: bracteatum; others and cultivars

Common Names: strawflower, everlasting flower

Availability: July through September

Description: Brightly colored flowers with crisp, papery texture. Available in a wide range of colors including yellows, oranges, reds, pinks, and white. Sizes vary, most common about 2 inches across. Adds interesting texture and mass to arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks HELICONIA (see Plate 14) (hel-i-KO-nee-ah)

Family: Musaceae or Heliconiaceae (heliconia family)

Species: humilis, caribaea, psittacorum, pendula, chartacea, magnifica, xanthovillosa; others

Common Names: heliconia, lobster claw, rainbow, parrot's flower; many common names with each species

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tropical erect or drooping flowers; brilliant bracts of inflorescence densely packed together on thick stems. Most are bicolored in reds, oranges, yellows, and greens. Use alone or with other tropical flowers and foliage. Coloring and unique shape demand attention.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 10 to 14 days

HELIPTERUM

(hee-LIP-tur-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words helios (sun) and pteron (wings), referring to their sun-loving nature and their feathery bristles.

Species: humboldtianum, manglesii, roseum

Common Names: Swan River everlasting, immortelles

Availability: May through October

Description: Daisylike, straw-textured head flowers on thin stems. Available in white and pink with yellow centers. Adds mass and also used as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

HELLEBORUS

(he-li-BOHR-us)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: niger, orientalis; others and hybrids

Common Names: Christmas rose, Lenten rose, hellebore

Availability: Year-round

Description: Large and attractive white, greenish, pink, and purple flowers 2 to 5 inches across. Five petals surround golden anthers. Useful for adding emphasis and mass.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

HIPPEASTRUM

(hip-ee-AS-trum)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word hippos (horse) referring to the inflorescence of the species H. puniceum, which was likened to the head of a horse.

Species: hybrids

Common Names: amaryllis, Barbados lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Hippeastrum has four to six trumpet-shaped flowers clustered together in an umbel pattern at the top of a thick, hollow, leafless stem. Individual flowers are 5 to 9 inches across. Available in white, pinks, reds, oranges, and bicolors. These flowers have distinctive shapes that demand attention and work well in contemporary design styles. Allow space for blossoms to open.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks, while individual florets continue opening.

HYACINTH see Hyacinthus

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HYACINTHUS (see Plate 15)

(hi-ah-SIN-thus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: orientalis cultivars

Common Names: hyacinth, Dutch hyacinth

Availability: November through April

Description: Compact spikelike racemes with bell-shaped, waxy florets. Available in white, pinks, reds, blues, purples, and yellows. Extremely fragrant. These flowers are at home with other bulb flowers in traditional spring designs. Also distincitve in contemporary designs, particularly vegetative and parallel styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

HYDRANGEA

(hi-DRAN-jee-ah)

Family: Saxifragaceae (hydrangea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words hydro (water) and aggos (jar), referring to the fruits that are shaped like cups.

Species: macrophylla, paniculata; others

Common Name: hydrangea

Availability: July to October

Description: Large rounded or pyramidal compound clusters of small starlike florets in blues, pinks, and white. These flowers provide mass and emphasis in large arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days; seal the bleeding latex for longer vase life.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

HYPERICUM

(hi-PEAR-i-kum or hi-pe-REE-kum)

Family: Guttiferae (mangosteen and mammey apple)

Name Origin: From the Greek words hyper (above) and eikon (a picture), it was hung above pictures to ward off evil spirits.

Species: androsaemum (Greek name for a plant with red sap, from andros [man] and haima [blood]); hookerianum; others and varieties

Common Names: hypericum berry, coffee bean berry, St. John's wort

Availability: June through December

Description: Most species produce bright yellow flowers on woody stems; their fruit or "berries" are their main attraction; berries grow in clusters and are brightly colored when ripe; berries are available in red, green, brown, and black; some varieties have reddish foliage.

Vase Life: 2 weeks; however if leaves are removed, stems will last 3 to 4 weeks.

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I

IBERIS (see Plate 5)

(i-BEER-is)

Family: Cruciferae or Brassicaceae (mustard family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word iberis (from Iberia).

Species: amara, umbellata; others and cultivars

Common Names: candytuft, rocket candytuft

Availability: March through August

Description: Clustered florets that form a convex corymb or elongated raceme inflorescence. Available in white, pink, red, and lavender. Useful as a filler in mixed arrangements. Also works well grouped in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

INCA LILY see Alstroemeria

IRIS (see Plate 15)

(EYE-ris)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: Named after the Greek goddess of the rainbow.

Species: reticulata, sibirica; others and hybrids

Common Names: iris, Dutch iris, flag

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies March through May

Description: Distinctive flower forms available in blues, purples, yellows, and white. Useful in a variety of design styles. Can be used for emphasis and accent. Allow plenty of space around flowers, as they continue to open. Striking in oriental and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 2 to 6 days; ethylene sensitive; avoid water loss. Avoid warm temperatures, drafts, and sunlight to help flowers open.

IXIA (see Plate 15)

(IKS-ee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word ixia (bird lime), referring to the sticky sap.

Species: viridiflora hybrids

Common Names: corn lily, African corn lily

Availability: March through August

Description: Star-shaped florets in spike or panicle clusters on wiry stems. Available in cream, yellow, pink, orange, and red with mixtures of these colors. Works well as a line flower. Can also be used as a filler in larger bouquets. Especially striking in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days, with individual florets continuously opening.

J

JONQUIL see Narcissus

JOSEPH'S COAT see Amaranthus

K

KANGAROO PAW see Anigozanthos

KISS OF DEATH see Costus

KNIPHOFIA

(nee-FOF-ee-ah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: Named after Johann H. Kniphof (1704-1763).

Species: uvaria hybrids

Common Names: red hot poker, tritoma, torch lily, poker plant

Availability: June through October

Description: Tight, terminal, spikelike racemes packed with overlapping florets of red, orange, and yellow on leafless stems. The scarlet florets become orange and then yellow with age. These tall-stemmed flowers add emphasis and height and look good in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days, with florets continuously opening.

L

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

LADY'S MANTLE see Alchemilla

LADY'S SLIPPER see Paphiopedilum

LARKSPUR see Consolida

LATHYRUS (see Plate 26)

(LATH-i-rus)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: The Greek name for the pea.

Species: odoratus cultivars

Common Name: sweet pea

Availability: February through September

Description: Sweetly scented flowers with delicate petals in soft colors, including white, pinks, reds, blues, and lavenders. Stems are fairly short with three to seven flowers per stem. Sweet peas can be used to add mass or used as a filler. Simple and charming alone or with other spring and summer flowers.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; ethylene sensitive.

LAVATERA

(la-vah-TER-ah)

Family: Malvaceae (cotton, mallows, and hollyhocks)

Name Origin: Named after Zurich naturalists, the Lavater brothers of the 16th century.

Species: trimestris

Common Names: mallow, tree mallow

Availability: June to October Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers that look like miniature

Hawaiian hibiscus flowers. Several flowers appear at the top of tall leafy stems. Available in reds, pinks, lavendar, and white.

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Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

LEI ORCHID see Vanda

LEPTOSPERMUM (see Plate 22)

(lep-toe-SPUR-mum)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Name Origin: From the Greek words leptos (slender) and sperma (seed), referring to its narrow seeds.

Species: scoparium

Common Names: lepto, tea tree, New Zealand tea tree

Availability: Peak supplies January through April

Description: Clusters of small blossoms on woody stems. Available in white, pinks, and reds. Long branches are excellent for adding line. Smaller stems work well as spiky fillers. Provides an elegant line in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

LEUCODENDRON (see Plate 20)

(loo-ka-DEN-dron)

Family: Proteacea (protea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words leukos (white) and dendron (tree), referring to its silvery foliage.

Species: argenteum; others and cultivars

Common Names: silver tree, flame tip

Availability: Year-round; some species are limited by season.

Description: Flower head consists of stiff bracts surrounding a cone or small inconspicuous flower. Male flowers have terminal, sessile heads; female flowers have terminal, cone-like heads. The woody bracts, often mistaken for petals, are generally colorful, most often reds, burgundy, green, and yellows, and combinations of these colors. The stems are densely packed with stiff leaves that radiate out on all sides. These flowers work well with other exotic flowers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

LEUCOSPERMUM (see Plate 20)

(lu-co-SPER-mum)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Species: cordifolium, reflexum, nutans, catherinae; others and cultivars

Common Name: pincushion protea

Availability: Year-round; some species are limited by season.

Description: The flower heads consist of colorful orange or reddish orange styles that form a domed, globular shape (thus the name pincushion). Flowers top woody stems loaded with stiff leaves. Creates emphasis through texture and form.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

LIATRIS (see Plate 16)

(lie-AH-tris)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: spicata; callilepsis, and others

Common Names: liatris, gay feather, blazing star, button snakeroot, purple poker

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny florets appear in dense spikes; opening from the top downward. Available in purple and white. Excellent for creating strong line in arrangements. Works well in mixed bouquets and is striking in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

LILAC see Syringa

LILIUM (see Plate 17)

(LIL-ee-um)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: The Latin name for these bulbous flowers.

Species: longiflorum; others, hybrids, and cultivars

Common Names: Lilies bred from L. auratum and L. speciosum (such as L.S. 'Rubrum') are large and called oriental lilies and are generally white, pink, and white with red. Asian lilies are generally the yellows, oranges, reds, and whites; Easter lily (L. longiflorum) is white and trumpet-shaped.

Availability: Year-round

Description: The flowers are 4 to 6 inches across. A wide range of forms and colors are available. Flowers appear on short branchs at the end of tall stems. Some are upright, while others are pendant or outward-facing. The striking form of lilies with their central floral parts provides a focal point. Leave room for lily blossoms to open. Lilies work well in mixed arrangements, wedding, and sympathy designs. Striking in oriental and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 4 to 5 days per bloom; ethylene sensitive; remove anthers to prevent staining.

LILY see Lilium

LILY OF THE FIELD see Anemone

LILY OF THE INCAS see Alstroemeria

LILY OF THE NILE see Agapanthus

LILY OF THE VALLEY see Convallaria

LIMONIUM (see Plate 25)

(lee-MO-nee-um)

Family: Plumbaginaceae (see lavender and thrift)

Name Origin: From the Greek word leimon (meadow), referring to their natural habitat.

Species: latifolium, perezii, sinuatum, ferulaceum (caspia and misty blue hybrids); others and cultivars

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Common Names: statice, sea lavender, caspia, misty blue, seafoam statice; Goniolimon (L. tataricum) (German statice)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny white or yellow flowers are surrounded by papery bracts. Flowers are sessile, in panicles or spikes. Bract colors include white and various shades and tints of pink, yellow, blue, and purple. Useful as a colorful filler adding interesting texture to mixed bouquets. Misty blue and caspia are sometimes odoriferous.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks; subject to mildew and brown spots; provide air circulation.

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LISIANTHUS see Eustoma

LOBSTER CLAW see Heliconia

LOOSESTRIFE see Lysimachia

LOVE IN A MIST see Nigella

LOVE LIES BLEEDING see Amaranthus

LUPINE see Lupinus

LUPINUS (see Plate 16)

(lu-PEEN-us)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Species: polyphyllus cultivars

Common Name: lupine

Availability: July through September

Description: Lupine florets resemble pea blossoms and are densely packed on tall, erect spikelike raceme stalks. Available in a wide variety of colors. These are graceful, old-fashioned flowers that look lovely in mixed summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

LYSIMACHIA

(lie-si-MAK-ee-ah)

Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)

Name Origin: Named after King Lysimachos of ancient Thrace. According to legend, the king was able to pacify a bull by using a piece of loosestrife.

Species: clethroides, punctata

Common Name: loosestrife

Availability: July to September

Description: Tiny white or yellow, star-shaped florets tightly arranged in small slender, curving, spikelike racemes at the top of dense foliage.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

M

MADAGASCAR JASMINE see Stephanotis

MAGNOLIA

(mag-NOL-ee-ah)

Family: Magnoliaceae (Magnolia family)

Name Origin: Named after French professor of botany Pierre Magnol (1638-1715).

Species: many species and hybrids

Common Name: magnolia

Availability: February to May

Description: Elegant focal flowers on woody stems. Available in a variety of forms and colors; beautiful in oriental designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 6 days

MALLOW see Lavatera

MARGUERITE DAISY see Chrysanthemum

MARIGOLD see Tagetes

MASTERWORT see Astrantia

MATRICARIA see Chrysanthemum

MATTHIOLA (see Plate 25)

(ma-THEE-oh-lah)

Family: Cruciferae or Brassicaceae (mustard family)

Name Origin: Named after Italian botanist Pierandrea Mattioli (1500-1577).

Species: incana and hybrids

Common Names: stock, gillyflower

Availability: January through October

Description: Small, 1-inch florets form rounded, spikelike racemes. Available in a wide selection of colors. These fragrant flowers add mass and line to mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

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MEADOWSWEET see Astilbe

MICHAELMAS DAISY see Aster

MILKWEED see Asclepias

MIMOSA see Acacia

MISTY BLUE see Limonium

MOLUCCELLA (see Plate 4)

(mahl-you-SEL-ah)

Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family)

Species: laevis

Common Names: bells of Ireland, shellflower, molucca balm

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through October

Description: Whorls of tiny, white, fragrant flowers are surrounded by curious green shell-like calyces resembling bells, which are often mistaken for petals. The flowers and sepals are clustered along tall stems. Often reserved for St. Patrick's Day, but useful throughout the year for adding line and accent. Striking in all-foliage and contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

MONKSHOOD see Aconitum

MONTBRETIA see Crocosmia

MONTE CASSINO see Aster

MOTH ORCHID see Phalaenopsis

MUSCARI (see Plate 15)

(mus-KAIR-ree)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Species: armeniacum, botryoides; others

Common Name: grape hyacinth

Availability: January through March

Description: Tiny, tubular white or blue florets densely clustered on short stems. These small and delicate flowers work best in contempoary design styles, such as parallel systems or vegetative, where they can be clustered together for greater impact.

Vase Life: 4 to 7 days

N

NARCISSUS (see Plate 7)

(nar-SIS-us)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Narcissus was a legendary youth of Greek mythology who was arrogant and fell in love with his own reflection.

Species: pseudonarcissus; others and hybrids

Common Names: narcissus, daffodil, jonquil

Availability: November through April

Description: The single, trumpet-shaped flowers are known as daffodils; other varieties are known as jonquils or narcissus. The tiny white narcissus in clusters are known as paperwhites. Narcissus flowers are available in a great range of forms, sizes, and colors--white, cream, yellows, oranges, and bicolors. Their form adds accent and emphasis to simple and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 4 to 6 days; condition narcissus alone, as they secrete sap when cut that is harmful to other flowers; do not recut again when mixing with other flowers in designs.

NERINE (see Plate 18)

(near-REEN)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Named after a Greek sea nymph.

Species: bowdenii, sarniensis; others

Common Name: Guernsey lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small florets are lilylike and clustered at the top of leafless stems in umbel patterns. There are from six to twelve florets forming each cluster. Available in pinks, reds, and white. These flowers work well in many design styles including mixed bouquets, oriental, and contemporary. The individual florets are useful in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs. Odoriferous.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

NIGELLA

(nee-JEL-lah)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: damascena; others

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Common Names: love in a mist, fennel flower, wild fennel

Availability: June to September

Description: Nigella flowers are small and flat; several appear at the top of a thin, hairy stem. Egg-shaped seed capsules among the flowers provide accent. Flowers are available in blue, pink, and white. Nigella provides interesting texture.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

O

OBEDIENT PLANT see Physostegia

ONCIDIUM (see Plate 19) (ahn-SID-ee-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word onkos (tumor), referring to a swelling on the lip.

Species: pulchellum, splendidum, varicosum; others and hybrids

Common Names: oncidium, golden shower, butterfly orchid, dancing doll, dancing lady orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Masses of tiny orchid flowers in thin, branching stems. The flowers are yellow with speckles of orange, red, and brown. The stems arch with the weight of the florets; provides graceful linear curves in arrangements. These flowers work well with other orchids and exotic flowers. Arching stems are beautiful in oriental designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

ONION FLOWER see Allium

ORCHID see Cattleya, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis, Vanda

ORIENTAL LILY see Lilium

ORNAMENTAL PINEAPPLE see Ananas

ORNITHOGALUM (see Plate 27) (or-ni-THAHG-ah-lum)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words ornis (bird) and gala (milk).

Species: arabicum, thyrsoides; others

Common Names: star of Bethlehem, chincherinchee

Availability: Year-round

Description: White, star-shaped flowers in tight racemes and corymb clusters at the top of leafless stems. Flower centers are either whitish green or black. Star of Bethlehem is a versatile flower, adding line, mass, or accent. Also useful as a spiky filler. A beautiful, long-lasting addition to mixed bouquets, oriental designs, and contemporary styles. Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

OSTRICH PLUME see Alpinia

OUTDOOR GYPSOPHILA see Saponaria

OXEYE DAISY see Chrysanthemum

P

PAEONIA (see Plate 24)

(pee-OH-ne-ah)

Family: Paeoniaceae or Ranunculaceae (peony family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name paionia, referring to Paion, who was the physician to the gods.

Species: lactiflora, suffruticosa

Common Name: peony

Availability: May through July

Description: Large, fragrant, single flowers from 3 to 8 inches across. Available in a wide variety of forms, including single, double, and anemone types. These giant blossoms are grand all by themselves or in mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

PAINTED TONGUE see Anthurium

PAINTER'S PALETTE see Anthurium

PAPAVER

(pah-PAY-ver)

Family: Papaveraceae (poppy family)

Species: orientale, nudicaule; others and hybrids

Common Names: poppy, Iceland poppy

Availability: May through September

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Description: Papery petals surround a contrasting center; open up almost flat. Flowers are solitary at the top of nodding, wiry stems. Available in a variety of intense colors.

Vase Life: 1 to 5 days; to increase vase life, sear the stem ends with a flame or dip in boiling water and place in warm preservative solution.

PAPERWHITES see Narcissus

PAPHIOPEDILUM (see Plate 19)

(paf-ee-oh-PED-il-lum)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words Paphos the site of a temple on Cyprus where Aprhodite was worshipped and pedilon (slipper).

Species: bellatulum, fairrieanum; others and hybrids; greenhouse Cypripediums belong to the genera Paphiopedilum.

Common Names: slipper orchid, lady's slipper

Availability: Year-round

Description: Exotic flowers with dramatic form and coloring. Ideal for contemporary designs.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

PEONY see Paeonia

PEPPERBERRY see Schinus

PERSIAN BUTTERCUP see Ranunculus

PERUVIAN LILY see Alstroemeria

PHALAENOPSIS (see Plate 19)

(fal-en-NOP-sis)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words phalaina (moth) and -opsis (resembling).

Species: amabilis, gigantea; others and hybrids

Common Name: moth orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: These delicate, elegant orchid flowers are 3 to 4 inches across and flatter-looking than most orchids. Available mostly in white and pink. Generally sold individually. Frequently used in wedding and corsage designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

PHLOX (see Plate 21)

(floks)

Family: Polemoniaceae (phlox family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word phlox (flame).

Species: paniculata, drummondii; others

Common Name: phlox

Availability: June through November

Description: Small florets form dense terminal panicles on leafy stems. Available in white, pinks, reds, lavenders, and bicolors. An excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

PHYSOSTEGIA (see Plate 18)

(fie-soe-STEE-jee-ah)

Family: Labiatae or Lamiaceae (mint family)

Species: virginiana cultivars

Common Names: false dragonhead, obedient plant, lion's heart, obedience

Availability: July to October

Description: Tubular florets form along a 12-to 24-inch stem, forming a spikelike inflorescence with an unusual shape. Available in white, pinks, and lavender.

Vase Life: 1 week

PINCUSHION FLOWER see Scabiosa

PINCUSHION PROTEA see Leucospermum

PINEAPPLE, ORNAMENTAL see Ananas

PINKS see Dianthus

PITCHER PLANT see Sarracenia

PIXIE see Dianthus

PLUME THISTLE see Cirsium

POINSETTIA see Euphorbia

POLIANTHES (see Plate 28)

(pah-lee-ANTH-eez)

Family: Agavaceae (Mexican lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words polis (grey) and anthos (flower).

Species: tuberosa

Common Name: tuberose

Availability: February to October

Description: Clustered spikes of fragrant, waxy, white flowers. Star-shaped florets are about 1 inch across. These flowers can add mass, line, and accent to a number of design styles. Useful in corsages, leis, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

POPPY see Papaver

POT MARIGOLD see Calendula

PRINCE'S FEATHER see Amaranthus

PROTEA (see Plate 20)

(PRO-tee-a)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Name Origin: Named after the Greek sea God, Proteus, who had the power of prophecy.

Species: compacta, cynaroides, grandiceps, magnifica, nerifolia, obtusifolia, repens; others and hybrids

Common Names: protea; king protea (P. cynaroides); queen protea (P. magnifica); pink mink (P. nerifolia); many other common names

Availability: Year-round

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Description: Proteas are large focal flowers. They are rounded with colorful bracts in a variety of colors, forms, and textures. They stand singly at the top of woody, leafy stems.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

PRUNUS (see Plate 22)

(PRU-nus)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Name Origin: Prunus is the Latin name for the plum tree.

Common Names: Prunus includes cherry, plum, peach, apricot, nectarine, and almond trees and shrubs.

Availability: October through May, depending on species. Can be forced to blossom indoors.

Description: Single or double flowers along woody branches. A wide variety of forms, depending on the species. Available in white and tints and shades of pink. Many types are fragrant. Tall branches add line. Shorter stems add linear fillers. Blossoming branches are elegant in oriental and vegetative designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

PUSSY WILLOW see Salix

Q

QUEEN ANNE'S LACE see Ammi

QUINCE see Chaenomeles

R

RAINBOW see Heliconia

RANUNCULUS (see Plate 21)

(rah-NUN-kew-lus)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word rana (frog), as many prefer to grow in wet areas.

Species: asiaticus; others and hybrids

Common Names: ranunculus, Persian buttercup

Availability: January through May

Description: These single and double flowers resemble small peonies, with centers often a contrasting color or black. Sizes vary from 1 to 4 inches wide. Available in a wide selection of bright colors including white, yellow, orange, red, and pink. Colorful additions to mixed bouquets and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

RED HOT POKER see Kniphofia

ROSA (see Plate 23)

(RO-za)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Species: hybrids and cultivars

Common Name: rose

Availability: Year-round

Description: Roses are available in a wide range of colors and sizes. The flowers are solitary, corymbose, or panicled on erect stems. The heads are densely crowded with petals. Roses can be grouped simply by head size into standard or tea, large, medium, mini or sweethearts, and spray roses. The stem lengths are classified as shorts, medium, long, and extra long. Roses are popular cut flowers and are useful in many design styles. Excellent flowers for corsages and boutonnieres.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 3 to 14 days; somewhat ethylene sensitive; use a hydration solution.

ROSE see Rosa

RUDBECKIA (see Plate 4)

(rude-BEK-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Olof Rudbeck the elder (1630-1702) and the younger (1660-1740).

Species: fulgida, hirta; others and hybrids

Common Names: coneflower, black-eyed Susan, gloriosa daisy

Availability: July through September

Description: Daisylike gold and orange flowers with prominant black, cone-shaped centers. These flowers add mass and accent. They are striking additions to mixed summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

S

SAFFLOWER see Carthamus

SALIX (see Plate 22)

(SAY-liks)

Family: Salicaceae (aspens, poplars, and willows)

Species: discolor; others

Common Names: discolor (pussy willow); S. matsudana 'Tortuosa' (corkscrew or curly willow); others

Availability: Fresh pussy willow is available January through April; curly willow is available year-round.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Description: Pussy willow catkins are soft and fuzzy; they are greyish white and closely spaced along woody stems. Curly willow adds exciting lines to floral designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 10 to 14 days and longer; dries well

SALTBUSH see Atriplex

SAPONARIA

(sap-oh-NAH-ree-ah)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word sapo (soap). A soap can be made from the species S. officinalis. Saponaria is also known as Vaccaria.

Species: officinalis; others

Common Names: saponaria, bouncing bet, soapwort, outdoor gypsophila

Availability: June through September

Description: Small star-shaped flowers at the tips of cymose or paniculate branching stems. Available in white and pink. A delicate and airy filler in mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SARRACENIA (see Plate 26)

(sa-ra-SEE-nee-ah)

Family: Sarraceniaceae (pitcher plants)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Name Origin: Named after a French botanist and physician, Michael Sarrasin (1659-1734).

Species: flava, purpurea; others and hybrids

Common Names: sarracenia, pitcher plant, swamp lily, cobra head, cobra lily, trumpet

Availability: April through September

Description: Unusual curiosities that have unique form and venation color patterns. Often mistaken for flowers, these leaves with an odd tubular, trumpet shape provide emphasis, line, and accent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SATIN FLOWER see Clarkia

SAXICOLA see Thryptomene

SCABIOSA (see Plate 24)

(skab-ee-OH-sah)

Family: Dipsacaceae (teasel and scabious)

Name Origin: From the Latin word scabies (itch), for the rough leaves were said to cure the itch.

Species: altropurpurea, caucasica

Common Names: pincushion flower, scabiosus

Availability: June through October

Description: Round, single flowers with papery texture. Flowers are 2 to 3 inches across. Available in a wide variety of colors. Useful as a mass flower in mixed bouquets. The unusual texture and intricate circular form also can create a focal point in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

SCARLET PLUME see Euphorbia

SCHINUS

(SKY-nus or SHY-ness)

Family: Anacardiaceae (cashew, mango, sumacs, and poison ivy)

Species: molle; others

Common Names: pepperberry, California pepperberry, pepper tree

Availability: September through February

Description: Small red berries fill cascading and upright woody branches; adds vibrant color; good for Christmas designs; useful in a wide variety of designs.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 3 to 4 weeks; recut stems under water; do not smash stems; use hydrating solution; refrigerate until needed; dries well if hung upside down.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

SCILLA

(SKIL-lah or SIL-lah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name for the sea squill.

Species: sibirica; others and hybrids

Common Names: squill, bluebells, wood hyacinth

Availability: March through June

Description: Several small blue florets in racemes cluster the top of short stems. Works well in vegetative designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SEA HOLLY see Eryngium

SEA LAVENDER see Limonium

SEDUM (see Plate 27)

(SEE-dum)

Family: Crassulaceae (stonecrops and houseleeks)

Name Origin: From the Latin word sedo (sit), a classical name for many succulent plants.

Species: spectabile, telphium; others and hybrids

Common Names: sedum, stonecrop

Availability: April through October

Description: Tiny star-shaped flowers that form dense terminal panicles. Available in yellow, pinks, reds, and white. Sedum works well as a filler in mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SHAMPOO GINGER see Zingiber

SHASTA DAISY see Chrysanthemum

SHELLFLOWER see Moluccella

SILVER TREE see Leucodendron

SINGAPORE ORCHID see Dendrobium

SLIPPER ORCHID see Paphiopedilum

SNAPDRAGON see Antirrhinum

SNOWBALL see Viburnum

SNOWBERRY see Symphoricarpos

SNOW ON THE MOUNTAIN see Euphorbia

SOLIDAGO (see Plate 27)

(so-li-DAY-go)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word solido (to strengthen or make whole), making reference to its medicinal properties.

Species: canadensis; others

Common Names: solidago, goldenrod

Availability: May through October

Description: Tiny yellow flowers forming soft panicled or racemed plumes. Solidago works well as a filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

x SOLIDASTER (see Plate 27)

(so-li-DAS-ter)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: Solidaster is an intergeneric hybrid, from the names of the parents: Aster and Solidago; S. luteus; hybrids

Common Name: solidaster

Availability: Year-round

Description: Tiny yellow flowers on branching stems. Adds a fluffy texture. Excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

SPIRAL GINGER see Costus

SPURGE see Euphorbia

SQUILL see Scilla

STAR OF BETHLEHEM see Ornithogalum

STATICE see Limoniuim

STEPHANOTIS (see Plate 25)

(ste-fa-NO-tis)

Family: Asclepiadaceae (millkweeds and waxplant)

Name Origin: From the Greek words stephanos (crown) and otos (ear). Greek name for myrtle, which was used to make crowns.

Species: floribunda

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Common Names: stephanotis, steph, Madagascar jasmine

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small white fragrant flowers; tubular, star-shaped, waxy blossoms; flowers are cut off vines and sold stemless. Packaged in air-tight, humid boxes or bags. Stephanotis works well in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: 1 to 4 days

STOCK see Matthiola

STONECROP see Sedum

STRAWFLOWER see Helichrysum

STRELITZIA (see Plate 2)

(stre-LITS-ee-a)

Family: Strelitziaceae or Cannaceae (bird of paradise flower)

Name Origin: Named after Queen Charlotte of MecklenbergStrelitz (1744-1818).

Species: reginae

Common Names: bird of paradise, crane lily; giant bird of paradise (S. nicolai)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Showy blossoms are oddly shaped, resembling a bird; rigid, boatlike bracts; stems are tall and thick. These tropical flowers demand attention; use alone or with other exotic flowers and foliage.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; beauty and longevity of flowers can be increased by gently lifting out florets.

SUMMER TULIP see Curcuma

SUNFLOWER see Helianthus

SWAMP LILY see Sarracenia

SWEET BROOM see Cytisus

SWEET PEA see Lathyrus

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

STRELITZIA bird of paradise

The individual bird of paradise florets can gently be lifted out of the bract, by using wet hands, increasing longevity and enhancing the flower's unique beauty. As shown at right, old and bruised florets can be removed.

SWEET WILLIAM see Dianthus

SWORD LILY see Gladiolus

SYMPHORICARPOS

(sim-fo-ree-KAR-pos)

Family: Caprifoliaceae (elders and honeysuckles)

Name Origin: From the Greek words symphroein (bear together) and karpos (a fruit) referring to the clustered fruits. Species: albus, orbiculatus

Common Names: snowberry; (S. orbiculatus is called Indian currant and coral berry)

Availability: August through November

Description: Fine and twiggy branches with tight berry clusters; white and pink berries.

Vase Life: 2 or more weeks; remove leaves to highlight the berries; leaves are susceptible to powdery mildew; cut stems under water; use preservative solution; change water as needed.

SYRINGA (see Plate 16)

(si-RIN-gah)

Family: Oleaceae (lilac family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word syrinx (pipe), referring to the hollow stems.

Species: vulgaris; others and cultivars

Common Name: lilac

Availability: December through May

Description: Clustered florets in a compound dichasium inflorescence. Individual florets are star-shaped and available in white, cream, pinks, and purples. Most varieties are fragrant.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 2 to 10 days; remove all foliage from woody stems for increased cut life. Lilacs also perform better when arranged in preservative solution without the use of floral foam. Recut stem ends often.

T

TAGETES

(tah-JEE-teez)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From Tages, an Etruscan deity, the grandson of Jupiter, who sprang from the newly plowed earth.

Species: erecta, patula; others and hybrids

Common Names: marigold; African marigold (T. erecta); French marigold (T. patula)

Availability: July through September

Description: Bright orange and yellow daisylike or carnation-like flowers. Useful for adding mass to mixed summer bouquets. Most have a unique fragrance.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

TAIL FLOWER see Anthurium

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TELOPEA

(tay-LO-pee-ah)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Name Origin: From the greek word telopos (seen from afar), referring to the showy flowers.

Species: speciosissima

Common Name: Waratah

Availability: May through November

Description: Dense terminal racemes surrounded by colored bracts. The flowers are vibrant red and add dramatic emphasis to designs.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

THOROUGHWAX see Bupleurum

THROATWORT see Trachelium

THRYPTOMENE

(thrip-toe-MEAN-ee or THRIP-toe-mine)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Species: saxicola, calycina; others

Common Names: saxicola, calycina and calcinia, Australian heather, miniwaxflower

Availability: November through April

Description: Heatherlike spikes of tiny pink or white flowers on woody stems; good linear filler; resembles waxflower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TORCH LILY see Kniphofia

TRACHELIUM

(tra-KEEL-lee-um)

Family: Campanulaceae (bellflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word trachelos (neck), referring to supposed medicinal properties.

Species: caeruleum

Common Names: throatwort, blue throatwort

Availability: March through November

Description: Clustered flowers in dense terminal compound corymbs; available in pink, purple, blue, and white. Excellent for adding mass or can be used as a filler in large bouquets. Entire flower heads can be used for basing contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

TRACHYMENE

(tray-ki-MEE-nee)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words trachys (rough) and meninx (membrane), referring to the fruit.

Species: caerulea (Didiscus caeruleus)

Common Names: didiscus, blue laceflower, laceflower

Availability: June through November

Description: Flat or rounded umbels of delicate blue or white flowers, similar in appearance to Queen Anne's lace. Trachymene works well as a filler or as a graceful mass flower.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

TRANSVAAL DAISY see Gerbera

TRITELEIA (see Plate 4)

(tri-te-LAY-a)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words tri (three) and teleios (perfect), referring to the floral parts, which are in threes.

Species: laxa

Common Names: triteleia, brodiaea

Availability: May through November, with peak supplies May through August

Description: Flower heads at a glance are similar to Agapanthus. However, funnel-shaped florets form a smaller umbel and are not as compact and globular as those of Agapanthus; a good filler and accent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

TRITOMA see Kniphofia

TROLLIUS

(TROH-lee-us)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: Trollius species

Common Name: globeflower

Availability: April through July

Description: Globe-shaped yellow, orange, or white flowers. Useful in adding mass and accent.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

TRUMPET LILY see Zantedeschia

TUBEROSE see Polianthes

TULIP see Tulipa

TULIPA (see Plate 28)

(TEW-li-pa)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Turkish word tulband (turban).

Species: Many cultivars

Common Name: tulip

Availability: November through May, with peak supplies January through April

Description: Single rounded flowers with colorful sepals and petals; adds mass to mixed spring bouquets. Tulips also work well in oriental and vegetative design styles.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; leave stems wrapped in sleeves while hydrating to prevent bending; cut off white portion of lower stem for better water uptake; do not store or arrange with freshly cut daffodils that secrete a sap harmful to tulips.

TURTLEHEAD see Chelone

V

VACCARIA see Saponaria

VANDA (see Plate 19)

(VAN-dah)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Species: coerulea, sanderana, teres, tricolor; others and hybrids

Common Names: vanda, lei orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Sprays with clusters of flat-looking orchids, 1 to 3 inches across. A wide selection of colors with spotted patterns, many of which are fragrant. Many types are used in leis.

Vase Life: 1 to 3 weeks

VERONICA

(ver-RON-ik-ah)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: Named after St. Veronica.

Species: spicata, longifolia; others and cultivars

Common Names: veronica, speedwell

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through September

Description: Upright spikelike racemes made of small purple, blue, pink, or white flowers; useful as a filler; the flower tips curve, adding graceful lines to mixed arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

VIBURNUM

(vy-BUR-num)

Family: Caprifoliaceae (elders and honeysuckles)

Species: opulus; others and cultivars

Common Names: snowball, Guelder rose

Availability: January through May

Description: Showy ball-shaped terminal panicles or umbel-like cyme clusters of white or greenish florets on woody stems. These fragrant flowers add mass and texture to large mixed bouquets. Frequently used in large wedding and church decorations.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

W

WARATAH see Telopea

WATSONIA

(wot-SONE-ee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: After Sir William Watson (1715-1787), London physician and botanist.

Species: Many species and hybrids

Common Name: watsonia

Availability: March through August

Description: Delicate spikes of florets, similar in appearance to crocosmia; available in whites, pinks, reds, and lavenders.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 or more days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

WATTLE see Acacia

WAXFLOWER see Chamelaucium

WILD QUEEN ANNE'S LACE see Ammi

WINDFLOWER see Anemone

Y

YARROW see Achillea

YOUTH AND OLD AGE see Zinnia

Z

ZANTEDESCHIA (see Plate 5)

(zan-te-DES-kee-ah)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: Named after Italian botanist Francesco Zantedischi (born 1797).

Species: aethiopica, elliottiana, rehmannii; others and cultivars

Common Names: calla lily, calla, arum lily, trumpet lily

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies in spring and summer

Description: A striking white, greenish, yellow, or reddish spathe surrounds a yellow cylindrical spadix. Available in a variety of sizes. Stems are thick and long with heart-or spear-shaped and long-stemmed leaves. Distincitve shape and sleek line provide emphasis.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, from 3 to 14 days

ZINGIBER

(ZIN-ji-ber)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger, cardamom, and turmeric)

Species: zerumbet; others

Common Name: shampoo ginger

Availability: June to September

Description: Florets appear inside waxy bracts; the entire cluster is similar in appearance to a pinecone. Available in pinks, reds, and yellow. Shampoo ginger provides emphasis and combines well with other tropical and exotic flowers.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ZINNIA

(ZIN-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Johann Gottfried Zinn (17271759).

Species: elegans cultivars

Common Names: zinnia, youth and old age

Availability: May through October

Description: Daisy-shaped flowers available in a variety of colors, forms, and sizes. These mass flowers are colorful additions to mixed summer arrangements.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days
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Title Annotation:Part 2: H-Z
Author:Hunter, Norah T.
Publication:The Art of Floral Design, 2nd ed.
Article Type:Appendix
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:6312
Previous Article:Appendix A Flowers.
Next Article:Appendix B Foliages.
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