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Appendix A Flowers.

The aim of the flower appendix is to provide a wealth of information to help you become more familiar with and confident in pronouncing, selecting, and caring for cut flowers. Generic names and common names are listed alphabetically. The name of each genus is given first, (which is also the scientific name, botanical name, and the Latin name) and is followed by a suggested pronunciation. The family in which it is placed, the derivation of the name, species, and common names are listed for each flower. Although most flowers are available year-round, some are limited to certain seasons, or have peak supplies in only one or two months of the year. A brief description of each flower is given along with approximate vase life and specific care and handling procedures. Common names are cross-referenced to the correct scientific name. The color plates, line illustrations, and photographs help ease identification.

Vase life can be dramatically increased by following several simple care and handling techniques. Choose flower varieties carefully. Often one variety, because of its genetic makeup will outlast another for several days or weeks. It is important to process flowers immediately upon arrival. Process the most expensive and wilt-sensitive flowers first. Studies show that cutting flowers under water and treating with a hydration solution, such as dipping newly cut stems for one second in Floralife Quick Dip(r) or for 30 to 60 minutes in Hydraflor(r)/100, will greatly speed the hydration and longevity of cut flowers. Place flowers in a warm preservative solution and let them stand outside the cooler for one to two hours. Next, place flowers in a 32-38[degrees]F cooler that has 80-90% relative humidity. Protect flowers from ethylene sources. Generally the grower, wholesaler, or retailer will treat flowers with an ethlyene inhibitor. For an in-depth look at care and handling, see Chapter 10.

A

ACACIA (see Plate10)

(a-KAY-sha)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: Named from the Greek word akis (sharp point), referring to the thorns.

Species: dealbata, longifolia; others

Common Names: acacia, mimosa, wattle

Availability: October through March

Description: Trees with clusters of fragrant, ball-shaped yellow flowers with gray-green, finely cut leaves. Branches of fluffy clusters work well as fillers; recut under water; place stems in hydration solution; cut flowers dry out and lose their fuzzy appearance as they age.

Vase Life: 4 to 5 days while in cooler, cover with plastic to retain moisture.

ACHILLEA

(ah-kil-LEE-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Achilles of Greek mythology, who is said to have used it medicinally.

Species: filipendulina, millefolium; others and hybrids

Common Names: yarrow, milfoil

Availability: July through September

Description: Flat-headed, yellow corymb flowers over a feathery foliage. Also available in pink, red, and white.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

ACONITUM

(ak-ah-NEE-tum)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Species: napellus; others

Common Names: monkshood, aconite

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Availability: April through October

Description: Tall spikelike racemes of deep blue, hooded (helmet-shaped) florets. Also available in light blue, white, and cream varieties.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days. Monkshood is extremely toxic. Wash hands after handling to get rid of toxic substances.

AFRICAN CORN LILY see Ixia

AFRICAN DAISY see Gerbera

AFRICAN LILY see Agapanthus

AGAPANTHUS (see Plate 1)

(ag-a-PAN-thus)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words agape (love) and anthos (flower)

Species: africanus (A. umbellatus), orientalis; others and hybrids

Common Names: lily of the Nile, African lily

Availability: March through August

Description: Large umbels of blue, funnel-shaped flowers in various tints. Also available in white. The stem of the agapanthus adds a strong line element with its bold-shaped yet airy flower head. Mixes well with other flowers in many different design styles.

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Vase Life: 4 to 7 days, with individual florets blooming continuously over several days; ethylene sensitive.

ALCHEMILLA

(al-ke-MIL-la)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Species: mollis; others

Common Name: lady's mantle

Availability: Spring to early fall with peak supplies May through July

Description: Feathery sprays (compound cymes) of small, yellowish or greenish flowers. Useful as an airy filler.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

ALLIUM (see Plate 1)

(AL-ee-um)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek name for garlic

Species: giganteum, sphaerocephalon; others

Common Names: allium, onion flower, garlic, flowering onion

Availability: April through September

Description: Bulbs producing globe-shaped umbels of purple and pink flowers on leafless stems. Also available in blue, white, and yellow varieties. Most smell like onion when cut, but odor generally dissipates.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

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ALPINIA (see Plate 2)

(al-PIN-ee-ah)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger, cardamom, and turmeric)

Species: purpurata, zerumbet; others

Common Names: ginger, ostrich plume, torch ginger, shell ginger

Availability: Year-round

Description: The flower head consists of shiny red or pink bracts at the end of a heavy, thick stem, often up to 36 inches long. Ginger provides a strong vertical line. The colored bracts provide emphasis. If flowers appear wilted, immerse the entire stem and bracts in room-temperature water for 15 to 30 minutes.

Vase Life: Incredibly long lasting, up to 3 weeks

ALSTROEMERIA (see Plate 1)

(al-stre-MEAR-ee-ah)

Family: Alstroemeriaceae (alstroemeria family)

Name Origin: Named after Baron Claus Alstroemer (1736-1794).

Species: heamantha, aurantiaca, pelegrina; others and hybrids

Common Names: alstroemeria, alstro, Peruvian lily, Inca lily, lily of the Incas

Availability: Year-round

Description: Umbelled clusters of delicate, trumpet-shaped flowers borne at the end of short flower stalks that spray off of a single stem. Available in many colors with many intermediate colors. Most varieties are freckled or streaked with contrasting colors.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 2 weeks, with individual flowers lasting 5 to 7 days each. Ethylene sensitive, with leaves often yellowing prematurely; remove lower leaves.

AMARANTHUS

(am-a-RAN-thus)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Name Origin: From the Greek word amarantos (unfading), referring to the long-lasting flowers.

Species: hypochondriacus, tricolor, caudatus; others and hybrids

Common Names: amaranth; prince's feather (A. hypochondriacus); Joseph's coat (A. tricolor); love lies bleeding, cat's tail, tassel flower (A. caudatus)

Availability: Summer and autumn

Description: Erect and brushlike flower racemes and spikes up to 6 inches long. Available in red, green, and cream. The species A. caudatus and hybrids are slender, drooping red-flower racemes up to 16 inches long.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 7 to 10 days

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AMARYLLIS (see Plate 3)

(am-a-RIL-is)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Name Origin: Named after a shepherdess in Greek mythology.

Species: belladonna; see Hippeastrum for the larger trumpet-shaped flower that is commonly called Amaryllis.

Common Names: belladonna lily, naked lady lily, cape belladonna

Availability: May through November

Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers, each 2 to 3 inches across on a single thick, leafless stem. Available in pink, red, and white. Belladonna lilies are fragrant and attractive in many design styles, especially parallel and vegetative designs where their forms are apparent.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 10 days

AMAZON LILY see Eucharis

AMMI (see Plate 21)

(AM-me)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: majus; (similar are the species Daucus carota and D. sativus)

Common Names: Queen Anne's lace, bishop's weed; wild Queen Anne's lace (Daucus)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Delicate, white, compound umbels, 3 to 6 inches across. Queen Anne's lace is more airy than Daucus varieties. Both Ammi and Daucus work well as fillers.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days

ANANAS (see Plate 21)

(a-NA-nas)

Family: Bromeliaceae (pineapple family)

Species: nanus, bracteatus stivus, comosus; others

Common Names: ornamental pineapple, dwarf pineapple

Availability: Year-round

Description: Large or small pink, white, or variegated head resembles the edible pineapple. Provides an immediate focal point through shape and texture. Use caution--plants have thorny spikes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

ANEMONE (see Plate 1)

(a-NEM-oh-nee)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: Named after Adonis, also called Naamen, a handsome young man of Greek mythology who was loved by Aphrodite. He was killed by a wild boar and his blood is said to have given rise to the blood-red flowers.

Species: coronaria; others and hybrids

Common Names: windflower, lily of the field, poppy anemone

Availability: October through May

Description: Cup-shaped solitary flowers open up flat. Petals surround a dark center. Available in vibrant colors of red, pink, blue, purple, as well as white. Many anemones curve toward the light.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days. Keep cool to prevent premature wilting and drooping.

ANETHUM

(a-NAY-thum)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: graveolens

Common Name: dill

Availability: Year-round

Description: Compound umbel clusters of yellow flowers, similar to Queen Anne's lace, on stems up to 36 inches tall. A useful, long-lasting filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

ANIGOZANTHOS (see Plate 14)

(a-nee-go-ZAN-thus)

Family: Haemodoraceae (kangaroo paw family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anoigo (to open) and anthos (flower), referring to the flowers that are widely open.

Species: flavidus, pulcherrimus, rufus; others and cultivars

Common Name: kangaroo paw

Availability: Year-round

Description: Unusual red, purple, green, or yellowish, fuzzy flowers borne in one-sided racemes and spikes. Each blossom has a covering of short, colored fur providing a delicate texture contrast. Combines easily with other exotic flowers.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 2 weeks

ANNUAL DELPHINIUM see Consolida

ANTHURIUM (see Plate 2)

(an-THUR-ee-um)

Family: Araceae (the aroids)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anthos (flower) and oura (tail), referring to the tail-like inflorescence or spadix.

Species: andraeanum, scherzeranum

Common Names: anthurium, tail flower, flamingo flower, painted tongue, painter's palette, peace lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Anthurium flowers consist of a modified, shiny, colorful leaf called a "spathe." The spathe is usually heart-shaped or arrow-shaped, in reds, pinks, white, bicolors, and tricolors. The true flowers are on a cylindrical, long spadix that is usually yellow, but sometimes appears in other colors. The size of the spathe varies from 2 3/4 to 6 inches or more. These flowers lend a dramatic focal point and look best when used alone or with other exotic flowers.

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Vase Life: Anthuriums are extremely hardy cut flowers, lasting 2 to 3 weeks or more; however, care must be taken in handling anthuriums as they bruise easily. Anthuriums are accustomed to humid and warm conditions. Mist often with water and do not store below 45[degrees]F. If bracts look wilted, immerse entire stem in water for 15 to 30 minutes.

ANTIRRHINUM (see Plate 24)

(an-tee-RYE-num)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words anti (like) and rhis (snout), referring to the appearance of the individual florets.

Species: majus; cultivars

Common Names: snapdragon, snaps

Availability: Year-round

Description: A spiked, terminal raceme with florets 11?2 inches long that are tubular with rounded upper and lower lips (when squeezed together they snap open and shut). Available in many colors. Snapdragons are geotropic (bend upright away from gravity); store or arrange in a vertical position to prevent curvature. Removing the very top bud can help deter bending.

Vase Life: Capable of a long vase-life of up to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive.

AQUILEGIA

(ak-wi-LEE-ji-a)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aquila (eagle). The flower petals resemble the claws of eagles and other birds of prey.

Species: caerula, canadensis, chrysantha, flabellata; others and hybrids

Common Name: columbine

Availability: April through September

Description: Terminal, bonnet-shaped flowers consisting of five petals, each with its own protruding spur. The flowers are 1 to 3 inches long. Available in white, pink, yellow, blue, and purple.

Vase Life: 3 to 5 days; do not store in cooler.

ARUM LILY see Zantedeschia

ASCLEPIAS

(as-KLEE-pee-us)

Family: Asclepiadacea (milkweeds and wax plant)

Name Origin: From Asklepios, the Greek god of medicine, referring to medicinal properties.

Species: tuberosa; others

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Common Names: milkweed, blood flower, silkweed

Availability: Year-round, with peak supplies June through September

Description: Tiny, waxy, orange flowers appear in rounded, umbellate cyme clusters. Adds mass and accent to designs; can also be used as a filler flower.

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days; florets continue to open; remove old or dying florets. Stems exude a milky sap (hence the name milkweed); dip stems in hot water and place in warm perservative solution.

ASIAN LILY see Lilium

ASTER (see Plate 3)

(AS-ter)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aster (star), referring to the flowers.

Species: cordifolius, ericoides, novi-belgii; others and hybrids

Common Names: monte cassino aster (A. ericoides 'Monte Cassino'); Michaelmas daisy (A. novi-belgii)

Availability: July through December

Description: Numerous daisylike flowers 3?4 to 1 inch across in double or single types. Available in a wide variety of colors, usually with a yellow center. The flowers are clustered racemes, corymbs, or panicles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, up to 10 days

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ASTILBE (see Plate 3)

(a-STIL-bee)

Family: Saxifragaceae (currants, hydrangeas, and saxifrages)

Name Origin: From the Greek words a (without) and stilbe (brillance), meaning the individual flowers are extremely small.

Species: chinensis; others and hybrids

Common Names: false spirea, goat's beard, meadowsweet

Availability: Year-round

Description: Pyramidal feather plumes. Flowers are borne in loose, pyramidal panicles on slender stems. Available in white, pink, and red. Excellent filler flower.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

ASTRANTIA

(a-STRAN-tee-ah)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word aster (star) referring to the starlike flowers.

Species: major; others and hybrids

Common Name: masterwort

Availability: April to September

Description: Delicate, star-shaped flowers in clustered umbels. Available in white, pinks, and reds. Useful as a mass or filler flower. Up close, Astrantia has a slight, sometimes unpleasant, odor.

Vase Life: 4 to 7 days

ATRIPLEX

(AH-tri-plex)

Family: Chenopodiaceae (sugar beet family)

Name Origin: Greek name for A. hortensis herbs and shrubs.

Species: lumex; others

Common Names: saltbush, greasewood

Availability: November through April

Description: Tall erect stems with open loose flower heads; available in red, green, and gray; sometimes used as cut foliage.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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B

BABY'S BREATH see Gypsophila

BACHELOR'S BUTTON see Centaurea

BANKSIA (see Plate 20)

(BANK-see-ah)

Family: Proteaceae (proteas, banksias, and grevilleas)

Name Origin: Named after botanist Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820).

Species: ashbyi, baxteri, coccinea, collina, ericifolia, menziesii, speciosa; many others

Common Names: protea, bird's nest, giant bottlebrush

Availability: Year-round

Description: Conelike, dense terminal spikes in reds, oranges, and yellows. Provides an immediate focal point. Foliage has textural appeal.

Vase Life: Extremely long lasting, 2 to 4 weeks

BARBERTON DAISY see Gerbera

BELLADONNA LILY see Amaryllis

BELLFLOWER see Campanula

BELLS OF IRELAND see Moluccella

BILLY BUTTONS see Craspedia

BIRD OF PARADISE see Strelitzia

BIRD'S NEST see Banksia

BLACK-EYED SUSAN see Rudbeckia

BLANKET FLOWER see Gaillardia

BLAZING STAR see Liatris

BLOOD FLOWER see Asclepias

BLUEBELL see Scilla

BLUE LACEFLOWER see Trachymene

BLUE THROATWORT see Trachelium

BORONIA

(ba-RONE-knee-ah)

Family: Rutaceae (citrus fruit family)

Species: heterophylla

Common Name: boronia

Availability: January to September, with peak supplies in the spring

Description: Long spikes of bright hot pink, light pink, or purple bell-shaped flowers nestled up and down the stem of soft, needlelike leaves; similar to heather but softer with larger flowers; citrusy scent.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; susceptible to dehydration; condition in hydrating solution outside the cooler; air dries nicely.

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BOUVARDIA (see Plate 4)

(boo-VAR-dee-ah)

Family: Rubiaceae (gardenias, coffee, and quinine)

Name Origin: Named after Dr. Charles Bouvard (1572-1658).

Species: longiflora hybrids

Common Name: bouvardia

Availability: Year-round

Description: Small, tubular flowers with spreading star-like petals in terminal cyme clusters. Generally fragrant. Available in white, pinks, oranges, and reds. Excellent filler flower. Often used in wedding and corsage work.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; sensitive to water stress and cool temperatures; ethylene sensitive; prefers preservative solution to the use of floral foam. Remove foliage on lower stem.

BRAIN FLOWER see Celosia

BRODIAEA see Triteleia

BROOM see Cytisus

BUPLEURUM

(boo-PLUR-rum)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word boupleuros (ox rib).

Species: rotundifolium, griffithii; others

Common Name: thorough-wax

Availability: Year-round

Description: Multibranched green filler flower and foliage; tiny yellow crown of flowers at the ends of green, leafy stems; adds a light, airy, informal look.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; wash lower stems and recut under water; immediately place in hydration solution; condition outside of cooler for 1 to 2 hours.

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BUTTERFLY ORCHID see Oncidium

BUTTON MUM see Chrysanthemum

BUTTON SNAKEROOT see Liatris

C

CALENDULA

(ka-LEN-dew-la)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word calandae (first day of the month), referring to its long flowering period.

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Species: officinalis; many hybrids

Common Name: pot marigold

Availability: April through November

Description: Daisylike double-petaled head flowers. Available in bright yellows and oranges.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CALLA LILY see Zantedeschia

CALLISTEPHUS (see Plate 3)

(ka-LIS-te-fus)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words kallos (beautiful) and stephanus (crown), referring to the showy solitary flower heads.

Species: chinensis hybrids

Common Names: China aster, aster, Matsumoto aster

Availability: June through September

Description: Large, solitary flower heads. Available in a variety of shapes and colors.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days; remove any excess foliage for longer vase life.

CALLUNA see Erica

CALYCINA see Thryptomene

CAMELLIA (see Plate 5)

(ka-MEL-ee-a)

Family: Theaceae (tea, camellias, and franklinia)

Name Origin: Named after pharmacist George Joseph Kamel (1661-1706), who studied the Philippines flora.

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Species: japonica, reticulata, sinensis; others

Common Name: camellia

Availability: January and February

Description: Solitary waxy flowers. Available mostly in pinks, reds, and white. Single flowers are excellent for weddings and corsages. Larger flowering branches add interest to large designs.

Vase Life: Single flowers that are prepackaged, last only 1 to 2 days. However, woody branches with flower buds can last more than a week.

CAMPANULA (see Plate 5)

(kam-PAHN-ew-lah)

Family: Campanulaceae (bellflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word campana (bell), referring to the bell-shaped flowers.

Species: glomerata, persicifolia, pyramidalis; others

Common Names: bellflower, chimney bells, Canterbury bells

Availability: April through August

Description: Whether clustered or spikelike, these work well in mixed summer arrangements. C. glomerata has a bold clustered shape that works well in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CANDYTUFT see Iberis

CAPE JASMINE see Gardenia

CARNATION see Dianthus

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CARTHAMUS (see Plate 24)

(CAR-tha-mus)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: tinctorius

Common Names: safflower, false saffron

Availability: June through November

Description: These thistlelike flowers are about 1 inch across with a green globular center, where thin orange or yellowish petals emerge. Safflowers add interesting texture to designs. Useful as an accent or filler.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks. Removal of excess foliage increases vase life.

CASPIA see Limonium

CAT'S TAIL see Amaranthus

CATTLEYA (see Plate 19)

(KAT-lee-ah)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: Named after horticultural patron, William Cattley (early 1800s).

Species: aurantiaca, bicolor, intermedia, labiata; others and hybrids

Common Name: corsage orchid

Availability: Year-round Description: The flowers measure 3 to 6 inches across. Available in white, lavender, pink, and yellow. Their shape is exotic and interesting, with showy sepals and petals. A broad ruffled lip is in the center. Generally used for corsage and wedding flowers but can be incorporated into arrangements. Generally packaged singly with individual water tubes.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 5 to 10 days with direct water supply

CELOSIA

(see-LO-si-ah or see-LO-shee-ah)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Name Origin: From the Greek word keleos (burning), referring to the brightly colored flowers.

Species: argentea, cristata, plumosa; hybrids

Common Names: brain flower, cockscomb, woolflower

Availability: July through November

Description: Available in reds, yellows, and oranges. C. cristata with its crested shape adds interesting form and texture to contemporary designs. The feathery plumes of C. plumosa work well as fillers and accents.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CENTAUREA (see Plate 7)

(sent-ta-REE-a)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kentaur for Centaur, who is said to have used it medicinally.

Species: cyanus, macrocephala; others

Common Names: cornflower, bachelor's button, bluebottle

Availability: February through September

Description: Small, thistlelike head flowers. Available in blue, pink, yellow, and white. Useful as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CHAENOMELES (see Plate 22)

(kee-NAHM-el-eez)

Family: Rosaceae (rose family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words chaina (to gape) and melon (apple), referring to the belief the fruit was split.

Species: cathayensis, japonica, speciosa

Common Name: flowering quince

Availability: January to April

Description: Clusters of pink, red, or white flowers on woody branches. Works well in oriental designs.

Vase Life: 3 to 10 days

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CHAMELAUCIUM (see Plate 28)

(cham-ee-LAW-si-um)

Family: Myrtaceae (myrtles, eucalyptus, and cloves)

Species: uncinatum, ciliatum, pheliferum; others

Common Name: waxflower

Availability: September through May

Description: Heathlike shrubs with star-shaped flowers in white, pinks, lavenders, and bicolors. Densely clustered along woody branching stems. Needlelike foliage. An excellent filler flower. Many have lemon scent.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

CHELONE

(kee-LO-nee or shel-LONE)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word chelone (turtle), referring to the corolla that is shaped like a turtle's head.

Species: obliqua

Common Names: turtlehead, snakehead

Availability: July through October

Description: Pink flowers are similar in appearance to snapdragons; however, florets are clustered closer together in terminal, spikelike racemes.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

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CHIMNEY BELLS see Campanula

CHINA ASTER see Callistephus

CHINCHERINCHEE see Ornithogalum

CHRISTMAS ROSE see Helleborus

CHRYSANTHEMUM (see Plate 6)

(kris-ANTH-e-mum)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words chrysos (golden) and anthos (flower).

Species: morifolium, frutescens, coccincum, parthenium, carinatum; others and cultivars

Common Names: mum or florist's chrysanthemum (C. morifolium) includes spray varieties (duet or anemone, button, daisy, cushion [formerly called pompom], spider, and exotic varieties like starburst) as well as single-head varieties (Fuji, incurve or football mum, and mefo). Many other types include daisy, marguerite daisy (C. frutescens); Shasta daisy (C. maximum); feverfew (C. parthenium, Matricaria capansis), pyrethrum (C. coccineum); oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum).

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Availability: Year-round

Description: Available in a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures. Smaller spray types work well as fillers and accents. Larger solitary flowers provide mass and emphasis.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks; Marguerite daisies are heavy drinkers. Remove wilted foliage from stems. To prevent shattering, spray the back and top of flower heads with an aerosol designed for this purpose. Do not pound or smash stems.

CIRSIUM (see Plate 5)

(SIR-cee-um)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: japonicum; others and hybrids

Common Names: plume thistle, plumed thistle. Cnicus benedictus is a similar thistlelike flower with spiny, leafy bracts.

Availability: May through November

Description: Small thistlelike flower heads. Available in pinks and purples. Useful as a filler. Provides interesting accent because of texture and shape.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

CLARKIA (see Plate 13)

(KLARK-ee-ah)

Family: Onagraceae (clarkias, fuchias, and evening primroses)

Name Origin: Named after Captain William Clark (1770-1838).

Species: amoena, concinna; others

Common Names: godetia, satin flower, farewell-to-spring. Godetia (goh-DEE-shee-ah) comprises a subgenus of Clarkia and is sometimes listed separately.

Availability: May through August

Description: Clustered funnel-shaped flowers about 2 inches across with a papery texture. Available in a wide range of colors and bicolors. Godetia provides emphasis or mass, and can also be used as a filler.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

CNICUS see Cirsium

COBRA HEAD see Sarracenia

COCKSCOMB see Celosia

COFFEE BEAN BERRY see Hypericum

COLEONEMA see Diosma

COLUMBINE see Aquilegia

CONE FLOWER see Rudbeckia

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CONSOLIDA (see Plate 16)

(kon-SO-li-da)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word consolida (to make whole), referring to its medicinal properties.

Species: ambigua (Delphinium ajacis); orientalis (D. orientale); regalis (D. consolida). Consolida florets and leaves differ slightly from Delphinium; the two upper petals are united into one, and they lack the lower two petals.

Common Name: larkspur

Availability: June through September

Description: Spikelike racemes in blues, lavenders, pinks, and white. Excellent for adding mass and line.

Vase-Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

CONVALLARIA (see Plate 18)

(kahn-val-AIR-ee-ah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word convallis (valley).

Species: majalis

Common Name: lily of the valley

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant and delicate white or pink bell-shaped florets along short, terminal, one-sided racemes. Popular for wedding and corsage work. Also an excellent accent in contemporary or vegetative design styles.

Vase Life: 2 to 6 days

CORNFLOWER see Centaurea

CORN LILY see Ixia

CORSAGE ORCHID see Cattleya

COSMOS

(KAHZ-mohs)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kosmos (beautiful).

Species: bipinnatus, sulphureus; others

Common Name: cosmos

Availability: June through August

Description: Solitary flowers with a single row of petals in white, yellow, reds, and pinks surrounding a yellow center. Useful for adding mass; works well as a filler in summer bouquets.

Vase Life: 4 to 6 days

COSTUS

(KAWS-tus)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)

Species: megalobractiatus, pulverulentus, spicatus; others

Common Names: spiral ginger, kiss of death, spiral flag

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spirally twisted conelike bracts, available in red, orange, yellow, pink, and white. These unusual flowers provide emphasis.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days or longer

CRANE LILY see Strelitzia

CRASPEDIA

(cras-PEH-dee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Species: globosa

Common Names: billy buttons, Australian bachelor buttons

Availability: August through October

Description: Long-lasting ball-shaped yellow flowers; can easily dry

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CROCOSMIA (see Plate 7)

(kro-KOS-mee-ah)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words krokos (saffron) and osme (smell). When dried, they smell of saffron.

Species: masoniorum

Common Names: montbretia, coppertip

Availability: June through November

Description: Trumpet-shaped flowers in one-sided, spikelike patterns. Available in shades of scarlet, orange, and red. Useful in many design styles as a filler, line, or accent. Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

CURCUMA

(ker-CUE-mah)

Family: Zingiberaceae (ginger family)

Species: alismatifolia, domestica; others

Common Names: summer tulips, Thia tulips, Siam tulips, hidden lilies, queen lilies

Availability: April through September

Description: Light pink and other colored bracts; looks like ginger.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks or more; do not place in the cooler.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

CYMBIDIUM (see Plate 19) (sim-BID-ee-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kymbe (boat), referring to the hollowed lip.

Species: hybrids

Common Name: cymbidium

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spray of orchid flowers. Usually sold singly with individual water tubes. Wide variety of colors. Useful for corsage and wedding flowers but can be incorporated into arrangements.

Vase Life: Extremely longlasting, 1 to 3 weeks with good water supply. Avoid temperatures below 38[degrees] F. Do not damage the stigma, which results in premature wilting.

CYNARA (see Plate 9)

(SIN-ah-rah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Latin name for these perennial herbs.

Species: scolymus

Common Names: globe artichoke, artichoke, thistle

Availability: July through October

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Description: Tight green, thistlelike spiney heads, 2 to 4 inches in diameter, from which purple and blue flowers emerge. These add interesting texture to designs. Useful as a focal point, accent, or filler.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

CYPRIPEDIUM see Paphiopedilum

CYTISUS

(SIT-is-us)

Family: Leguminosae or Fabaceae (pea family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word kytisos, the name for these and similar shrubs.

Species: canariensis (Genista canariensis); for C. scoparius (G. scoparia) see in Appendix B under Cytisus.

Common Names: genista, broom, sweet broom

Availability: January through May

Description: Small, fragrant pea-shaped florets on wiry, leafless branches. Available in white and yellow, along with other dyed colors of pinks and purples. Useful as a filler and for soft curving lines in many design styles. Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

D

DAFFODIL see Narcissus

DAHLIA (see Plate 15)

(DAHL-yah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after Swedish botanist Dr. Anders Dahl (1751-1789).

Species: many hybrids and cultivars

Common Name: dahlia

Availability: July through November

Description: The wide variety of shapes, sizes, colors, and textures of these head flowers allow many design uses. Can add mass, provide emphasis, and accent. Smaller varieties work well as fillers.

Vase Life: Varies greatly, 2 to 10 days

DAISY see Chrysanthemum

DANCING DOLL see Oncidium

DAUCUS see Ammi

DELPHINIUM (see Plate 7)

(del-FIN-ee-um)

Family: Ranunculaceae (buttercup family)

Name Origin: From the Greek word delphis (dolphin), referring to the shape of the flowers.

Species: elatum, D. x belladonna, cardinale, grandiflorum; others. For D. ajacis, see Consolida ambigua and C. orientalis.

Common Name: delphinium

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spikelike racemes available in white and various tints and shades of blue, lavender, and pink. Useful as a line flower or in adding mass. Some varieties work well as fillers. Many design uses for a variety of styles.

Vase Life: Varies greatly with species, from 3 to 4 days to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive; florets can easily shatter, so handle with care.

DENDROBIUM (see Plate 19)

(den-DRO-be-um)

Family: Orchidaceae (orchid family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words dendron (tree) and bios (life), referring to their epiphytic growth (an epiphyte is a plant that grows on another plant but is not a parasite and produces its own food by photosynthesis).

Species: bigibbum, nobile, phalaenopsis; others and hybrids

Common Names: dendrobium, Singapore orchid

Availability: Year-round

Description: Spray orchids in lavenders, pinks, and white. Spray racemes provide slightly curving lines. Commonly used with exotic or tropical flowers. Individual blossoms are used for corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days

DESERT CANDLE see Eremurus

DIANTHUS (see Plate 8)

(die-ANTH-us)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words Di (Zeus) and anthos (flower).

Species: barbatus, caryophyllus, chinensis; hybrids and cultivars

Common Names: sweet William (D. barbatus); carnation, clove pink (D. caryophyllus); pixie, spray carnation, minicarnation (D. caryophyllus nana); pinks, Chinese pink, annual pink (D. chinensis)

Availability: Year-round

Description: Carnations are one of the floral industry's staples; available in a wide range of colors and varieties; white and other light colors can be color-dyed or tipped with paint; most are fragrant; versatile and offer many design uses. Sweet Williams are densely packed clusters of florets; available in pinks, reds, purples, and white; useful as a filler or accent. Miniature carnations have several buds and flowers on each stem; large variety of colors; work well as fillers or in adding mass. Carnations are used in corsages, boutonnieres, leis, and wedding designs.

Vase Life: Carnations and pixies are long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks; sweet William lasts 5 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive.

DIDISCUS see Trachymene

DIGITALIS (see Plate 9)

(di-ji-TAL-lis)

Family: Scrophulariaceae (foxglove family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word digitus (finger), referring to the fingerlike florets.

Species: purpurea, grandiflora (D. ambigua), lanata

Common Name: foxglove

Availability: June through September

Description: Tall spikelike, often one-sided, racemes. The downward-facing tubular florets are splashed in the throat with exotic spots. Available in white and various shades of red, purple, pink, and yellow. Useful for adding line to arrangements.

Vase Life: Long lasting, about 2 weeks, with florets continously opening

DILL see Anethum

DIOSMA

(die-OZ-mah)

Family: Rutaceae (citrus family)

Species: ericoides; sometimes referred to as Coleonema ericoides

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Common Names: diosma, coleonema, breath of heaven

Availability: February through May

Description: Fragrant, heathlike shrubs with tiny, white, pink, lavender, or red flowers in terminal cymose clusters.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

DRYANDRA

(dry-AN-dra)

Family: Proteaceae (protea family)

Species: floribunda, formosa; others

Common Name: dryandra

Availability: Year-round

Description: Dense-headed flowers mostly available in yellow, but also available in oranges and reds, with prickly toothed leaves, similar to their Banksia relatives. These flowers provide accent and emphasis.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 2 to 3 weeks

E

EASTER LILY see Lilium

ECHINOPS (see Plate 12)

(EK-i-nops)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words echinos (hedgehog) and-opsis (appearance).

Species: ritro, humilis

Common Name: globe thistle

Availability: July through October

Description: Intense blue, white, or metalic blue, round, thistlelike flowers at the end of branching stems. The bold texture of these flowers creates striking effects.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

EREMURUS (see Plate 9)

(air-re-MOUR-us or e-ray-MEW-rus)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words eremia (desert) and oura (tail), referring to their desert habitat and the shape of the inflorescence.

Species: robustus, stenophyllus

Common Names: foxtail lily, desert candle, king's spear

Availability: May through September

Description: Tall spikelike racemes with small star-shaped florets on leafless stems. Generally yellow, but white, cream, orange, and pink varieties are also available. Excellent for adding line.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks, during which time tiny new florets continuously open.

ERICA (see Plate 13)

(AIR-i-kah)

Family: Ericaceae (heath family)

Species: canaliculata, codonodes (Spanish heather), persoluta, melanthera (Scotch heather); others and hybrids. The genus Calluna (kah-LOO-nah) is known as common heather. Many other genera, such as Thryptomene, are heathlike shrubs and are often called heather or heath.

Common Names: heath, heather

Availability: November through April

Description: Spikelike flower clusters in panicles and racemes, with tiny bell-shaped florets. Available in pinks, purples, white, yellows, and green. Useful as a filler. Taller varieties can create line.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 3 weeks

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ERYNGIUM

(air-IN-jee-um)

Family: Umbelliferae or Apiaceae (carrot family)

Species: alpinum, amethystinum, giganteum; others and hybrids

Common Names: sea holly, eryngo

Availability: June through October

Description: Flower head is cone-shaped, surrounded by feathery bracts. Available in silver-purple, blues, some pinks, green, and white. Adds unusual texture and form to arrangements. Well suited for many design styles.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

EUCHARIS

(YOU-kah-ris)

Family: Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family)

Species: amazonica (E. grandiflora)

Common Names: Amazon lily, eucharis lily, lily of the Amazon

Availability: Year-round

Description: three to six individual fragrant, large white flowers are borne in umbel patterns on leafless stems.

Vase Life: 7 to 14 days; individual flowers continue to open.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

EUPHORBIA (see Plate 10)

(you-FOR-bee-ah)

Family: Euphorbiaceae (spurge family)

Name Origin: Named after Euphorbus, the physician to the king of Mauritania, Juba.

Species: fulgens, pulcherrima, marginata; others

Common Names: scarlet plume, spurge (E. fulgans); poinsettia, Christmas flower (E. pulcherrima); snow on the mountain, ghostweed (E. marginata)

Availability: September through February

Description: E. fulgans has small flowers alongside drooping stems. Adds colorful, graceful lines to designs. Available in orange, red, yellow, pink, and white. E. marginata with its green and white color pattern is useful as a foliage. All Euphorbia species bleed milky sap when cut or if leaves are removed; it can produce a severe dermatitis in susceptible individuals.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; condition in hot water with floral preservative.

EUSTOMA (see Plate 18)

(yew-STOW-mah)

Family: Gentianaceae (gentians)

Species: grandiflorum (Lisianthus russellianus)

Common Names: lisianthus, prairie gentian

Availability: May through December

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Description: Anemone-shaped flowers solitary on stems or in branching panicles. Generally three to five flowers open on each stem. Available in purples, pinks, reds, bicolors, and white. A variety of single, double, and triple petal forms are available; adds mass with a soft texture; single blooms work well for corsages.

Vase Life: Long lasting, 1 to 2 weeks

EVERLASTING FLOWER see Helichrysum

F

FALSE DRAGONHEAD see Physostegia

FALSE SPIRAEA see Astilbe

FEVERFEW see Chrysanthemum

FLAME TIP see Leucodendron

FLAMINGO FLOWER see Anthurium

FORSYTHIA (see Plate 10)

(for-SITH-ee-a)

Family: Oleaceae (olives, ashes, and lilacs)

Name Origin: Named after Scottish gardener, William Forsyth (1737-1804).

Species: x intermedia, ovata

Common Names: forsythia, golden bells

Availability: November through March

Description: Small yellow flowers clustered along woody stems, appearing before leaves. Tall stems add colorful line. Short stems work well as fillers. Useful in oriental and contemporary design styles as well as traditional springtime bouquets.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks

FOXGLOVE see Digitalis

FOXTAIL LILY see Eremurus

FREESIA (see Plate 11)

(FREE-zee-ah or FREE-sha)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: Named after a German physician, Friedrich Freese (1800s).

Species: x hybrida

Common Name: freesia

Availability: Year-round

Description: Lovely, fragrant flowers; the florets are funnel shaped and branch asymmetrically off of a main stem on the upper side of a curved spike; available in a wide variety of colors; popular for wedding flowers and corsages. Interesting forms work well as an accent or filler in contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 7 to 10 days; ethylene sensitive; hydrate well.

G

GAILLARDIA (see Plate 11)

(gay-LARD-ee-ah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after French magistrate, Gaillard de Charentonneau (18th century).

Species: aristata cultivars

Common Name: blanket flower

Availability: July through September

Description: Solitary, large, showy, daisylike bicolored flowers in yellows, oranges, and reds. Bright coloration of these flowers creates emphasis. Gaillardia provide mass in mixed bouquets.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days

GARDENIA (see Plate 11)

(gar-DEE-nee-ah)

Family: Rubiaceae (gardenia, coffee, and quinine)

Name Origin: Named after a Scottish physician and botanist, Alexander Garden (1730-1791), of South Carolina.

Species: jasminoides cultivars

Common Names: gardenia, cape jasmine

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant, waxy, multipetaled flowers. Available in white to cream. Commercially they are packaged in special boxes wrapped for a high humidity; generally three to a box; each flower has a support collar made from thin cardboard and leaves. Gardenias bruise easily; moisten hands when working with them. Popular corsage and wedding flower.

Vase Life: Short lived, 1 to 2 days

GAYFEATHER see Liatris

GENISTA see Cytisus

GERBERA (see Plate 11)

(GER-be-rah)

Family: Compositae or Asteraceae (sunflower family)

Name Origin: Named after a German naturalist, Traugott Gerber (1700s).

Species: jamesonii; others

Common Names: gerbera, Transvaal daisy, African daisy, barberton daisy, veldt daisy

Availability: Year-round

Description: Daisylike flowers 3 to 5 inches across. Single and double-petaled forms. Available in a wide range of colors and bicolor patterns, usually with contrasting centers. Stems are fleshy and leafless. These flowers have many uses. Can easily provide a focal point or add mass. Useful in traditional and contemporary design styles.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Vase Life: 3 to 7 days or longer; use clean water and containers to avoid plugged stems and bent neck; gerberas prefer preservative solution to the use of floral foam.

GERMAN STATICE see Limonium

GIANT BOTTLEBRUSH see Banksia

GILLYFLOWER see Matthiola

GINGER see Alpinia

GLADIOLUS (see Plate 12)

(gla-dee-OH-lus)

Family: Iridaceae (iris family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word for a small sword, referring to the shape of the leaves.

Species: hybrids

Common Names: gladiolus, glads, sword lily, corn flag

Availability: Year-round; smaller varieties available March through July

Description: Flowers are geotropic and are arranged on a thick stem in a one-sided spike or spikelike raceme. Available in a wide range of colors. Florets, texures, and shapes vary and may be ruffled, fringed, or plain and shaped like orchids, tulips, or roses. The florets of miniature gladiolus are more loosely arranged on the stem. Both are excellent line flowers. Individual florets are useful for corsage work.

Vase Life: 1 to 2 weeks; ethylene sensitive.

GLOBE AMARANTH see Gomphrena

GLOBE ARTICHOKE see Cynara

GLOBEFLOWER see Trollius

GLOBE THISTLE see Echinops

GLORIOSA (see Plate 12)

(glow-ree-OH-sah)

Family: Liliaceae (lily family)

Name Origin: From the Latin word gloriosus (glorious).

Species: rothschildiana, superba

Common Names: gloriosa lily, glory lily, climbing lily

Availability: Year-round

Description: Flowers have reflexed petals that are curled at the margins. Brightly colored red and yellow flowers on leafless stems. Unusual flower form provides emphasis. These flowers work well in oriental and contemporary design styles.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days, with individual blooms continuously blooming, each lasting 4 or 5 days.

GLORIOSA DAISY see Rudbeckia

GLORY LILY see Gloriosa

GOAT'S BEARD see Astilbe

GODETIA see Clarkia

GOLDENROD see Solidago

GOLDEN SHOWER see Oncidium

GOMPHRENA

(gom-FREE-nah)

Family: Amaranthaceae (cockscombs and celosias)

Species: globosa, haageana

Common Name: globe amaranth

Availability: July through September

Description: Round flower heads about 1 inch across on the top of long stems. The flower head is made up of tiny fluffy flowers. Available in white, pinks, purples, and orange.

Vase Life: 5 to 10 days

GONIOLIMON see Limonium

GRAPE HYACINTH see Muscari

GUELDER ROSE see Viburnum

GUERNSEY LILY see Nerine

GYPSOPHILA (see Plate 13)

(jip-SOF-i-la or jip-so-PHIL-la)

Family: Caryophyllaceae (carnation family)

Name Origin: From the Greek words gypsos (gypsum) and philos (loving), referring to some species favoring gypsum or lime.

Species: elagans, paniculata (million stars); others and cultivars

Common Names: baby's breath, gyp

Availability: Year-round

Description: Fragrant complex panicles or dichasial cymes of white or pinkish white florets. A popular and delicate filler for arrangements. Small clusters work well in corsages, boutonnieres, and wedding flowers.

Vase Life: 5 to 7 days; ethylene sensitive; favors cool temperatures and high humidity.
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Title Annotation:Part 1: A-G
Author:Hunter, Norah T.
Publication:The Art of Floral Design, 2nd ed.
Article Type:Appendix
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2000
Words:6676
Previous Article:Chapter 22 Careers and continuing education.
Next Article:Appendix A Flowers.
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