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Appendix 6: Annotated bibliography.

AGRICULTURE

Adamson, E; Fett, L; Huntsman, A, and Scarlett, G. 1984 [West Nakanai Oil Palm Scheme, Papua New Guinea: Social, Economic and Environmental Aspects.) Environmental Report No. 20. Melbourne: Graduate School of Environmental Science, Monash University.

Case study of oil palm workers in West New Britain. Discusses differential gender implications of labour. Provides useful statistical comparisons.

Allen, B.J and Bourke, R.M. "Poverty Assessment: Papua New Guinea: In-depth Description of Six Agricultural Systems," draft working papers, World Bank Poverty Assessment Project 1996-1997.

In PNG, unlike most developing countries, higher cash incomes have not been reflected in increased nutritional status. The relationships between low cash incomes and malnutrition and underdevelopment are found to be complex, but gender does not form part of this analysis.

Barnes, Helen, n.d. "Women in Highlands Agricultural Production" in Donald Denoon and Catherine Snowden, eds, A Time to Plant and a Time to Uproot A History of Agriculture in Papua New Guinea, Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies, Port Moresby.

A survey of women in the change from subsistence to plantation and then commercial agriculture.

Dwyer, P.D. and Minnegal, M. 1994 "Sago Palms and Variable Garden Yields: A Case Study from Papua New Guinea," Man and Culture in Oceania, No. 10, pp. 81-102.

Technical case study of labour on sago palm plantations. Good outline of gender differentials in work allocations.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy 1994 "Mother, Farmer, Trader, Weaver: Juggling Roles in Pacific Agriculture" in Atu Emberson-Bain 1994 (ed) Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

Pacific women play an important and increasingly significant role in agriculture, but their access to agricultural training and resources is limited. Women are also involved in trading for cash both within and outside their communities. In some Pacific cultures they weave the walls of buildings, the mats for the floor as well as smaller items like baskets and bags.

Hide, R. L. 1981 "Aspects of Pig Production and Use in Colonial Sinasina, Papua New Guinea." PhD thesis. New York: Columbia University.

Thesis on pig production, addresses issues of gender in pig ownership and work.

Kasaiwabi, Ebi Teddy, 1977 'Training ofWomen in Agriculture," in B.A.C. Enyi and T. Varghese, eds, Agriculture in the Tropics (Tenth Waigani Seminar), University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby.

Describes agricultural training programs for graduate women and identifies eight recommendations.

Kelly, R. C. 1993 Constructing Inequality: The Fabrication of a Hierarchy of Virtue among the Etoro. Michigan: Ann Arbor.

Includes a case study of gendered labour in an agricultural context.

Rooney, Nahau, 1994 "Logging Our Heritage" in 'Atu Emberson-Bain 1994 (ed) Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

Observes the breakdown of subsistence agriculture as logging operations encroach near villages, men join the paid work-force, girls may be enticed into prostitution, water quality is affected and mosquito breeding sites increase. When operations end, with likelihood that recovery of forests will take hundreds of years, communities have difficulty adjusting.

Samana, Fungke Z, 1989 "Participation in a Subsistence Agriculture Improvement Programme, Morobe Provincial Government, Papua New Guinea" in Vanessa Griffen, 1989 (ed) Women, Development and Empowerment--A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop, Naboutini, Fiji, 23-26 March, 1987. Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Morobe Provincial Council of Women withdrew from National Council of Women in 1979. Subsistence Agriculture Improvement Programme integrates all stages of the food production, processing and marketing as self-employment, thus providing food for subsistence cash.

Sagir, Bill F. 1994 "Gender and Forestry Development in Wasab Village, Madang Province," in Research in Melanesia, Vol 18, pp 93-109.

In a context where so little is known about the social impacts of large scale logging operations in PNG, our knowledge about their impact on women is minimal. In Wasab, women's situation has not been improved by forestry activities.

Samana, Fungke Z. 1986 "Subsistence Agriculture in Papua New Guinea; Future Development for Women," in Nesbitt, June, 1986 ed. What Women Say; Development in the Pacific, Australian Council for Overseas Aid, Canberra.

Discussion of traditional roles and projects strategies for women in commercial and cash economy agriculture.

Sillitoe, P. 1985 "Divide and No-one Rules: The Implications of Sexual Divisions of Labour in the Papua New Guinea Highlands," Man No. 20, pp. 494-522.

Highlands study of labour detailing case studies in agriculture. Good outline of major issues with substantial statistical data.

Slatter, Claire 1984 "Women's Roles in South Pacific Agriculture--A Preliminary Partial List of Organizations, Projects, Conferences and Contacts," Transnatlonal, Knowledge Utilization Project, Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu.

Identifies individuals, agencies and organisations involved with women and rural development in several Pacific countries, including PNG.

Slatter, Claire 1984 "Women's Roles in South Pacific Agriculture--Traditional, Transitional and Modern Roles of Women with Specific Focus on Papua New Guinea, Fiji, West Samoa and Tonga," Transnational Knowledge Utilization Project, Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, Honolulu.

Melanesian women are the principal agriculturalists but plantation agriculture recruited men as temporary indentured labourers, leaving women in villages to maintain village life. This set up a conceptual dichotomy between men as economic producers and women as uneconomic subsistence gardeners. Few PNG projects are geared towards women's needs as agriculturalists.

Stephens, Alexandra 1991 "Papua New Guinea: Gender Roles and Agricultural Education," in Agricultural Information Development Bulletin, Vol 13, No 3, September 1991, pp 12-14.

The innovative 'Rural Life Development' curriculum in PNG's agricultural colleges, geared towards women as the traditional agriculturalists, is considered by the author to have changed the way some key men and women make decisions.

Suda, K. 1994 "Methods and Problems in Time Allocation Studies," Anthropological Science, Vol. 1, No. 102, pp. 13-22.

This article outlines many of the problems associated with time allocation studies including the inaccuracy of estimates, lack of quantification of women's work, and variation in measurement tools.

Thomas, Pamela and Hill, Helen 1987 "Major Issues in Non-formal Education in the South Pacific" in CD. Throsby, 1987. Human Resources Development in the Pacific, Pacific Policy Papers No 3, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

Agricultural training for male school-leavers is the major type of non-formal education, and provides inadequately for women who are used, instrumentally, to improve health and nutrition. Women's participation is restricted by time, location and children. Small-scale village programs proposed.

CHURCHES

Forman, Charles W. 1984 "Sing to the Lord a New Song: Women in the Churches of Oceania" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984. Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press.

Charts the changes in women's role in Pacific churches from the 1960s to the 1970s and notes that all-female groups started by the wives of male missionaries were the first local organisations for church women, later developing into national organisations in the churches which gradually became indigenised. The increase of women's involvement reflect worldwide forces and global patterns.

Gostin, Olga 1986 Cash Cropping, Catholicism and Change--Resettlement among the Kuni of Papua, Pacific Research Monograph 14, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

The effects of resettlement and Catholicism on Kuni culture due to resettlement by Catholic missionaries is found to have changed the former balance between payment of bride-wealth, residential patterns and descent.

CREDIT

Brown, Bungtabu 1987 "Women in Business in Papua New Guinea" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J.Hughes (eds) 1987. The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Banking policies on lending and labour and employment laws favour males. Requests government to set clear guidelines for women's participation in development and remove discriminatory polices to enable women to move beyond the margins of business.

Department of Home Affairs 1996 Papua New Guinea Women's Credit Project, Capital Fund and Training Component--request for training and seed money funding by World Bank.

Development of this proposal began in the 1970s in response to lack of access to credit for women at commercial banks. Implementation is by Community-Based Women's Organisations.

Department of Home Affairs 1996 Papua New Guinea Women's Credit Project, Training Component--request for Training Funds to World Bank.

This incorporates the Training Document produced after Training Needs Research. The loan facility is directed at mothers and skills at management are considered necessary to ensure repayment.

Finch, John 1992 "Women Work Harder Than Men" in Cultural Survival Quarterly, Winter 1992, pp 44-46.

Women in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea play major roles in the local economy, but not beyond it. They are highly successful in credit and saving schemes due, Finch believes, to their primary identification as women. He recommends that PNG deliver on its expressed commitment to enhancing women's participation at all levels.

Hailey, John M. 1987 Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Business in the Pacific, Research Report Series No 9, East-West Center, Hawaii.

Women form a significant minority of Pacific entrepreneurs, and most have responsibilities as wives and mothers and members of their village community as well. Lack of political power is a major constraint upon their participation.

Kuman, Cecilia and Ponong, Elizabeth 1987 "Women and Banking Policy" in Susan Stratgios and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987. The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Vol 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

It is difficult for PNG women to obtain financial assistance due to emphasis on collateral. Village-based banking policies should be changed to enable women to obtain loans. A bank for women, serviced and financed by institutions like the World Bank, could be negotiated by government.

Sexton, Lorraine Dusak 1982 Customary and Corporate Models for Women's Development Organizations, LASER Discussion Paper 41, Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, Port Moresby.

Assesses the types of associations that help rural women of PNG to participate more fully in development. Concentrates on two multivillage organisations--Wok Meri and the Goroka Women's Investment Corporation.

Sexton, Lorraine 1984 "Pigs, Pearlshells, and Women's Work : Collective Response to Change in Highland Papua New Guinea" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984. Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press.

Describes the Wok Meri group in which women have established quasi-Western banks and a series of exchanges patterned after customary transactions initiated by marriage. By investing their capital in business ventures, women increase their participation in both modern and traditional sectors of the economy.

Sexton, Lorraine 1986 Mothers of Money, Daughters of Coffee--The Wok Meri Movement, UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Women in Highland New Guinea have responded collectively to events since 1930, when Australian gold prospectors first walked into the mountains. Since 1960 women in the eastern end of the Highlands have developed a savings and exchange system called Wok Meri (women's work). This is an effort by women to enhance their rights to property and to set up a system by which they can gain status. They establish joint enterprises and take on the public role in ritualised transactions patterned on traditional exchanges.

Tengdui, Mary and Rakanangu, Leonie 1996 "Women's Credit Project: Operations Manual," PNG Department of Home Affairs.

The National Women's Credit Project, instituted in 1991, is seen by the PNG government as a 'tool to empower' women to gain financial independence. It is targeted towards women as trainers of children and controller of the family finances. The project's main component is institutional capacity building of District Women's Associations and entrepreneurial development programs through training. The major concern is to create employment among women and their immediate families by lending funds to Women's Associations to lend to individual women, providing them with training, marketing and management assistance.

Warry, Wayne 1985 "Politics of a New Order: The Kafaina Movement" in Maeve O'Collins et al 1985. Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change, RSPAS, ANU, Canberra.

Kafaina is also known as Wok Meri, a social, economic and political movement created and controlled by women which began in Chauve in early 1960s. The women save and lend money to start small businesses, at this point, managed by men. By working in groups, women gain control over resources and can assert political identity in their village.

CULTURE and ETHNOGRAPHY

Bolton, Lissant, 1994 "Bifo Yumi Ting Se Samting Nating; The Women's Culture Project at the Vanuatu Cultural Centre," in Lamont Lindstrom and Geoff White, eds. Culture-Kastom-Tradition: Developing Cultural Policy in Melanesia, East-West Centre, Honolulu.

Description of the Women's Culture Project (WCP) and particular emphasis on the recording, promotion and revival of women's custom in Vanuatu.

Dickerson-Putman, Jeanette 1986 "Finding a Road in the Modern World: The Differential Effects of Culture Change and Development on the Men and Women of an Eastern Highlands Papua New Guinea Community," Ph D thesis, UMI Dissertation Information Service.

Development transformed residents of Eastern Highlands into peasants and this local level analysis supports the assumption that the unintended effects of change and development result from the failures of governments and individuals to understand or consider in policy-making the traditional cultural systems of target groups.

Dickerson-Putman, Jeanette 1992 "Women, Development and Stratification in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea" in Human Organization, Vol 51, No 2, 1992 pp 109-121.

By examining how choices and opportunities of women in this community in PNG are shaped by pre-contact systems of age and gender construction, the author concludes that the first step in the development of women is to focus on the creation of ties among women across ages.

Goodale, Jane C. 1995 To Sing with Pigs is Human--The Concept of Person in Papua New Guinea, University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Based on fieldwork in Umbi in Kandrian district of southwestern New Britain. Attempts to describe the Kaulong people's culture through their concept of the place of humanity in the world they have constructed.

Gostin, Olga 1986 Cash Cropping, Catholicism and Change--Resettlement among the Kuni of Papua, Pacific Research Monograph 14, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

The effects of resettlement and Catholicism on Kuni culture due to resettlement by Catholic missionaries is found to have changed the former balance between payment of bride-wealth, residential patterns and descent.

Knauft, Bruce M. 1989 "Bodily Images in Melanesia: Cultural Substances and Natural Metaphors" in Michel Feher et al (eds) 1989 Zone 5: Fragments for a History of the Human Body, Urzone, NY.

This article attempts to describe aspects of bodily imagery and practices in PNG, considers concepts of gender, conception and birth, indicating similarities and diversities of beliefs of various groups, and concludes that cultural notions of gender vary in PNG.

Lutkehaus, Nancy C. and Paul B. Roscoe 1995 Gender Rituals--Female Initiation in Melanesia, Routledge, New York.

This volume expands the knowledge of female initiation practices in PNG. Some (Townsend, Lutkehaus and Sexton) describe the female body as a metaphor for aspects of the social body. Lutkehaus asserts that initiation practices reveal the differences in gendered forms of power.

Mantovani, Ennio 1993 "The Child and Melanesian Values" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Argues that children represent value in Melanesian communities, a constancy which remains within modernisation, based on research results and data from the Melanesian Institute of Marriage and Family Life in Melanesia. Notes that education, involvement in paid work, youthfulness and urbanisation are factors which decrease reliance upon childbearing for social status.

Marshall, L.B. (ed) 1985 Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific, Gordon and Breach Science.

Presents a series of anthropological reports focusing on culture and feeding practices in Pacific Island nations, including PNG. Looks at nutrition from a paediatrician's viewpoint, at the effect of women's work and the contributions of anthropology and development research.

Mydans, Seth 1997 "When the Bartered Bride Opts Out of the Bargain," New York Times May 6, 1997.

Describes the repercussions of a PNG woman's refusal to be bought with pigs as a bride.

Nash, Jill 1984 "Women, Work and Change in Nagovisi" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984. Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Looks at the matrilineal society of the Nagovisi people of Bougainville and concludes that Western innovations have strengthened matrilineal institutions.

O'Brien, Denise 1984 "Women Never Hunt: The Portrayal of Women in Melanesian Ethnography" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984 Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press, Berkeley.

After surveying the ethnographic published literature the author concludes that women's economic roles are ignored while their role as mother is emphasised. Women ethnographers are attempting to redress that balance.

Preston, Rosemary and Wormald, Eileen 1987 "Culture, Ideology and the Subordination of Women in Transitional Society" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987. The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

It is argued that the ideology of development reduces the status and dynamism of traditional indigenous culture, which, though rooted in gender inequality, gave women an important sphere of influence. Development has fostered further subordination of women's role through the shift away from subsistence agriculture. The ethics of promoting policies for national development which cannot be fulfilled because of the processes of development need questioning.

Pulla, Venkat Rao (ed), 1996 The Family: Asia Pacific Perspectives, Northern Territory University, Australia.

A compendium of conference papers on issues relating to families in the Asia Pacific Region (Centre for Southeast Asian Studies).

Strathern, Marilyn, 1988 'The Gender of the Gift: Problems with Women and Problems with Society in Melanesia," Book Review Forum, in Pacific Studies, Vol 15, No 1, 1992.

Dialogue between commentators and the author over the approach taken to identifying women's role in reciprocity, exchange and production.

DONORS

Asian Development Bank

Asian Development Bank 1992 "Report on Technical Assistance to the Independent State of Papua New Guinea for Institutional Strengthening of the Women's Division of the Department of Home Affairs and Youth," ADB, Philippines, December 1992.

Asian Development Bank report on technical assistance for institutional strengthening of the women's division. Details the objectives, scope and implementation. Appendices include listings of other donor assistance in PNG and roles of government and aid agencies in women in development

Schoeffel-Meleisea, Penelope 1987 "Women in Development: Papua New Guinea," Country Briefing Paper, December 1987 Asian Development Bank, Programs Department (East).

Written to brief ADB staff and consultants, providing a general description of the economic and social position of women in PNG.

AusAID

Australian Agency for International Development 1996 "Profile of Activities--Australia--Papua New Guinea Development Cooperation Program" August 1996.

Lists the activities AusAID is supporting in PNG as well as examples of projects undertaken.

Australian International Development Assistance Bureau 1993, "Women in Development in Papua New Guinea Sector Program Development," Briefing for PNG Sector Working Groups, March 1993.

The briefing paper provides policy context for the integration of women in development in the PNG program, relevant lessons learned in programming and project design, information on women's roles in each sector and constraints to fuller participation, and suggested action for teams during the programming mission.

Australian Agency for International Development 1996 "Report on Gender and Development Workshops," Port Moresby, PNG, 25--28 March 1996 (prepared by International Development Support Services Pty Ltd).

The workshops were designed to assist participants to examine AusAID and GoPNG policies with respect to gender and development; assess achievement levels with respect to the application of key policy initiatives in AusAID funded projects; analyse and discuss techniques and strategies for overcoming specific constraints; and develop an improved understanding of effective approaches to gender equal project design and implementation.

United Nations

United Nations Children's Fund 1996 "Children, Women and Families in Papua New Guinea--A Situation Analysis," UNICEF, PNG October 1996, Port Moresby.

A comprehensive profile of children and women in PNG; identifies and analyses trends and issues with direct significance for development policies and programs. Disease and malnutrition are immediate causes of infant and maternal mortality; underlying causes are lack of resources at the household level, behaviours, practices and poor access to basic health services. Basic causes are structural and due to economic and social factors.

United Nations Development Programme 1991 "Papua New Guinea: Women in Development--Presentation of Priorities and List of Indicative Projects," May 1991, Port Moresby.

Describes national government structure and mechanisms for WID, but finds a lack of recognition and awareness of women's contribution to development and the technical expertise at government level to integrate women into the mainstream of development planning and programs. A number of initiatives are proposed at the institutional and program level in education, literacy and training, agriculture and fisheries, industry and business, health and family planning and NGOs.

ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION

Adamson, E., Fett, L., Huntsman, A., and Scarlett, G. 1984 West Nakanai Oil Palm Scheme, Papua New Guinea: Social, Economic and Environmental Aspects. Environmental Report No. 20. Melbourne: Graduate School of Environmental Science, Monash University.

Case study of oil palm workers in West New Britain. Discusses differential gender implications of labour. Provides useful statistical comparisons.

Brown, Bungtabu 1987 "Women in Business in Papua New Guinea" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987 The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Banking policies on lending and labour and employment laws favour males. Requests government to set clear guidelines for women's participation in development and remove discriminatory polices to enable women to move beyond the margins of business.

Cleland, Rachel 1996 Grass Roots to Independence and Beyond: The Contribution by Women to Papua New Guinea 1951-1991, Dame Rachel Cleland, Claremont, Australia.

An insight into the life and times of women in a developing territory. Case studies of various women's NGOs including the girl guides and the YWCA. Also profiles individual women and the pioneering work they have done in various fields.

Cox, Elizabeth 1987 "Women in Rural Resettlement Schemes--Institutionalised Gender Bias and Informal Gender Abuses" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987. The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Resettlement programs, being planned, offer great scope to redress the balance of male biases in the general development process, yet the situation for women is usually worsened. Women's work is invisible to planners and previous studies either indicate a lack of data or provide no empirical evidence. Cox's study of women in the Gavien Rubber Settlement Scheme provides empirical evidence of systematic gender bias.

Cox, Elizabeth and Aitsi, Louise 1988 "Papua New Guinea" in Taiamoni Tongamoa (ed) 1988 Pacific Women: Roles and Status of Women in Pacific Societies, UPNG, Port Moresby.

A succinct outline of women's status and roles in PNG over a wide range of issues with the general observation that women's contribution to development continues to be overlooked.

ESCAP 1982 "Report of the Pilot Project Planning Workshop on Improving the Socioeconomic Condition of Women in Fisheries," 22-26 November 1982, Suva.

Reviews the progress of the project and the impact of development on women in developing countries. Presents the findings of the surveys on women's contribution to income in small fishing communities, and outlines income-generating projects for women.

Fahey, Stephanie 1985 "Producers or Consumers? Women's Entry into the Cash Economy in Madang, Papua New Guinea" in Women in Development in the South Pacific, Barriers and Opportunities, published report of the Conference on Women in Development in the South Pacific, 11-14 August 1984, Port Vila, Australian National University.

Discusses the origins and consequences of low female participation in the cash economy of Madang region. Problems facing women are discussed in three sections: traditions in the pre-colonial socioeconomic system; the problems arising in the colonial period; and contemporary barriers.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy 1997 "Gender, Culture and Sustainable Development," a paper delivered at the UNESCO Conference on Culture and Sustainable Development, Suva, 1997.

Discussion of work, models of development arid women's role in economic development.

Goodman, R, Lepani, K. and Morawetz, D. 1985 "The Economy of Papua New Guinea: An Independent Review," Pacific Policy Paper, Development Studies Centre, ANU.

Presents an overview of progress and problems in PNG since independence in 1975. Assesses general economic policies, looks at the principal economic and social sectors. Considers the under-representation of women in public life and government departments, in education and training.

Goodwillie, Diane and Lechte, Ruth 1985 "Women and Development Programmes in the Pacific Islands" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Waraki (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby.

Attempts to provide an overview of what is happening for and with women in the Pacific. The first SPC conference on The Role of Women in Development in the South Pacific had only two women among 200 delegates while women silently demonstrated outside. Describes government and NGO programs for women but concludes that these advance their proponents' agendas and not the needs of women, for whom reverse discrimination is needed.

Hailey, John M. 1987 Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Business in the Pacific, Research Report Series No 9, East-West Center, Hawaii.

Women form a significant minority of Pacific entrepreneurs, and most have responsibilities as wives and mothers and members of their village community as well. Lack of political power is a major constraint upon their participation.

Hetler, Carol B. and Khoo, Siew-Ean 1987 Women's Participation in the South Pacific Economies, Islands/Australian Working Papers No 87/4, National Center for Development Studies (NCDS), ANU, Canberra.

Data suggest that while most South Pacific women are active in traditional economies, they have little access to waged employment due to slow economic growth and their lack of education and vocational skills. PNG has the lowest rate of women's participation at 5%, reflecting the high proportion of rural population.

Hetler, Carol B. and Khoo, Siew-Ean 1987 "Women's Participation in the South Pacific Economies" in CD. Throsby 1987 Human Resources Development in the Pacific, Pacific Policy Papers No 3, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

Assesses women's participation in South Pacific economies and the factors which affect it. Policy options are discussed to improve their economic status. The authors recommend a rapid improvement in education and training, establishment of women's legal rights to land and collateral for credit and full integration of women into commercial enterprises at all levels.

Heyzer, Noeleen and Sen, Gita (eds) 1994 Gender, Economic Growth and Poverty Market Growth and State Planning in Asia and the Pacific, Kali for Women, International Books and Asian and Pacific Development Centre, New Delhi.

Provides an overview from a gender perspective of issues and experiences related to market economies in Pacific Island and Asian countries, and presents a series of country case studies, including one on gender sensitive approaches to poverty in PNG (see Cox 1994).

Heyzer, Noeleen 1989 "Critical Appraisal of the Idea of Using Projects as Strategies for the Advancement of Women" in Vanessa Griffen (ed) 1989 Women, Development and Empowerment--A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop, Naboutini, Fiji, 23-26 March 1987, Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Need for projects to be set in context of women's participation in social and economic structures. Considers income generating projects to utilise women's (cheap) labour in manufacturing and agriculture; pilot projects are limited; water supply and other infrastructure is provided without consultation; programs focus on women as mothers; credit programs were more likely to be successful if women's needs are reflected in design.

Hogan, Evelyn 1985 "Controlling the Bodies of Women: Reading Gender Ideologies in Papua New Guinea" in Maev O'Collins et al 1985 Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change, ANU, Canberra.

In PNG, man's definition of himself as independent is tied up with his difference from women. Considers three debates on policing of women's roles to show some of the characteristics of structured inequality which accompany women's participation in modern waged labour force.

International Centre for Ocean Development and South Pacific Commission 1989 "Report on Papua Regional Women's Workshop on Fish Processing and Marketing," Port Moresby, September 4-15, 1989.

Recognition of important role played by women in fisheries: training in techniques of processing, marketing, administration and development of pilot projects.

Josephides, Lisette 1985 The Production of Inequality--Gender and Exchange among the Kewa Tavistock, London.

Attempts to locate the sources of inequality and to understand how they are engendered and perpetuated within social practice through an examination of production, exchange and gender relations and the way they are socially validated among the Kewa people of the New Guinea Highlands. The author concludes that increased participation in the cash economy will increase inequalities and establish new status groups.

Litau, Jennifer 1993 "Uneven Development and Migration in Papua New Guinea: Implications of 1980 Interprovincial Flows" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Migration viewed in context of larger socioeconomic changes; policy a strong influence, and a need to 'balance' migration and economic investments is proposed; extended family and wantok system directly influence migration flow and direction. Young men are the groups most mobile, with flow-on effects to the women and children in their families.

Ojuka, Onedo 1994 "Market Women Entrepreneurs and Social Innovation: Examples from Papua New Guinea" in Entrepreneur ship, Innovation and Change, Vol 3, No 3, 1994.

This article considers the participation of women, otherwise involved in full-time domestic duties, in market activities, leading to them save money as social insurance. Some of these women are now full-time business people.

"Papua New Guinea Recent Economic Developments and Medium-term Prospects," The World Bank, Prepared for Consultative Group Meeting, Singapore, September 26-27, 1995.

Looks at economic development in recent years, the reform agenda and 1996 budget stance, private sector development and supply response, restructuring the public sector, medium-term prospects, external financing requirements and improving implementation and aid coordination.

Ritterbush, S. Deacon and Pearson, Janice 1988 "Pacific Women in Business: Constraints and Opportunities" in Te'o I. J. Fairburn 1988 Island Entrepreneurs--Problems and Performances in the Pacific, Pacific Islands Development Program. East-West Center.

Women are still ignored in national development programs and encounter restraints in both policy-related and traditional spheres. Women with strong networks both in and outside their states, and those with supportive spouses, are more likely to succeed.

Sagir, Bill F. 1994 "Gender and Forestry Development in Wasab Village, Madang Province," in Research in Melanesia, Vol 18, pp 93-109.

In a context where so little is known about the social impacts of large scale logging operations in PNG, our knowledge about their impact on women is minimal. In Wasab, women's situation has not been improved by forestry activities.

Schoeffel, Penelope 1983 "Women's Work and Development in the South Pacific" in Lyn Melville, (ed) 1983 Women, Aid and Development--Proceedings of a Workshop Co-sponsored by ACFOA, Development Studies Centre of ANU, Women and Development Network of Australia (WADNA).

Melanesian women do 80% of all the work and 60% of this is agriculture. Reports on Slatter's work in 1982 found that PNG women want more emphasis on community development, business development, leadership skills and skills to make groups work better. Dependency on cash cropping leads to fluctuating incomes.

Schoeffel-Meleisea, Penelope 1985 "Women's Clubs and the Sexual Division of Labour in East New Britain and Western Samoa: Development or Marginalisation?" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Women's associations in (Western) Samoa are more customary than among the Tolai of East New Britain. Observes that women have been adversely affected by development in both countries where programs emphasise their unpaid work, or try to involve them in agriculture for cash, while their children are malnourished (Maprik, East Sepik Province).

South Pacific Commission 1994 "Gender Sensitisation Workshop Notes."

Notes form a workshop run for SPC staff on gender analysis. Includes marine resource case study.

Strathern, Marilyn, 1972 "Women in between; Female Roles in a Male World," London Classic now dated study of social power, political and economic roles political.

Thomas, Pamela, et al. (eds) 1994 "Managing Resources in the South Pacific," special issue of Development Bulletin, Vol 31.

Contains 28 short commentaries and essays on issues in the South Pacific, including three on PNG.

UNESCO 1985 Women in Fisheries: Report on Socio-economic Surveys in Fiji Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines. Bangkok, ESCAP, 1985.

This publication aims at wider dissemination of the information gathered and the experience gained in the implementation of the project on "Improving the socioeconomic condition of Women in Fisheries in Fiji, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines". It includes information on (a) traditional fisheries in the four participating countries, (b) the methodology adopted for the surveys, (c) the results of the surveys, and (d) the implementing of the pilot projects in the selected fishing communities of the participating countries.

EDUCATION

Avalos, Beatrice 1994 Women and Development in Papua New Guinea, Economic Division Working Papers, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, 1994.

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of gender differentials in health, education, employment and participation in decisionmaking. It discusses current initiatives to improve gender equity and women's participation in and benefit from development, and suggests possibilities for the future.

Avalos, Beatrice 1995 "Women and Development" in Pacific Economic Bulletin Vol 10, No 1, July 1995.

The author concludes that the PNG approach to WID has been welfare, rather than equality oriented and in the light of gender differentials in health, education, employment and decision making, calls for renewed commitment from intellectuals, senior public servants and politicians to remove injustice and provide women with the support 'owed to them'.

Chapman, Deborah 1996 "Women's Literacy and Environmental Issues in Papua New Guinea" in Heather Wallace (ed) 1996 Developing Alternatives--Community Development Strategies and Environmental Issues in the Pacific, Victoria University of Technology, Melbourne.

Material derived from Women's Training Centre in Goroka, adult non-formal; education and literacy project, run for and by women, based around local issues, including environment.

Cox, Elizabeth and Daure, M. (eds) 1991 "Changes, Challenges and Choices: Women in Development in Papua New Guinea--Part 2: A Trainer's Handbook," The National Women's Training Package on Women's Health, Changing Family Life and Participation in Development, Women's Division of the Department of Home Affairs and Youth.

The book is for women's trainers, leaders, educators, communicators and other resource people to make the best and widest possible use of the book 'Issues and Information.

Gannicott, K.G. 1987 Education in Papua New Guinea--A Case Study in Wasted Resources, Islands/Australian Working Paper No 87/9, NCDS, ANU.

Uses rate of return analysis to assess economic payoff of investment in education in PNG. Social rates of return are found to be low at all levels by the standards of other developing countries while private returns are high. High costs and low achievements are the reasons.

Gannicott, K.G. (ed) 1990 Education for Economic Development in the South Pacific, Pacific Policy Paper No 6, NCDS, ANU.

This is a selection of articles which assesses Pacific education from the point of view of provision of appropriate workforce skills for economic development. It is argued that curricula are too 'academic', and that economic growth is promoted most effectively by school curricula emphasising mathematics and science

Gannicott, K.G. and Avalos, B. 1994 Women's Education and Economic Development in Melanesia, Pacific 2010, Policy Paper 12, National Centre for Development Studies, Canberra.

At every level of education, women's participation is greatly below men's, except in nursing. Girls spend more time on home and market chores, especially in poor households. The idea that educating girls yields a higher rate of return than any other investment in developing countries is reiterated.

Gibson, John 1996b Women's Education and Child Growth in Urban Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 2, August 1996.

Quantitative evidence is provided to support the claim of Gannicott and Avalos (1994) that investing in women's education has a high payoff in improved health, particularly of young children. These results are achieved through higher income, greater efficiency due to wider understanding of health and nutrition and through increasing women's say in household decision-making. Children are considered to gain height by one-half centimetre for each year of education completed by adults in the household, especially women.

Johnson, Dianne D. 1985 "Women, Education and Bureaucratic Leadership" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Waraki (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Considers how changes in PNG's education system have affected women's participation in the upper levels of democracy. Notes that in 1970s, PNG government gave prominence to a talented group of Western-educated PNG women but will need to apply affirmative action to fulfil its promise of sexual equality in a regime of cutbacks to the bureaucracy.

Mandie, Angela 1985 "The Role of an Educated Woman in Women's Organisations in Papua New Guinea" in Maev O'Collins et al 1985 Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change, ANU, Canberra.

The communication gap between women, especially old and young, is PNG women's main problem in working together. Educated women can bridge the gap and protect existing PNG women's organisations, eg National Council of Women.

Martin, Naomi T. 1985 "Women's Education and Social Change" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby.

Education has potential to change society but modern education hasn't always benefited women, due to the low status and work done by rural women and girls. Women's Studies programs at tertiary level can provide information to planners about women's needs.

Mathie, Alison and Cox, Elizabeth (eds) 1987 "New Directions for Women in Non-formal Education" Office of Women's Affairs and Ministry of Home Affairs and Youth, Waigani, PNG.

A broad coverage of issues relevant to women in the areas of work, technology, the media, education, violence and the law, health, community and formal politics and business. Prepared with the participation of over thirty women, this is a source book for use in women's informal education programs.

Oliver, Joan A. 1987 "Women Students at the University of Papua New Guinea in 1985" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987 The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Describes the problems faced by women at UPNG and includes specific recommendations to give women a more equal position.

Poole, Fitz John P., Herdt, Gilbert 1982 "Sexual Antagonism, Gender, and Social Change in Papua New Guinea," Journal of Cultural and Social Practice, Adelaide, December 1982.

Although quite dated this contains seminal work in gender analysis in PNG from an anthropological perspective. The case studies investigate gender relations in specific contexts, however it is one of the first collections of gender (as opposed to women) analysis.

Rennie, Sandra 1987 Education andTrairting for Melanesian Women--Australia's Role, January 1987 AIDAB, Canberra.

Since few girls complete primary school, let alone secondary school, there are few highly educated women in the Pacific, particularly in Melanesian countries. The current system of nomination for Australian education awards disadvantages women, especially in rural areas. Therefore, it is proposed that AIDAB support provide practical training courses such as book-keeping in country areas.

Rich, Sydney 1982 "The Status of Women PNG-style" pp 39-41 in CUSO Forum, Fall 1982. The author sees lack of education as the biggest problem faced by PNG women. Projects run by East Sepik Women's Council, which combine practical courses with business training and access to retail outlets are described as a solution.

Schoeffel-Meleisea, Penelope 1987 "Non-formal Education in the Pacific Islands: An Overview," pp 13-25 in Michael Crossley, Joseph Sukwianomb and Sheldon Weeks 1987 Pacific Perspectives on Non-formal Education, UPNG, Port Moresby.

Argues that the orientation of non-formal and adult educators has been shaped by needs and priorities which do not reflect those of the Pacific Islands. Lack of coordination between delivery agencies is a problem, but centralised control also inappropriate.

Soondrawu, Mary 1993 "Women Educating for Change" in Robert Nowak and Jeff Atkinson (eds) 1993 Development in Papua New Guinea: An Alternative Perspective Community Aid Abroad/Freedom from Hunger, Melbourne.

The work of the East Sepik Council of Women, now self-reliant, is a source of innovative and independent education for change and human development

Thomas, Pamela and Hill, Helen 1987 "Major Issues in Non-formal Education in the South Pacific" in CD. Throsby 1987 Human Resources Development in the Pacific Pacific Policy Papers No 3, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

Agricultural training for male school-leavers is the major type of non-formal education, and provides inadequately for women who are used, instrumentally, to improve health and nutrition. Women's participation is restricted by time, location and children. Small-scale village programs proposed.

UNESCO 1982 "Regional Workshop on Women's Education in a Rural Environment"- Report on the Workshop, Chiangmai, Thailand, 11-21 January 1982.

Reports on a workshop attended by fifteen country representatives in order to share innovative experiences in promoting access to and participation in education for girls and women in rural areas. Includes information on village study visits, field exercises in problem identification and assessment of needs. Makes conclusions and recommendations for programs and strategies to improve education for women in rural areas.

Wormald, Eileen and Anne Crossley (eds) 1987 Women and Education in Papua New Guinea and the South Pacific papers from the Women in Education Conference 1987, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

The articles explore the low degree of involvement of PNG girls and women in all levels of education, consider the special problems for women in distance education and non-formal education, providing strategies for action.

Yeomans, Lyn 1987 "Universal Primary Education: Factors Affecting the Enrollment and Retention of Girls in Papua New Guinea Community Schools" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987 The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop Proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Female participation in development in PNG varies from region to region depending upon the community's length of exposure to western concepts of progress, accessibility of services and patterns of inequity promulgated by rapid rate of change. Yeoman analyses the reasons for this, identifies the most vulnerable groups and proposes that more sustained efforts be made to achieve primary and secondary education for girls.

GOVERNMENT POLICY

Buraln, Elizabeth 1995 "Report on the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women by the Papua New Guinea Delegation" November 16, 1995.

The PNG delegates to the Beijing Conference made recommendations for the preparation of delegations to further conferences, proposing that they be given more time to acquire the necessary skills and that Beijing Conference delegates be used in preparation for future international conferences. Delegates note that PNG women united with other South Pacific delegates on issues of importance to the region: nuclear disarmament, indigenous knowledge and land rights, colonisation and foreign domination.

Department of Finance and Planning, 1991 "An Integrated National Population Policy for Progress and Development."

The national population policy identified goals and objectives, strategies for implementation of the policy, and the identification of population data collection issues. It also identified the implications of population on health, education, family planning and fertility regulation, the role and status of youth and children, training and research. An appendix articulates the broad roles of implementation agencies.

Department of Home Affairs 1993 "Expansion of Women's Role in Development" PNG 1988-93.

An outline of how the Women's Division was designed to expand during the 19881993 period, outlining the role of projects such as the National Council of Women, the National Women's Training Package, communication and network building, credit assistance, community women's organisers scene, literacy projects, fish marketing and other projects.

Department of Home Affairs 1994 "Five-Year Management Plan of the Women's Programme Unit," October 1994.

Puts forward goals and strategies designed to bring into reality the promise made in the country's Constitution that women would be given the opportunity to participate equally in the economic, cultural, political and social life of Papua New Guinea.

Department of Home Affairs 1995 "Partners in Development--National Non-government Organisations Policy," Papua New Guinea.

Considers that potential of the NGO community to contribute to PNG's development is not being realised. The tendency of NGOs to be more responsive and efficient than government is noted. Many community NGOs, operating at the local level, include women's and youth groups and experience difficulty in raising funds.

Department of Home Affairs 1995 "Report on the Implementation of Five Year Management Plan of Women's Program Unit in 1995," unpublished.

This report considers the first year of implementation of the Women's Division's Five-Year Management Plan, launched in 1994. It provides an overview and evaluation of government programs for women and makes recommendations for more effective achievement.

Department of Home Affairs 1996 A Guide to Social and Community Programs Implemented by the Different Program and Support Units of the Department, June 1996.

The guide is to educate the government, other line Departments, institutions, the general public and the staff of the programs and functions of the Department of Home Affairs.

Department of Home Affairs 1987 Women's Policy PNG 23 September 1997.

The Policy spells out very clearly what Governments role and response is to women and development issues. It places responsibility on a number of key government departments to better plan its policies and programs so that the impact of women is considered before such activities are implemented. A specific role for the Women's Division is also identified, in relation to the role of the National Council of Women.

Department of Health undated Papua New Guinea: National Health Plan, Volume One, 1996-2000.

The National Health Plan was prepared in a context of lack of improvement, and in some cases, deterioration of health status in PNG. Volume One is the first in a (promised) series and describes national health policies, goals and objectives. Five key national priorities are chosen from recommendations made by a Ministerial Advisory Committee; they are to: increase services to the rural majority; expand health promotion and preventive services; reorganise and restructure the national health system; develop staff professional, technical and management skills; and upgrade and maintain investment in health infrastructure. Although topics generally regarded as specific to women are discussed (eg family planning) there is little attention to gender-related issues.

Government of Papua New Guinea and United Nations System 1996 Country Strategy Note 1997-2001 "Sustainable Human Development: Integrating Economic, Social and Environmental Development in Papua New Guinea" Final Draft for Submission to NEC.

The Country Strategy Note helps focus United Nations (UN) areas of support towards the nation's most pressing national priorities where UN agencies have a comparative advantage, permitting enhanced coordination between UN agencies and other actors in international development.

Kekedo, Rose 1985 'The Role of the Department of Community and Family Services in Women's Advancement" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby

Assesses the role of this government department from Independence to 1982, noting that its division for women's services raised the status of women but lacked the necessary people to plan and implement programs. When abolished in 1982 its functions were shifted to the new Office of Youth, Women, Religion and Recreation where it was even more poorly resourced.

King, Peter, Lee, Wendy and Warakai, Vincent (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Papers from the 1982 Waigani Seminar which aimed to begin national self-evaluation. In the Introduction, the editors ask whether the National Aims are in conflict with 'development' as popularly desired. The women and development section of the seminar tried to assess progress on the seventh point of the Eight Point Plan and saw that talk of equal development was accompanied by increasing differentials of power and wealth. The authors saw this as the first expression by PNG women of their grievances and needs and the first time PNG women, so written about, articulated their reality themselves.

Loko, Margaret 1995 Post-Beijing Declaration for Action on the Development of Women 22 November, 1995 Inservice College, Port Moresby

The attendees at the Joint Government/Non Government Organisation Post Beijing Conference signed this statement to reaffirm support for the development of PNG women, calling for immediate action in partnership with NGOs on priorities for improving the status of women between 1995-2005. Specific proposals are made in the areas of access to economic resources, establishment of an Office of Status of women, Foundation for Equality, Development and Peace, mainstreaming gender and improving women's political participation.

Mandie, Angela 1985 "Institutional and Ideological Control of Gender in a Transitional Society" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Considers the role of women in development and obstacles to their participation and concludes that this will advance if the government removes obstacles and reforms institutions so that men will accept women as co-workers.

Mowbray, David 1993 "Limits to Papua New Guinea's Population Growth--A Critical Review of the National Population Policy--Papua New Guinea, and Its Environmental Implications" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar 16-22 June 1991 Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Notes that issues relating to ecological context of PNG population size are not addressed in the National Population Policy and proposes that research into carrying capacity of regions be carried out.

National Steering Committee, Beijing Conference 1995 Papua New Guinea--Country Report: United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women Beijing September 4-15, 1995 Department of Home Affairs, Port Moresby.

A detailed examination of the progress in achieving improvements for women in nine critical areas in the decade since 1985 to be presented at Beijing. Statistics and studies indicate that little progress has been made in some areas. Political participation, women in development, legal instruments, poverty, economic participation, health, education, employment, violence against women, effects of militarism on women.

O'Collins, Maev 1993 Social Development in Papua New Guinea 1972-1990: Searching for Solutions in a Changing World, Department of Political and Social Change, ANU, Canberra.

Chapter 23, Women and Youth: groups with special needs? looks at recent policy and planning issues in PNG relating to youth and women to discern success at integrating them into development and argues the importance of integration.

Ritterbush, S. Deacon and Pearson, Janice 1988 "Pacific Women in Business: Constraints and Opportunities" in Te'o I.J. Fairburn 1988 Island Entrepreneurs--Problems and Performances in the Pacific Pacific Islands Development Program, East-West Center.

Women are still ignored in national development programs and encounter restraints in both policy-related and traditional spheres. Women with strong networks both in and outside their states, and those with supportive spouses, are more likely to succeed.

Samana, Fungke Z. 1989 "Establishing a National Machinery for Women's Development in Papua New Guinea" in Vanessa Griffen (ed) 1989 Women, Development and Empowerment-A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop Naboutini, Fiji 23-26 March, 1987 Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Decision by PNG women's conference in 1975 to set up Provincial Councils of Women to support the National Council. Grass roots, village women were excluded due to illiteracy and isolation. Some key women's groups, including church networks, were excluded from the National Council of Women. Funding rarely got to women in interior areas. Provincial governments withdrew funding from the NCW and in 1986 it collapsed. NCWs were more successful in some other Pacific countries.

HEALTH

Alto, William A, Albu, Ruth E and Irabo, Garabinu 1993 "An Alternative to Unattended Delivery--A Training Program for Village Midwives in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

Several language groups in PNG lack the tradition of indigenous birth attendants due to fear of blood contamination (eg. Angal, Heneng). Notes that women avoid health clinics if they are more than one hour's walk, if they care for traditional gardens, if clinics are staffed by men--leading to re-instigation of a midwife training project in 1986. Mortality rates of infants and childbearing women have improved since the onset of the program.

Avalos, Beatrice 1994 Women and Development in Papua New Guinea, Economic Division Working Papers, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, 1994.

This paper provides a comprehensive overview of gender differentials in health, education, employment and participation in decision-making. It discusses current initiatives to improve gender equity and women's participation in and benefit from development, and suggests possibilities for the future.

Avalos, Beatrice 1995 "Women and Development" pp 73-83 in Pacific Economic Bulletin Vol 10, No 1, July 1995.

The author concludes that the PNG approach to WID has been welfare, rather than equality oriented and in the light of gender differentials in health, education, employment and decision making, calls for renewed commitment from intellectuals, senior public servants and politicians to remove injustice and provide women with the support 'owed to them'.

Badcock, Jacqui 1988 "Women and Food and Nutrition in the Pacific" in South Pacific Commission 1988 Fourth Regional Conference of Pacific Women--Report of meeting, Suva, 17-23 September 1988.

The three main concerns for women's nutritional health are anaemia, obesity, diabetes and hypertension and breastfeeding. The author identifies some causes, many of which are related to changing lifestyles.

Biddulph, John 1993 "Priorities for Emerging Problems in Maternal Child Health in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG.

Notes that while infant mortality has fallen in PNG, maternal mortality remains among the highest in the world. Only 68% of women have used antenatal care, and the quality of services is not consistently good. A number of strategies to improve the situation are offered by this ex SSMO of Child Health in PNG.

Bukenya, Gilbert 1993 "Sanitation and Health in Urban Settlements of Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG.

One-third of PNG's urban population lacks access to potable water, proper disposal systems for human and other wastes, low standards of personal and domestic hygiene and intense crowding, with resulting plagues of rodents and insects. Children under 5 are most vulnerable to diseases such as typhoid, diarrhoea which result from faecal-oral diseases. Gonorrhoea is three times more *prevalent in settlements than in prosperous neighbourhoods, raising fears that AIDS may follow similar route. Coordinated effort and introduction of new technologies are recommended.

Counts, Dorothy Ayers 1984 "Revenge Suicide by Lusi Women: An Expression of Power" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984 Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press.

Presents suicide as a realistic and effective political strategy, its threat a deterrent to the use of coercive power against women.

Department of Health undated Papua New Guinea: National Health Plan, Volume One, 1996-2000.

The National Health Plan was prepared in a context of lack of improvement, and in some cases, deterioration of health status in PNG. Volume One is the first in a (promised) series and describes national health policies, goals and objectives. Five key national priorities are chosen from recommendations made by a Ministerial Advisory Committee; they are to: increase services to the rural majority; expand health promotion and preventive services; reorganise and restructure the national health system; develop staff professional, technical and management skills; and upgrade and maintain investment in health infrastructure. Although topics generally regarded as specific to women are discussed (eg family planning) there is little attention to gender-related issues

Dickson, Rumona 1993 "Proceedings of the National Strategy Meeting on the Health of Women in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

The meeting, attended by health and development specialists, most of them women, was held in conjunction with 1991 Waigani Seminar. It was noted that governments at provincial and national level lack political will to engage women as equal partners in development, that they are under-valued by the men in their families, that women do not, in general, support other women, and that PNG women often suffer low self-esteem. Lack of coordination in government, lack of expertise on gender issues, lack of leadership skills among women, language barriers, lack of basic necessities such as sanitation and clean water are as major obstacles to overcome.

Doiwa, Seb 1985 "Mental Health and Women Living in Urban Centres" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Waraki (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade UPNG, Port Moresby.

Urbanisation can add to stress levels of women in a situation where there are very poor services.

Eyford, Helgi 1993 "Healthy Men, Healthy Families: The Need for Personal Growth" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

There is no systematic research being done on men's development in PNG. Emphasis seems to be on women and children, with men portrayed as perpetrators of violence. Vision of healthy men which is culturally appropriate needs to be created for PNG. Sees judicious use of selected myths along with emotional education of boys at school as useful strategies.

Gena, Josephine 1993 "A Women's Training and Awareness Program on Women's Health, Women's Participation in Development and Networking and Communication" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

Gena was Assistant Secretary of the Women's Division in the Department of Home Affairs and Youth. Here she describes and evaluates projects set up by the Women's Division, which she believes increase ability to make the right choices about family life and family size.

Gillett, Joy E. 1990 The Health of Women in Papua New Guinea, Monograph series no 9, Institute of Medical Research, Papua New Guinea, Goroka, PNG.

The importance of PNG women's health is discussed, especially rural women's in a context where their needs are poorly understood and given low priority in the provision of services. Children's health needs are so great that services are unable to deal with their mothers. The health of women is the key to the health of children and families and to their contribution to the development of PNG. Actions to overcome some of these problems are proposed.

Hughes, Jenny and Dyke, Timothy 1993 "Barriers and Bridges to the Spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases among the Huli of Southern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG.

Numbers of people attending clinics for STDs doubled between 1987 and 1989 and then the clinic closed because it ran out of drugs. Extra-, rather than pre-, marital sex more significant, and blame placed upon women by men, as traditionally intercourse with women is considered polluting. Knowledge of risk factors is poor, particularly among women, and consequences of sterility considered dire in Huli society.

Jenkins, Carol 1996 Poverty, Nuiritionand Health Care in Papua New Guinea: A Case Study in Four Communities Report submitted to the World Bank, Washington.

Research was undertaken in two urban squatter communities, in two rural cash cropping communities and in a remote rural area where people subsisted on their own land. The author concludes that land ownership is insufficient to ensure good nutrition and health if access to services is poor and cash to pay for them is insufficient.

Johnson, Felix YAttah 1993 "A Study of Completed Suicide in the National Capital District and Central Province of Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds] 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Examines cases in 1986 and 1987; in first year, twice as many females as males killed themselves, while in following year, the situation was reversed. Concludes that suicide is common in PNG compared to other developing countries, usually due to interpersonal conflict with significant family members, and usually by hanging and poisoning. More research on this matter is recommended.

Marshall, L.B. (ed) 1985 Infant Care and Feeding in the South Pacific Gordon and Breach Science.

Presents a series of anthropological reports focusing on culture and feeding practices in Pacific Island nations, including PNG. Looks at nutrition from a paediatrician's viewpoint, at the effect of women's work and the contributions of anthropology and development research.

Murphy, Terence 1996 "Women in the Papua New Guinea Health System" in Development Bulletin No 36, Jan 1996.

The author sees women as a powerful force for positive change to ensure stability and productivity for the future. He details problems of running health clinics (isolation, theft, lack of resources) yet clinic staff, mostly women, continue to provide care for patients. Changing the status of women is seen to be difficult where men hold all the official power in law-making and enforcement. He sees women's education and family planning as two areas with potential to greatly benefit women.

Naraqi, Sirus 1993 "Life and Death: Facts and Figures, Myths and Fantasies" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Compares costs of training health workers at various levels from village health worker to specialists, and the costs of treatment of specific diseases, such as malaria compared to myocardial infections.

Piau-Lynch, Andonia 1993 "Family and Mental Health: Traditional Versus Modern Concepts of a Family" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

Asserts that just being modern is a source of much stress in families in PNG, that more education about basic human rights and family planning should be directed at men, that bride price be eradicated, that housing be made more widely available.

Reuben, Rachel 1993 "Women and Malaria--Special Risks and Appropriate Control Strategy" in Social Science and Medicine, Volume 37, No 4, pp 473-80.

Malaria seen as a disease of poverty to which pregnant, non-immune women are most vulnerable. Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for pregnant women in highrisk areas, but distribution is seen as a problem. Poor women weighed down by domestic chores don't often attend clinics and are likely to be missed in prevention/treatment programs.

Sairere, John 1993 "Women in Health and Development--Aupik Village, East Sepik Province" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Describes a participatory health research project involving women in a village where women's role has changed drastically although society still firmly patrilineal. The project has led to greater cooperation and coordination of activities among women, but this ceased with the election of a new (male) local government councillor who felt that his position was threatened by new women leaders. Problems about who 'owned' the project were major impediment to its acceptance.

Street, Margaret R. 1993 "Promoting Safe CMdbirth" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993: Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Proposes that no woman should deliver her child alone, that each should have three attendances and examinations at antenatal clinics, that 'at risk' women thus identified be attended by trained health worker and that each woman of childbearing age should have access to contraception and information.

Taylor, Richard, Lewis, Nancy and Levy, Sue 1993 "Societies in Transition: Mortality Patterns in Pacific Islands Populations" in International Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 18, No 3, September 1989, pp 634-646.

Using data from around 1980, although it is in some areas deficient, finds that in PNG, prenatal conditions are responsible for 10% of all deaths (cf 28%, due to infection) and that life expectancy is low, less than 60 years.

Thomason, Jane 1993 "The Implications of Uncontrolled Population Growth for the Provision of Rural Health Services" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

High levels of population growth combined with slow economic growth mean that there are insufficient public resources to satisfy public needs for health services. A multisectoral approach to the improvement of health, with due consideration of the status of women and education, will complement the necessary delivery of effective health services.

UNICEF 1994 Crisis in Paradise--The State of Papua New Guinea's Children PNG Department of Health.

Considers issues relating to PNG's children, including maternal and infant mortality, lack of access to safe water, malnutrition of children, poor coverage of immunisation programs and inadequate spending on education and calls for major efforts to address these problems.

WOMEN AND LAW

Aleck, Jonathan 1992 "The Village Court System of Papua New Guinea" in Research in Melanesia, Vol 16, pp. 101-128.

Useful article outlining the inherent bias in the village courts system against women. Includes case study material.

Banks, Cyndi 1993 Women in Transition--Social Control in Papua New Guinea Australian Studies in Law, Crime and Justice, Australian Institute of Criminology.

A study of social control in four cultural groups: Bena Bena, Arapesh, Tolai and Orokova, which concludes that systems of social control imposed under colonial rule and continued since Independence are inappropriate to PNG because they didn't take into account traditional values and systems of social control. Imported laws have provided mechanisms for partly freeing women from some of the extreme controls exercised over them through custom.

Borrey, Anna 1992 Ol Kalabus Meri--A Study of Female Prisoners in Papua New Guinea, Occasional Paper No 21, Law Reform Commission, Boroko.

This paper discusses the operation of PNG's prison system in relation to female detainees and concludes with suggestions for alternative means of treatment of women who break the law. Women are most frequently gaoled for violence related to sexual jealousy and domestic violence, incarcerated in prisons which follow the western model, with gender bias operating to make their position more difficult, eg their exclusion from agricultural projects of male prisoners.

Bradley, Christine 1988 "Some Thoughts on Education and Women's Legal Rights," pp 178195 in E. Wormald and A.Crossley (eds) 1988 Women and Education in Papua New Guinea and the South Pacific, UPNG Press, Port Moresby.

Noting that only a small number of highly educated women have knowledge of their legal rights, the author recommends that reliable, concrete and accessible information is needed to provide a basis for women's groups to educate and work for PNG women's human rights.

Craill, Sergeant Jane 1995 Report on Western South Pacific Policewomen's Forum held in Port Vila, Vanuatu, from 7-11 November 1994.

PNG, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji and Australia were represented. The major issue of concern was the disadvantage for women due to lack of EEO and anti-discrimination legislation; even policies agreed to are not enacted. Women form 35% of the Pacific police force, and are not entitled to the same conditions as men, eg housing.

Department of Corrective Institutions, ca.1991 A Report on the Prisons of Papua New Guinea 1963-1986. Port Moresby.

Report detailing prison system in PNG. Limited information on women as prisoners.

Department of the Attorney General Probation Service, Chief Probation Officer, 1992 Annual Report. Port Moresby.

Annual report contains general information with some relevant statistics.

Garap, Sarah 1997 "Struggles of Women and Girls: Experiences, Constraints, Cases and Plans of Action from Simbu Province" paper for Violence in Melanesia Workshop 11-12 December 1997.

Outlines issues of violence against women in Simbu province and how it affects the status of women. Describes the distortion of custom and customary law. Details case studies of women in village court cases.

Individual and Community Rights Advocacy Forum Inc. 1997 Justice and Freedom: An NGO Program for Human Rights, Gender Equality, Land Rights and Natural Resources for the 21st Century, University of Papua New Guinea, Waigani, 1997.

This NGO program developed in 1997 articulates essential components of a gender equality policy including equal participation, education, employment, family law, domestic and sexual violence against women, amendments to the Criminal Code Act, health and safety and equality in the legal system.

Mitchell, Barbara H. 1985 "Family Law in Village Courts: The Woman's Position" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Melanesian women are disadvantaged in village court system because most magistrates are men and customary marriage laws discriminate against women. Conflict between recognition of Melanesian family and equality of women.

Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary Development Project (undated) "Working Together for a Better Police Force in Papua New Guinea."

A brochure on policing, crimes and the project objectives.

MINING

Emberson-Bain, 'Atu 1994 "De-romancing the Stones: Gender, Environment and Mining in the Pacific" in 'Atu Emberson-Bain (ed) 1994 Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

Describes mining in the Pacific as destructive, unsustainable and increasing dependency upon international capital, using up agricultural land. Notes that effects are most severe at household level, but that there is a lack of gender analysis in studies on social impact of mining.

Gerritson, Rolf and Mclntyre, Martha 1991 "Dilemmas of Distribution: The Misima Gold Mine, Papua New Guinea" in Connell, John and Richard Howitt (eds) 1991 Mining and Indigenous Peoples in Australasia, Sydney University Press.

Notes the social effects, particularly in regard to violence against women, since the development of the mine.

Robinson, Kathy, 1996 "Women, Mining and Development" in Richard Howitt, John Connell and Philp Hirsch (eds) Resources, Nations and Indigenous Peoples, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Theoretical survey of gender relations, sexuality and the impact of large multinational mining operations on women in traditional settings.

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION

Bonnell, Suzanne 1985 "Equal Participation by Women: The Role of Women's Councils at National and Provincial Level" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby.

Argues for strengthening of women's councils to ensure women's viewpoints are expressed in a country with almost no female parliamentarians.

Delkin, Tony, 1992 "Culture and Democracy in Papua New Guinea; Marit Tru or Giaman Marit?" in Ron Crocombe, et al (eds) Culture and Democracy in the South Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva.

Survey of women and political development, focussing on PNG.

Griffen, Vanessa 1989 "Women, Development and Empowerment Strategies" in Vanessa Griffen (ed) 1989: Women, Development and Empowerment--A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop, Naboutini, Fiji 1987 Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Defines power and considers how to add to women's power in society. Identifies the health system as an area where women's participation can improve services. Women's organisations need to examine their own structures, to create working groups at the level where they are most effective and organise in ways which encourage power-sharing. Proposes strategic use of women's resources to ensure that expenditure helps women and girls. Strategic support of other struggles for social change, to strengthen movements against unequal power relations in the Pacific. The article is followed by strategies to achieve the vision (see Griffen, Arlene 1987, above).

Josephides, Lisette 1985 "Bulldozers and Kings or Talk, Name, Group and Land: A Kewa Political Palindrome" in Maeve O'Collins et al 1985 Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change, ANU Canberra.

Argues that political subordination has an economic base. Where women do not own land, and leave, upon marriage for their partner's land, women's power is reduced. Women see politics as men's domain.

Macintyre, Martha 1985 "Women and Local Politics in Tube Tube, Milne Bay Province" in. Maeve O'Collins et al 1985 Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change ANU, Canberra.

Women are removed from a role of leadership as local politics increasingly become state politics.

O'Collins, Maev 1985 "Women and Politics in Papua New Guinea: External Influences and Internal Constraints" in Maev O'Collins et al 1985 Women in Politics in Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change, RSPAS, ANU, Canberra. Women's roles in PNG politics low at provincial and national level, and decreasing at the local level, constrained by traditional attitudes towards leadership.

Preston, Rosemary 1987 "Hidden and Open Agendas: Social Policy Issues in the 1987 Election" in Michael Oliver (ed) 1987 Eleksin--The 1987 National Election in Papua New Guinea, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Local commitments were emphasised in order to gain votes and a wide range of issues were ignored.

Rooney, Nahau 1985 "Women and National Politics in Papua New Guinea" in Maev O'Collins et al 1985 Women m Politics in Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 6, Department of Political and Social Change ANU, Canberra.

Women are the main source of labour but have little political representation. The author was a member of parliament and she looks at her life and those of two other elected women as indicative of the problems faced by PNG women in political participation.

Sepoe, Orovu 1994 "How Democratic Is Our Democracy? Women and Politics in Papua New Guinea" in 'Atu Emberson-Bain (ed) 1994 Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

In PNG, women's integration into the political domain has yet to occur due to lack of resources and membership of a political culture. Analyses the 1992 election from point of view of women's participation and success and notes that few elite women are conscious of the gender gap. Relatively high education is seen as prerequisite to political participation.

Turner, Mark 1987 "Gender, Age and Education of Candidates and Members" in Michael Oliver (ed) 1987 Eleksin-The 1987National Election inPapuaNew Guinea, UPNG, Port Moresby, Port Moresby.

Notes that only 1.3%, of candidates, numbering 19, were women, seven of whom gained party endorsement. No female candidates were elected. Education levels of candidates were higher at this than at previous elections.

vom Busch, Werner, et al (eds) 1994 New Politics in the South Pacific, Institute of Pacific Studies, Suva.

Includes a special "Women in Politics" section, containing an introduction and two essays by Jean Drage, Women's representation in the Pacific Islands, and Marjorie Crocombe on Polynesia.

Wormald, Eileen 1987 "Women Candidates in the Election" in Michael Oliver (ed) 1987 Eleksin--The 1987 National Election in Papua New Guinea, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

The total of 41 women who contested national elections up to 1987 faced considerable resistance in the light of strong belief of the gendered role of women. Candidates in 1987 were community leaders and businesswomen capable of participating actively in the decision-making process. Neither of the major parties show commitment to their policies on women. More success may be available to women at provincial level with direct support from women's groups. Obstacles to overcome are their position in PNG culture and their own ambivalence about entry into political structures.

POPULATION AND FAMILY PLANNING

Ahlburg, Dennis A. 1987 Is Population Growth a Deterrent to Development in the South Pacific? Islands/Australian Working Paper No 87/6, NCDS, ANU.

Notes that increased population is accompanied by lower quality of life and decreased life expectancy and increased infant mortality, not necessarily causally related. A shift of resources into developing skills and reforming institutions such as land ownership and balancing family planning with investment in people is proposed.

Bakker, M.L. 1996 The Integration of Population Factors into Development Planning in Papua New Guinea UNFPA/ILO Project PNG/94/P01 Port Moresby, PNG, September 1996.

This status report outlines the historical development of the National Population Policy from pre-independence to today. It focuses on demographic trends and population projections. In reviewing the policy it also considers the institutional framework for the implementation of the document in a provincial and national context.

Chung, Margaret 1993 "Population and Sustainable Development in Pacific Island Countries," prepared for the Fourth Pacific Island Conference of Leaders, Tahiti, June 24-26, 1993.

Suggests that the juncture of growing populations, concentration of economic activity, along with poorly planned development, weak urban government and overtaxed urban services is a threat to sustainable development in many Pacific countries. Fertility decline will be more likely to occur if women have higher status, better access to education, and paid work and family planning services.

Department of Finance and Planning, 1991 An Integrated National Population Policy for Progress and Development.

The national population policy identified goals and objectives, strategies for implementation of the policy, and the identification of population data collection issues. It also identified the implications of population on health, education, family planning and fertility regulation, the role and status of youth and children, training and research. An appendix articulates the broad roles of implementation agencies

Gena, Josephine 1993 "A Women's Training and Awareness Program on Women's Health, Women's Participation in Development and Networking and Communication" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991 Volume 2, UPNG.

Gena was Assistant Secretary of the Women's Division in the Department of Home Affairs and Youth. Here she describes and evaluates projects set up by the Women's Division, which she believes increase ability to make the right choices about family life and family size.

Griffen, Vanessa 1994 "Women, Development and Population: A Critique of the Port Vila Declaration" in 'Atu Emberson-Bain (ed) 1994 Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

The Port Vila Declaration was presented as the official Pacific position for the ICPD in 1994. Here it is analysed as a political text with implications for the reproductive health and population programs which affect women. Notes concentration upon family planning and token mention of women's empowerment, the concentration upon women while ignoring men's reproductive health and behaviour, and lack of mention of gender violence.

Hayes, Geoffrey 1996 Estimates of Mortality in Papua New Guinea Based on the 1990 Census and the 1991 Demographic andHealth Survey UNFPA/ILO Project PNG/94/P01 Integration of Population Factors into Development Planning, Port Moresby, PNG July 1996.

A technical paper, this outlines and analyses demographic information from the 1990 census and 1991 DHS data, including infant and child mortality, adult mortality and crude death rates.

Ivarature, Henry (compiler) 1996 Population and Family Planning in Papua New Guinea, 19751995: A Bibliography, National Planning Office, PNG, 1996.

Provides a bibliographic database as a guide for intending researchers in the fields of population studies and family planning.

Jenkins, Carol et al 1994 National Study of Sexual and Reproductive Knowledge and Behaviour in Papua New Guinea PNG Institute of Medical Research Monograph No 10, Goroka, PNG.

A study conducted to increase knowledge of cultural differences in sexual and reproductive knowledge and behaviour with the aim of reducing transmission of STDs.

Klufio, Cecil A. 1993 "Family Planning and Family Health" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Argues that family planning reduces maternal and infant deaths. One thousand PNG women are estimated to die in pregnancy or childbirth, due to: poor health (malaria, malnutrition, hookworm, anaemia, too-frequent pregnancies), low educational and social status, inadequate/inaccessible health services and dangerous reproductive health behaviour.

McMurray, Christine and Lucas, David 1990 Fertility and Family Planning in the South Pacific, Islands/Australian Working Paper No 90/10, NCDS, ANU, Canberra.

The discussion of PNG indicates poor quality of pre 1990 census data. Low prevalence of modern contraception and adherence to traditional beliefs have slowed down fertility decline.

Mowbray, David 1993 "Limits to Papua New Guinea's Population Growth--A Critical Review of the National Population Policy--Papua New Guinea, and Its Environmental Implications" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Notes that issues relating to ecological context of PNG population size are not addressed in the National Population Policy and proposes that research into carrying capacity of regions be carried out.

Nakikus, Margaret 1993 "Keynote Address to the National Strategy Meeting on the Health of Women in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Notes that fewer than 3% of women use modern contraception and that many cases of maternal and infant mortality, STDs, violence are never reported. Reports on preparatory work to identify key areas of discussion. These are expounded upon in the Proceedings (see Dickson 1993, above).

National Statistical Office 1993 "Population Trends in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Provides a historical overview of population trends in Papua and New Guinea since population statistics have been available and notes that natural increase of population is higher in rural than in urban areas.

Papua New Guinea 1995 People Count A Summary of the 1990 Population and Housing Census in Papua New Guinea National Statistical Office, United Nations Population Fund, Port Moresby.

The census, conducted 9-13 July 1990, found that 3,607,954 lived in PNG, excluding North Solomons Province (Bougainville). Population growth is considered high at 2.5% each year; 85% of the population lives in rural areas. Most people over 30 are married, though divorce rates have doubled since 1966. 97% of the population describes itself as Christian; 35% of these as Catholic. 40% of females and 50% of males are literate. Unemployment is rising, particularly among the young.

Piller, Andrew 1993 "Social Marketing of Contraceptives in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Lack of access to contraception led to PNG government seeking assistance from USAID's social marketing of contraception through The Futures Group, a private company. Research into appropriate strategies to launch Protector condoms and Mycrogynon low dose pills PNG government has provided appropriate legislative environment.

Pust, R.E., Newman, J.S., Senf, J. and Stotik. E. "Factors Affecting Family Size among Preliterate Papua New Guinea Mothers" in International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol 23, No 5, October 1985, pp 413-420.

Reports findings of a survey of Enga mothers in PNG about number of births needed to reach desired family size, infant and child mortality, amount of interest in and sources of information about family planning.

Sialis, Dr. Levi 1993 "Keynote Speech on Family Planning, Family Health, Health and Development" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Identifies need for research into traditional methods (which are breaking down) of family planning; conflict of interest between partners when women desire fewer children than men; alarm at rapid population growth; and wider availability of Pill and Depo Provera than other methods. Suggests reducing levels of fertility, by limiting women's fertile period, increasing male role in family planning and improvements in primary health services.

Sukwianomb, Joseph 1993 "Strengthening Family Planning Programmes in the South Pacific" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Author is secretary-general of South Pacific Alliance for Family Health, which provides technical and financial assistance to member country organisations, and proposes grass roots involvement in family planning, involving the private sector, motivating men and increasing government support.

Tucker, G.S. 1993 "Vasectomy as a Method of Family Planning in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Author has found vasectomy to be an acceptable method of family planning in Balimo area, with many men now requesting the operation, and medical staff recommending it after four children. Believes family planning clinic staff as well as clients, need to be educated in the viability of the method.

Thomason, Jane 1993 "The Implications of Uncontrolled Population Growth for the Provision of Rural Health Services" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

High levels of population growth combined with slow economic growth mean that there are insufficient public resources to satisfy public needs for health services. A multisectoral approach to the improvement of health, with due consideration of the status of women and education, will complement the necessary delivery of effective health services.

Taylor, Richard 1993 "Mortality in Pacific Island Countries Circa 1980 in Relation to Socioeconomic, Demographic, Health Service and Other Variables" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993 Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 1, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby. PNG

Found to have lower life expectancies than would be expected from GDP, due to unequal distribution of income, and disparities between economic and social development. Education proved to be a positive predictor for life expectancy and a negative predictor of mortality rates, particularly for women and infants. Melanesian ethnicity proved to be prominent indicator of high mortality, especially for females; contributors to this situation are malaria, socioeconomic status and distance from service centres.

Underhill-Sem, Yvonne 1994 "Blame It All on Population: Perceptions, Statistics and Reality in the Population Debate in the Pacific" in 'Atu Emberson-Bain (ed) 1994 Sustainable Development or Malignant Growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island Women, Marama Publications, Suva.

Questions simplified assumptions about the linkages between population, environment and economic growth in the Pacific and suggests that detailed studies, drawing on the insights of all social sciences, be conducted into past and current demographic behaviour.

UNFPA 1997 UniiedNationsPopuLamnFundinPapuaNew Guinea UNFPA PNG Field Office, 1997.

Information on UNFPA in PNG and the projects being support and PNG's demographic situation and the issues to be faced.

STATISTICAL DATA

Booth, Heather 1991 Papua New Guinea: A Statistical Profile on Men and Women, prepared for the UNDP/UNIFEM Pacific Malnstreaming Project.

A comprehensive set of statistics covering: labour force, migration, economic sector, social and community development, education, health and women's affairs. The author concludes that data on women's participation in the economic sector are less than adequate, leading to their exclusion altogether from many studies, including agriculture, where their work is so important.

Gibson John 1996c Baseline Poverty Estimates for Urban Areas of Papua New Guinea, Working Paper No 3, October 1996, Institute of National Affairs, PNG.

A detailed methodology and extrapolations from the Household Survey to gain a set of poverty lines for areas surveyed which can be used to make comparisons between areas and households, but not persons within households.

Gibson, John 1996a Testing for Boy-Girl Discrimination with Household Expenditure Data: Results for Urban Households, Working Paper No 1, August 1996.

By measuring the reduction of household expenditure on adult items after the birth of a child, it is discovered that such expenditure falls after the birth of a boy but remains substantially the same after the birth of a girl. More girls than boys were found to be underweight, so author concludes that there is evidence of parental preference for boys.

Gibson, John 1997 "The Household Survey Component of the Papua New Guinea Poverty Assessment," paper presented to Seminar on Poverty Assessment in Papua New Guinea, held in Port Moresby 27-28 February, 1997.

Data are collected from rural and urban households relating to nutrition, access to water, educational levels and literacy, and correlated. An additional year of education for women was considered to have six times more effect on the length of children than an additional year for men.

Gibson, John and Rozelle, Scott 1997 "Results of the Household Survey Component of the 1996 Poverty Assessment for Papua New Guinea" paper presented to Seminar on Poverty Assessment in Papua New Guinea, held in Port Moresby 27-28 February, 1997.

Detailed analysis and methodology of the Household Survey Component (see Gibson 1997a).

Kivung, Peri, Doiwa, Maria and Cox, Susan "Women and Crime: Women and Violence" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Two lawyers in the Public Solicitor's Office look at crime statistics involving women as perpetrators and victims between 1979 and 1982. The paper believes the problem of women and violence should be given national priority.

Kopkop, Maria 1992 Country Report: Papua New Guinea--Status of Women 1992, presented at the Seminar on Improving the Status of Women, Tokyo, September/October 1992.

This report compiles statistics and other evidence to present a picture of women's position in PNG, covering the areas of tradition, education and literacy, agriculture, industry and business, health and family planning and approaches used by government to raise the status of women in each of these areas and in economic and political terms generally.

Morauta, Louise 1985 "Women in Households in Papua New Guinea" in Women in Development in the South Pacific: Barriers and Opportunities published report of the Conference on Women in Development in the South Pacific, 11-14 August 1984, Port Vila, Australian National University, Canberra.

Discusses women's role in rural and urban households in PNG.

Papua New Guinea 1995 People Count: A Summary of the 1990 Population and Housing Census in Papua New Guinea National Statistical Office, United Nations Population Fund, Port Moresby.

The census, conducted 9-13 July 1990, found that 3,607,954 lived in PNG, excluding North Solomons Province (Bougainville). Population growth is considered high at 2.5% each year; 85% of the population lives in rural areas. Most people over 30 are married, though divorce rates have doubled since 1966. 97% of the population describes itself as Christian; 35% of these as Catholic. 40% of females and 50% of males are literate. Unemployment is rising, particularly among the young.

Rofeta, John et al 1994: Pacific Human Development Report, UNDP, Suva.

Presents a wide range of social and economic indicators for assessing sustainable human development. Argues for broadening of development agenda beyond economic growth. Notes that improving education and health and status of women is a major objective of the Pacific development strategy.

South Pacific Commission 1987 Workshop on Socio-Economic Statistics on Women--Report of workshop, Noumea, New Caledonia, SPC 16-19 February 1987.

Contains a summary of the meeting which was part of a joint project of the Pacific Women's Bureau and the Population Programme to survey and review data collecting systems in the region with the view to improve data on women. Reports on a background paper for the workshop which included five country case studies of socioeconomic statistics on women. Presents a detailed list of the recommendations emerging from the workshop.

STATUS OF WOMEN

Cleland, Rachel 1996 Grass Roots to Independence and Beyond: The Contribution by Women to PapuaNew Guinea 1951-1991, Dame Rachel Cleland, Claremont, Australia.

An insight into the life and times of women in a developing territory. Case studies of various women's NGOs including the girl guides and the YWCA. Also profiles individual women and the pioneering work they have done in various fields.

Cox, Elizabeth 1994 "Gender Sensitive Approaches to the Identification and Alleviation of Poverty in Papua New Guinea" in Noeleen Heyzer and Gita Sen (eds) 1994 Gender, Economic Growth and Poverty Market Growth and State Planning in Asia and the Pacific, Kali for Women, International Books and Asian and Pacific Development Centre, New Delhi.

Emphasis on export-oriented growth has led development in PNG, taking role of women, the environment and social cohesion of local communities, for granted. Such development brings short-lived gains to some people, excludes the participation of women and results in poverty and powerlessness for many. Carefully planned and coordinated application of the new PNG Women's Policy, the building of planning processes, sensitive to gender, class and environment, and increasing the opportunity for women's networks to work together and with government is proposed.

Cox, Elizabeth and Aitsi, Louise 1988 "Papua New Guinea" in Taiamoni Tongamoa (ed) 1988 Pacific Women: Roles and Status of Women in Pacific Societies, UPNG, Port Moresby.

A succinct outline of women's status and roles in PNG over a wide range of issues with the general observation that women's contribution to development continues to be overlooked.

Cox, Elizabeth and Daure, M. (eds) 1991 Changes, Challenges and Choices: Women in Development in Papua New Guinea--Issues and Information, The National Women's Training Package on Women's Health, Changing Family Life and Participation in Development, Women's Division of the Department of Home Affairs and Youth.

The book is a guide for women development workers to use in training, education and 'the implementation of good development'. The three main topics are: women's health, women's participation in development, communication and networking education, training.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy 1993 "Women's Status in the South Pacific," a paper prepared for ESCAP, Bangkok Office.

This document details the natural structures, policies and action plans of Pacific countries implementation of the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for Women. It then identifies measures of women's status through health, education, political participation, employment, macro economic policies, law and violence against women. Specific issues for migrant, elderly and disabled women are documented.

Filer, Colin 1993 "Working Paper on Social Impact and Gender Equity Issues in the Renewable Resources Sector" Report to the PNG Department of Finance and Planning and the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau, Final Draft, September 1993, PNG--Australia Development Cooperation Program.

Cross-sectoral analysis of social impacts including gender equity (women in development), youth and age-related issues and community participation. Identifies that government policy is unlikely to produce more gender-sensitive processes unless relationships between men and women are discussed, with sensitivity to traditional cultural forms.

Gopal, Gita 1992 "Women and Development in Papua New Guinea" paper produced for World Bank, East Asia and the Pacific Region, Washington, D.C.

A succinct report based upon a desk study which identifies the obstacles to and contribution of women's participation in development. Individual project intervention without changes to the regulatory framework is considered inadequate. Several areas where the WB could improve women's situations are identified: increasing access to and control over income, land policy, forestry projects, collection of gender-differentiated data, education and training, involving women's NGOs and evaluating the impacts of projects on women.

Josephides, Lisette 1985 The Production of Inequality--Gender and Exchange among the Kewa, Tavistock, London.

Attempts to locate the sources of inequality and to understand how they are engendered and perpetuated within social practice through an examination of production, exchange and gender relations and the way they are socially validated among the Kewa people of the New Guinea Highlands. The author concludes that increased participation in the cash economy will increase inequalities and establish new status groups.

Kopkop, Maria 1992 Country Report: PapuaNew Guinea--Status of Women 1992, presented at the Seminar on Improving the Status of Women, Tokyo, September/October 1992.

This report compiles statistics and other evidence to present a picture of women's position in PNG, covering the areas of tradition, education and literacy, agriculture, industry and business, health and family planning and approaches used by government to raise the status of women in each of these areas and in economic and political terms generally.

Kopkop, Maria 1993 'The Status of Women in Papua New Guinea" in Tukutau Taufa and Caroline Bass (eds) 1993: Population, Family Health and Development, papers from the 19th Waigani Seminar, 16-22 June 1991, Volume 2, UPNG.

At the time President of the National Council of Women, the author notes that women and children are still seen as welfare problems dependent upon the economy. The NCW is concentrating upon the strengthening of networks.

Laura, Sharon 1995 "Women Speak" a two-part documentary on the women of Bougainville, broadcast on Indian Pacific, ABC National Radio, March 25 and April 1 1995, transcribed by Nikki Burns, IWDA, Melbourne.

Bougainville women talk about the effects of conflict in Bougainville on women's lives and their desire for peace.

Lepowsky, Maria 1993 Fruit of the Motherland--Gender in an Egalitarian Society, Columbia University, New York.

Based on residency 1977-79, 1981 and 1987, describes the society of Vanatinai, a small remote island south-east of PNG which challenges the concept of male dominance and contests the assumption that the subjugation of women is inevitable. Overlap of male and female roles, abhorrence of violence, shared political power and exchange activity in which both sexes participate characterise gender relations. Low population density, lack of ascribed status and a conscious decision to retain key cultural practices are the basis for the dynamic continuous competition for status and influence through ceremonial contributions to the community at large.

Loko, Margaret 1995 Post-Beijing Declaration for Action on the Development of Women, 22 November, 1995, Inservice College, Port Moresby.

The attendees at the Joint Government/Non Government Organisation Post Beijing Conference signed this statement to reaffirm support for the development of PNG women, calling for immediate action in partnership with NGOs on priorities for improving the status of women between 1995-2005. Specific proposals are made in the areas of access to economic resources, establishment of an Office of Status of women, Foundation for Equality, Development and Peace, mainstreaming gender and improving women's political participation.

Nakikus, Margaret 1985 "Planning for Women's Advancement in Papua New Guinea" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Waraki (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Nakikus claims that the early welfare approach to women has changed to one where their needs are considered in the planning process and suggests women get involved in traditionally male activities such as cash cropping and advance their interests through existing institutions. Calls for a national policy on women.

Nakikus, Margaret, Andrew, Marjorie, Mandie-Filer, Angela and Brown, Bungtabu 1991 Papua New Guinea: Women in Development Sector Review, August 1991, UNDP.

Four provinces selected for review: Eastern Highlands; Morobe; East New Britain; and East Sepik. Report recommends that Government of PNG adapt existing programs and change its approach, and involve women as participants and beneficiaries of development in all spheres of activity. Women's Divisions and women's organisations recommended as coordinators of all training initiatives to enhance women's participation in development. Agriculture and fisheries; industry and business; education and literacy; health and family planning.

O'Brien, Denise and Tiffany, Sharon W. (eds) 1984 Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press, Berkeley.

A collection of papers about women in Melanesia presented at meetings of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania. The authors note the importance of work to notions of identity and personhood and to relations of differential control and status. Relevant papers are referred to by author.

Poole, Fitz John P., Herdt, Gilbert 1982 "Sexual Antagonism, Gender, and Social Change in Papua New Guinea," Journal of Cultural and Social Practice, Adelaide, December 1982.

Although quite dated this contains seminal work in gender analysis in PNG from an anthropological perspective. The case studies investigate gender relations in specific contexts, however it is one of the first collections of gender (as opposed to women) analysis.

South Pacific Commission 1988 "Fourth Regional Conference of Pacific Women"--Report of meeting, Suva, 17-23 September 1988.

A report of biennial gathering of Pacific women, with workshops on Pacific Women's Resource Bureau, development, appropriate technology, employment and self-employment, women as decision-makers, women and the law, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, women in environmental education, education, networking and communication. Relevant reports are listed by author.

South Pacific Commission 1989 "Interagency Meeting on Training for Women," Suva July 31-August 2, 1989.

The meeting was held to strengthen women's training programs in the Pacific, with emphasis on training in family life, parental education, family break-ups and alcohol-related problems.

South Pacific Commission 1991 Report of Fifth Regional Conference of Pacific Women, held in Agana, Guam, 2-5 December 1991, SPC, Noumea.

Attended by 400 women from the Pacific region with the aim of providing the PWRB and women in the region the opportunity to evaluate progress over the previous three years. Action plans were devised to address health and development needs of women over the next three years.

South Pacific Commission 1994 "Gender Sensitisation," Report of workshop for SPC staff, December 8-10, 1993, Noumea.

A training session to provide development workers with a basic framework for gender analysis.

Strathern, Marilyn 1984 "Domesticity and the Denigration of Women" in Denise O'Brien and Sharon W. Tiffany (eds) 1984 Rethinking Women's Roles--Perspectives from the Pacific, University of California Press.

Argues that Hagen women are full persons through a division of labour between spouses which emphasises mutuality and that women's association with the domestic domain gives a particular value to femaleness.

Turner, Ann 1993 Views from Interviews:--The Changing Role of Women in Papua New Guinea, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

In interviews with six women, the author shows that women in PNG are not all confined to household and village activities.

UNFPA 1996 PJVG Role Models--Successful Women in Their Own Right, UNFPA PNG Field Office, March 1996, PNG.

A collection of role model stories on PNG women.

Yeates, Donald Bruce 1987 "Women as Unequal Partners in Development: An Introduction" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987 The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development, Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Outlines the papers in this volume (see above, under individual authors). Notes that while polices are formulated to protect women and involve them in develop merit, questions of implementation and assessment are yet to be addressed and recommends further research and analysis of practice.

VIOLENCE

Borrey, Anou 1997 "Sex? Gender? Violence?" paper for Violence in Melanesia Workshop 1112 December 1997.

Discusses AusAID baseline study on NGO work on addressing violence against women and children. Mentions work of Carol Jenkins and her statement that 'rough sex is considered desirable by both genders in PNG.

Bradley, Christine 1985 "Attitudes and Practices Relating to Marital Violence Among the Tolai of East New Britain" in Toft, Susan (ed) 1985 Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission of PNG, Monography No 3, PNGLRC.

With decline in traditional lineages, the nuclear family has become the most important social unit in a society where all the sources of power are in the hands of men. Traditional opportunities for externalising aggression have declined but domestic violence has risen. Payment for bride price legitimates men's desire to control their wives. Family planning is suggested to reduce wife-beating because larger families are worse off.

Bradley, Christine 1994 "Why Male Violence against Women is a Development Issue: Reflections from Papua New Guinea" in Miranda Davies (ed) 1994 Women and Violence--Realities and Responses Worldwide, Zed Books, UK.

The author was Principal Project Officer for the PNG Law Commission, running a national program on violence against women. Her research indicates that most women have experienced wife beating as a normal part of married life. Inappropriate development strategies have exacerbated this practice. Arguments as to whether this is a 'private' affair or whether indeed it is a development issue at all. An international information exchange and support network urgently needed to link developing countries and programs to eliminate violence aimed at men as well as women.

Bradley, Christine and Deutrom, Brian 1990 Let's Talk it Over, Women and Law Committee.

This comic book presents, in simplified form, gender-related issues pertinent to the lives of village PNG women. It uses a case study of a domestic violence situation.

Chowning, Ann 1995 "Women and Violence: The Context of Wife-Beating in a West New Britain Society" in Toft, Susan (ed) 1985 Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission of PNG, Monography No 3, PNGLRC.

Wife-beating is common in Kove where major causes are sexual jealousy and men's desire to obtain shell money by putting pressure on women. Women are seen to provoke aggression by insulting and independent behaviour, encouraged in them as children. Legislation alone is unlikely to alter their situation.

De Roeck, Denise 1988 "Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the Pacific: The Impact on Women" in South Pacific Commission 1988: Fourth Regional Conference of Pacific Women--Report of meeting, Suva, 17-23 September 1988.

Alcohol abuse a problem mainly of men but results in increased violence on women, family break up, loss of jobs and less household funds for food and other needs. Measures are proposed to reduce the extent of the problem.

Dinnen, Sinclair 1993 "Big Men, Small Men and Invisible Women--Urban Crime and Inequality in Papua New Guinea," in Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Vol 26, No 1, March 1993, pp 19-34.

Broader structural inequalities of recent origin may be a primary cause of contemporary urban criminality in PNG.

Garap, Sarah 1997 "Struggles of Women and Girls: Experiences, Constraints, Cases and Plans of Action from Simbu Province," paper for Violence in Melanesia Workshop 11-12 December 1997, pp. 10.

Outlines issues of violence against women in Simbu province and how it affects the status of women. Describes the distortion of custom and customary law. Details case studies of women in village court cases.

Griffen, Arlene and Souder-Jaffery, Laura 1989 "Defining Pacific Feminism" in Vanessa Griffen (ed) 1989: Women, Development and Empowerment--A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop, Naboutini, Fiji, 23-26 March, 1987, Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

In the final discussions on feminism, areas covered were: the family, violence in the family, education, religion, tradition, the economy, the environment and women's power. 'Our Vision' pp 111-115 is the product of these discussions.

Josephides, Lisette 1985 "The Politics of Violence in Kewa Society (Southern Highlands)" in Susan Toft (ed) 1985: Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission of PNG, Monography No 3, PNG Law Reform Commission, Port Moresby.

Found no evidence that violence towards women had increased in the wake of other social change. Calls for a widening of the debate to include symbolic violence and the threat of physical violence.

Klvung, Peri, Doiwa, Maria and Cox, Susan 1985 "Women and Crime: Women and Violence" in Peter King, Wendy Lee and Vincent Warakai (eds) 1985 From Rhetoric to Reality? Papua New Guinea's Eight Point Plan and National Goals after a Decade, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Two lawyers in the Public Solicitor's Office look at crime statistics involving women as perpetrators and victims between 1979 and 1982. The paper believes the problem of women and violence should be given national priority.

Lak, Father Robert, et al 1992 Final Report on Domestic Violence Report No 14, Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission, Boroko.

This is the final report of a ten year process to investigate and report on domestic violence in PNG, seen to affect over two-thirds of PNG families. The final report recommends measures for the protection of victims, the prevention of further violence and the improvement of married life, gender and violence

Makail, Maxine (1997). "Domestic Violence in Port Moresby," paper for Violence in Melanesia Workshop 11-12 December 1997.

Discussion of physical, sexual and emotional violence and women's relucance to report crimes. Outlines to work of the Individual and Community Rights Advocacy Forum (ICRAF) in addressing issues of violence against women.

O'Callaghan, Mary-Louise 1996 'Till Death Us Do Part," The Australian Magazine, March 2324, 1996, pp 26-30.

This article explores the difficulties for women in polygamous marriages, where husbands can afford the price of several wives but lack the sense of responsibility to care for all equally. The number of murders of wives by other wives is increasing as divisions between women are exacerbated.

O'Collins, Maev 1997 "Images of Violence in PNG" paper for Violence in Melanesia Workshop 11-12 December 1997.

Outlines to prevalence of violence in PNG compared to other countries in Melanesia and globally. Discussed the perception of violence as threatening as violence itself. Talks of preventative measures to address violence.

Scaglion, Richard and Whittingham, Rose 1985 "Female Plaintiffs and Sex-related Disputes in Rural Papua New Guinea" in Susan Toft, (ed) 1985 Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission of PNG, Monography No 3, PNGLRC.

Explores cases where sexual jealousies, rape and incest are the root of disputes taken to village courts. Women are plaintiffs in one quarter of all cases and have less status in courts than men.

Toft, Susan and Bonnell, Suzanne 1985 Marriage and Domestic Violence in Rural Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission and Administrative College of PNG.

This is a collection of studies of domestic violence within marriage. Students living for one month in selected villages collected quantitative data. 'Women's failure to meet obligations' seen as sufficient cause for wifebeating and divorce.

Toft, Susan (ed) 1986 Domestic Violence in Urban Papua New Guinea, Law Reform Commission, Goroka.

The authors explore violence on women in an urban context, and generally observe that rapid development causing conflict with traditional mores and roles exacerbates wifebeating.

Toft, Susan 1985 Domestic Violence in Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea Law Reform Commission, Goroka.

A collection of articles based upon case studies, with an introduction by Marilyn Strathern. Most domestic violence inflicted by men trying to retain control of the marriage relationship. "Husbands want complete submission from their wives"

Wilson, Maggie 1987 "Beer and Shotguns--Is This Development?" in Susan Stratigos and Philip J. Hughes (eds) 1987 The Ethics of Development: Women as Unequal Partners in Development Volume 3 in The Ethics of Development, Workshop proceedings of the 17th Waigani Seminar, UPNG, Port Moresby Press, Port Moresby.

Considers the disadvantages of the bride-price system in which the obligations continue. In a poem, considers the disinterest of leaders in the people and predicts a violent society unless leadership and guidance are offered.

UNITED NATIONS WOMEN'S CONFERENCE MATERIAL

Burain, Elizabeth 1995 Report on the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women by the Papua New Guinea Delegation, November 16, 1995.

The PNG delegates to the Beijing Conference made recommendations for the preparation of delegations to further conferences, proposing that they be given more time to acquire the necessary skills and that Beijing Conference delegates be used in preparation for future international conferences. Delegates note that PNG women united with other South Pacific delegates on issues of importance to the region: nuclear disarmament, indigenous knowledge and land rights, colonisation and foreign domination.

Department of Religion, Home Affairs and Youth (Women's Division) 1995 Papua New Guinea in Pacific Women's Resource Bureau 1995 National Reviews of the Nairobi Forward-looking Strategiesfor the Advancement of Women, South Pacific Commission on behalf of the Melanesian Island Countries of the Pacific.

The authors list government strategies to improve the status and participation, and attempt to evaluate the progress, of women in 10 key areas as identified in the Forward-looking Strategies over the 1980s and early 1990s.

Fairbairn-Dunlop, Peggy 1993 Women's Status in the South Pacific, a paper prepared for ESCAP, Bangkok Office, November 1993.

This document details the natural structures, policies and action plans of Pacific countries implementation of the Nairobi Forward Looking Strategies for Women. It then identifies measures of women's status through health, education, political participation, employment, macro economic policies, law and violence against women. Specific issues for migrant, elderly and disabled women are documented.

Griffen, Vanessa (ed) 1989 Women, Development and Empowerment--A Pacific Feminist Perspective, Report of the Pacific Women's Workshop, Naboutini, Fiji, 23-26 March, 1987, Asian and Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

Report of workshop to assess the needs of Pacific women and review progress made in the UN Decade for Women in which money, energy, resources flooded into Pacific for women's projects. Describes process by which a Pacific feminist perspective was developed. Women's projects are critically assessed.

Loko, Margaret 1995 "Post-Beijing Declaration for Action on the Development of Women," 22 November, 1995, Inservice College, Port Moresby.

The attendees at the Joint Government/Non Government Organisation Post Beijing Conference signed this statement to reaffirm support for the development of PNG women, calling for immediate action in partnership with NGOs on priorities for improving the status of women between 1995-2005. Specific proposals are made in the areas of access to economic resources, establishment of an Office of Status of women, Foundation for Equality, Development and Peace, mainstreaming gender and improving women's political participation.

South Pacific Commission 1997 "Report of Women's Expert Group Planning Meeting," held in Noumea, December 11-13 1996, SPC, Noumea.

Discussions between eight women policy-makers from Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia on issues raised by involvement in the Pacific's preparatory process for Beijing. Issues highlighted are health, education and training, economic empowerment, agriculture and fishing, legal and human rights, shared decision-making, environment, peace and justice, poverty and rights of indigenous peoples. PNG women were not represented.
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Title Annotation:Gender Analysis in Papua New Guinea
Publication:Gender Analysis in Papua New Guinea
Date:Nov 1, 1998
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